1. Success in first language learning 3 Differences in how well they use it Better public speakers Better writers All normal children master their first language
1. Failure in second language learning 4Most second language learners fail More learners try to learn a language and fail than learners who try and succeed Learners fail in different degrees Learners progress stops before complete success
2. Strategies 5All learners make generalizations Simple past: played, walked, waited, comedOnly second language learners generalize from their first language when they are learning a second language One sound, /r/, in Japanese Separate sounds, /l/ & /r/, in English
3. Goals 6First language learners have no goals Learning a first language is not under a child’s controlSecond language learners have a variety of goals Work & study Enjoy music, movies, travel, etc.
4. Intuitions 7First language learners rely on their intuition (sense of what sounds right) to decide if a sentence is grammaticalGrammatical intuition for second language learners never develops completely
5. Instruction 8Children never have formal lessons in their first language Children’s first language develops through communicationMost second language learners must have some instruction
6. Positive and negative evidence 9Children only hear Language that has no mistakes (positive evidence)Second language learners hear Language that has no mistakes Explanations about mistakes and corrections of their mistakes (negative evidence)
7. Affective factors 10First language learning is independent of affective factors Personality, motivation, attitude, etc.Second language learning is dependent on affective factors