英语词汇学课程课件课件名称:英语词汇的形态结构制作人:孙红梅、寻阳单位:曲阜师范大学外国语学院
Chapter 3Morphological structure of     English words
 Objectives:    •   Discuss morphemes, their classification and identification;    •   Explain the relationship between m...
1. Morpheme   What is a morpheme ?     It is the minimal meaningful unit of language.    Or it is the smallest functionin...
2. Morph and allomorph The definition of morphs :   The phonetic or orthographic strings or segments which realize morphe...
What is an allomorph?   An allomorph is one of the variants of the same    morpheme.   语素 / 形位变体是同一个语素的不同形式    。        ...
When the plural marker {s} is added to cat, dog,and horse, it is pronounced differently as /-s, -z,-iz/ and thus has three...
3. Classifications of morphemes   Free vs. bound morphemes in terms of their    capacity of occurring alone   Derivation...
Free vs. bound morphemes           自由语素与粘着语素 Morphemes which are independent of other  morphemes are free. Free morphemes...
   Morphemes which cannot occur as separate    words are bound. They are bound to other    morphemes to form words or to ...
   Free morphemes are all roots /free roots, which    are capable of being used as words or as word-    building elements...
A multitude of words made up of merely    bound morphemes, eg: ante-ced-ent.   -ced- 是词根,‘接近’,   ante- 是前缀,‘在…前’,   -en...
Derivational vs. inflectional morphemes             派生语素与屈折语素             派生语素与   What are derivational and inflectional ...
 Derivational morphemes are used to derive  new words when they are added to another  morpheme. In English derivatives an...
   Inflectional morphemes indicate the syntactic    relationships between words and function as    grammatical markers. I...
What’s the difference between them?          Inflectional                       Derivational   Doesn’t change meaning or ...
Content / lexical vs. grammatical morphemes Lexical 词汇 / content 实义              morphemes are  morphemes used for the co...
3.4 Identifying Morphemes How to identify morphemes?   They should be identifiable by their forms, meaning  and distribut...
In what situation do morphemes mismatch          between form and meaning?1) Inconsistent in form and meaning:            ...
3.5 Morpheme and Word-formationIn word-formation, morphemes are labeled root, stem, base and affix.在构词法中 , 语素被分为词根、词干、词基和词缀。
Affix   Affixes are forms that are attached to words or    word elements to modify meaning or function. All    affixes ar...
   Inflectional    affixes    (or   inflectional    morphemes) serve to indicate the syntactic    relationships between w...
   Plurality 名词复数           e.g. -s in chairs, pens;                              -es in boxes, tomatoes;               ...
Derivational affixes      or    derivational morphemesThey can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes.
(1) Prefixes are affixes before the root.  e.g. , unjust, rewrite.As a rule, most prefixes modify the meaning of roots, bu...
Root, stem, base         词根、词干、词基 A root is that part of a word form thatremains when all inflectional andderivational aff...
   A stem is that part of the word-form which    remains when all inflectional affixes have    been removed.   词干是所有屈折词缀...
   A base refers to a form to which affixes of any    kind (both derivational and inflectional) can be    added. It can b...
词根、词干、词基   词根是所有屈折词缀和派生词缀被去掉后所剩    余的那部分。   词干是所有屈折词缀被去掉后所剩余的那部分    。   词基是任何一种词缀都可加在上面的形式。      它与词根有区别,因为它是可以从派生角度   ...
Task: Analyse the word in terms of root, stem and base.  e.g., (root/base)     (derivational suffix)         desire       ...
   1. desire (v.): 是词根(不可再分解),    是词干(可以加屈折词缀,如过去时态    -ed ),是词基。   2. desirable (adj.): 不是词根(可再分    解);不是词干(不可以加屈折词缀)  ...
AssignmentAnswer the question:What is the difference between grammticaland lexical morphemes, and inflectional andderivati...
The EndThank you!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

词汇学

1,055 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,055
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

