MORPHOLOGY What’s the morphology ?Which types of a word can explain this?
OUTLINE• Morphology? Hmm.. • Terminologies – Word – Morpheme – Parts of Speech• Classification of Morphemes – Free Morp. – Bound Morp.
OUTLINE• Making new words – Coining – Meaning Change – Compounding• Division of Morphemes
MORPHOLOGY• Morphology is the study of the forms and formation of words.• Word is a sound or sound groups articulated that express a idea.
MORPHOLOGY MORPHEME• Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.• Morphemes are what make up words does not necessarily have to be a word• Every morpheme is either a base or an affix. (prefix/suffix)
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES• Free Morphemes – Open Class Morphemes – Closed Class Morphemes• Bound Morphemes
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES• Free morphemes-units that can stand alone as words by themselves. TREE• Bound morphemes-units that must be attached or bound to a free morpheme TREES
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES TYPES OF FREE MORPHEME• Free Morphemes – Open Class Morphemes – Closed Class Morphemes
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES TYPES OF FREE MORPHEME Open Morphemes• Open Morpheme has independent meaning.• It can stand alone.• Also known as “content” words.
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES TYPES OF FREE MORPHEME Closed Morphemes• Closed Morpheme has dependent meaning.• It can not stand alone.• Closed Class are not re-productive.
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES TYPES OF FREE MORPHEME Closed Morphemes• They serve a function. – Definiteness – Comparison – Quantity – Conjoining » Etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES BOUND MORPHEME• Bound morphemes(affixes) must be attached to the word.• They are two kinds of bound morphemes. – Contractible Morphemes – Affixes
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES BOUND MORPHEME Contractible Morpheme• Contractible morphemes are like; – I will I’ll – They had They’d So, they are auxiliary modals such as will, shall, has, have, had and would can be contracted in informal style of language.
CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES BOUND MORPHEME Derivational versus Inflectional• Derivational morphemes say we will change the meaning of a word. BUT!• Inflectional morphemes say we wont change the meaning of a word but we will modify. Kind a conciliatory gesture :)
MORPHEMES BOUND FREE AFFIX Conractible Open Class Closed ClassDerivational InclectionalPrefıx Suffix Suffix -un -ness -er is Nouns (bed) Conjunctions (but) -re -ship -ed are Verbs (bad) Prepositions (in) -anti -ist -est will Adverbs (absolutely) Pronouns (he)
UN – COUNT - ABLE PREFİX - STEM - SUFFİX UN COUNT ABLE BOUND FREE BOUNDDERIVATIONAL INFLECTIONAL
MAKING NEW WORDS Categories• These techniques could be included in 3 major categories; • Coining • Meaning Change • Compounding
MAKING NEW WORDS Coining• Practically, it is a shortening process of a longer word. Abbrevition Nasa (National CIA (Central MİT Aeronautics and Intelligence Agency) (Milli İstihbarat Space Teşkilatı) Administration) Orthographic Dr. (Doctor) Ms. (Miss) Mr. (Müdür) Abbreviations Acronyms DNA SSR ( Satellite PAÜ (Pamukkale (Deoxyribonucleic System Receiver ) Üniversitesi) Acid) Clippings Wi-Fi Hİ-Fİ (Wireless Fidelity) (High Definition) Blending Smog Spork (Spoon+Fork) Avrasya (smoke+fog) (Avrupa+Asya) Generification Apirin Elevator Ufo (Isitici olan)
MAKING NEW WORDS Meaning Change• It is the (slight) change of meaning which is the major factor in producing novel words. Category Change Process (v) To compound(v) Process (n) To compound(n) Metaphorical Illuminate To light up Extension Back formation Deconstruct Diplomat (Deconstruction) (Diplomatic)
MAKING NEW WORDS Compounding• Compounding is combining two morphemes.• Four Possibilities here are; – Open Class + Open Class Hand-bag – Open Class + Closed Class Drive-in – Closed Class + Open Class Inbound – Closed Class + Closed Class Within
Noun-Noun Football Darkroom BeşiktaşNoun + Verb Haircut Sunrise AteşkesNoun + Past partiple Handmade Middle-aged GecekonduNoun + Adjective Snowwhite Trouble-freeNoun + Adverb Hanger-on Passer-byNoun + Gerund Bookkeeping Faultfinding AğaçkakanNoun + Preposition Love-in Hanger onNoun + Preposition + Noun End to end Face to face Dişe diş
• Sometimes, sentences have multiple meanings and these meanings can be described in terms of different groupings of words, or different trees.• For example, the sentence “The tourist saw the astronomer with the telescope.” could mean either of the following things; 1. The tourist used the telescope to see the astronomer. 2. The astronomer that the tourist saw had a telescope.• The difference is whether the prepositional phrase (PP) with the telescope is grouped with saw the astronomer or just the astronomer. We can use tree diagrams to show this difference.• Note that these trees require building blocks beyond the set given above.
The tourist used the telescope to see the astronomer
The astronomer that the tourist saw had a telescope.