词汇学

  1. 1. 英语词汇学课程课件课件名称:英语词汇的形态结构制作人:孙红梅、寻阳单位:曲阜师范大学外国语学院
  2. 2. Chapter 3Morphological structure of English words
  3. 3.  Objectives: • Discuss morphemes, their classification and identification; • Explain the relationship between morphemes and word- formation Teaching focus: • Definition of morphemes • Definition of allomorphs • Types of Types of morphemes free morpheme bound morpheme • Definitions of root, stem and base
  4. 4. 1. Morpheme What is a morpheme ? It is the minimal meaningful unit of language. Or it is the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words. 语素是最小的有意义的单位。它是语言 中最小的构词单位
  5. 5. 2. Morph and allomorph The definition of morphs : The phonetic or orthographic strings or segments which realize morphemes are termed ‘morphs’. 语素的语音或拼写法的体现叫形素 。 Morphs are actual spoken, minimal carriers of meaning. 形素是口语中最小的意义载体。
  6. 6. What is an allomorph? An allomorph is one of the variants of the same morpheme. 语素 / 形位变体是同一个语素的不同形式 。 For example
  7. 7. When the plural marker {s} is added to cat, dog,and horse, it is pronounced differently as /-s, -z,-iz/ and thus has three phonological forms; thethree forms are just the variants of the samemorpheme {s}, i.e. the allomorphs of morpheme{s}.
  8. 8. 3. Classifications of morphemes Free vs. bound morphemes in terms of their capacity of occurring alone Derivational vs. inflectional morphemes applying to affixes only Content / lexical vs. grammatical morpheme on a semantic and syntactic basis
  9. 9. Free vs. bound morphemes 自由语素与粘着语素 Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are free. Free morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. 自由语素是能独立运用的语素,它有完整 的意义,在句中充当一个自由的语法单位 。 E.g., man, wind, open, tour
  10. 10.  Morphemes which cannot occur as separate words are bound. They are bound to other morphemes to form words or to perform a particular grammatical function. 粘着语素不能独立成词,只能依附于其他语素 上以构成词或担当一定的语法功能。
  11. 11.  Free morphemes are all roots /free roots, which are capable of being used as words or as word- building elements to form new words. 自由语素都是词根 , 也叫自由词根 , 能用作词 或作为构成新词的构词要素。 Bound morphemes consist of either roots (bound roots) or affixes. 粘着语素包括词根(粘着词根)和词缀。 E.g., bound root: -dict-, -ced- affix: -ion, -ist, -ic
  12. 12. A multitude of words made up of merely bound morphemes, eg: ante-ced-ent. -ced- 是词根,‘接近’, ante- 是前缀,‘在…前’, -ent 是后缀,‘人,物’,
  13. 13. Derivational vs. inflectional morphemes 派生语素与屈折语素 派生语素与 What are derivational and inflectional morphemes?
  14. 14.  Derivational morphemes are used to derive new words when they are added to another morpheme. In English derivatives and compounds are all formed by such morphemes. 派生语素附着于其它语素可派生出新词。 英语中派生词和合成词都是由这样的语素构成 的。
  15. 15.  Inflectional morphemes indicate the syntactic relationships between words and function as grammatical markers. Inflectional morphemes are confined to suffixes. 屈折语素作为语法标记表示词的语法意义, 屈折语素只限于词缀。
  16. 16. What’s the difference between them? Inflectional Derivational Doesn’t change meaning or  Changes meaning or part of part of speech of the stem. speech of the stem.( like-- (work—works) dislike, sleep—asleep) Indicates syntactic relations  Indicates semantic relations between different words in a within the word. sentence. ( grammatical (specific lexical meaning , meaning) e.g., un-) Occurs with all members of  Occurs with only some some large class of members of a class of morphemes. morphemes Occurs at margins of words.  Occurs before any (radio—radios) inflectional suffixes added.
  17. 17. Content / lexical vs. grammatical morphemes Lexical 词汇 / content 实义 morphemes are morphemes used for the construction of new words as in compound words (blackbird is coined on the basis of 2 lexical morphemes: black and bird.), and derivational morphemes such as –ship, -ize. Grammatical morphemes function primarily as grammatical markers. They encompass both inflectional affixes(-books) and free morphemes ( in, and, do, have, they…functional words)
  18. 18. 3.4 Identifying Morphemes How to identify morphemes? They should be identifiable by their forms, meaning and distribution. e.g., mono-morphemic: sky double-morphemic: chill + y, boy + ish triple-morphemic: un+dress+ed, care+less+ness four-morphemic: un+fruit+ful+ness over-four-morphemic: un+gentle+man+li+ness
  19. 19. In what situation do morphemes mismatch between form and meaning?1) Inconsistent in form and meaning: singer ( one who) er clearer ( the comparative degree) eraser (one object)2) Meaningless in isolation but meaningful in some words cran- huckle- berry boysen- 3) Difficult to define the meaning -ceive in conceive/perceive/receive
  20. 20. 3.5 Morpheme and Word-formationIn word-formation, morphemes are labeled root, stem, base and affix.在构词法中 , 语素被分为词根、词干、词基和词缀。
  21. 21. Affix Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. All affixes are bound morphemes. 词缀都是粘着语素,依附在词根上构成新词或 表示词的语法意义。 Two types of affixes: Inflectional affixes and Derivational affixes 屈折词缀和派生词缀
  22. 22.  Inflectional affixes (or inflectional morphemes) serve to indicate the syntactic relationships between words and function as grammatical markers. 表示词的语法意义的 是屈折词缀。 They express the following meanings:
  23. 23.  Plurality 名词复数  e.g. -s in chairs, pens; -es in boxes, tomatoes; -en in oxen The genitive case  e.g. ’s in boy’s, 名词所有格 children’s The comparative and superlative degrees  e.g. -er in words like 形容词 / 副词比较级 smaller; -est in words like 、最高级 smallest. The verbal endings  a. -(e)s in words like eats, teaches shows the third 动词词尾变化 person singular present tense. b. -ing in words like eating, shows the present participle or gerund. c. -(e)d in words like worked shows the past tense or past participle.
  24. 24. Derivational affixes or derivational morphemesThey can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes.
  25. 25. (1) Prefixes are affixes before the root. e.g. , unjust, rewrite.As a rule, most prefixes modify the meaning of roots, but not their parts of speech.(2) Suffixes are affixes after the rootBy the addition of the suffix, the word is usually changed from one part of speech into another, e.g. liberation, modernize.
  26. 26. Root, stem, base 词根、词干、词基 A root is that part of a word form thatremains when all inflectional andderivational affixes have been removed. 词根是所有屈折词缀和派生词缀被去掉后所剩余的那部分。
  27. 27.  A stem is that part of the word-form which remains when all inflectional affixes have been removed. 词干是所有屈折词缀被去掉后所剩余的那部分 。
  28. 28.  A base refers to a form to which affixes of any kind (both derivational and inflectional) can be added. It can be a root or a stem. 词基是任何一种词缀都可加在上面的形式。
  29. 29. 词根、词干、词基 词根是所有屈折词缀和派生词缀被去掉后所剩 余的那部分。 词干是所有屈折词缀被去掉后所剩余的那部分 。 词基是任何一种词缀都可加在上面的形式。 它与词根有区别,因为它是可以从派生角度 进行分析的形式,在上面可以加上派生词缀。 但是词根则不容许做进一步的分析。词基与词 干也是不同的,因为派生词缀和屈折词缀都可 以加在词基上,而只有屈折词缀可以加在词干 上。
  30. 30. Task: Analyse the word in terms of root, stem and base. e.g., (root/base) (derivational suffix) desire able (derivational prefix) ( base) un desirable (a.) (stem/base) (inflectional suffix) undesirable (n.) s (root/stem/base) (inflectional suffix) desire (v.) d
  31. 31.  1. desire (v.): 是词根(不可再分解), 是词干(可以加屈折词缀,如过去时态 -ed ),是词基。 2. desirable (adj.): 不是词根(可再分 解);不是词干(不可以加屈折词缀) ,是词基(既可以加词缀,又能再分解 下去)。 3. undesirable (n.): 不是词根(可再分 解);是词干(可以加屈折词缀,如名 词复数 -s ),也是词基 。
  32. 32. AssignmentAnswer the question:What is the difference between grammticaland lexical morphemes, and inflectional andderivational morphemes? Give examples toillustrate their relationships.
  33. 33. The EndThank you!

×