It means that which precedes or goesbefore. So therefore, antecedents of thelanguage development talks about theways or means which help the child toprepare him/her in learning the language.Just like in going to school you prepareyourself. Now here are the followingdevices that makes up the antecedents.
PSUEDODIALOGUESThis is one of the early training devices.Characterized by the give and take of theconversation between the child and themother or other person. Adults maintain theflow of conversation.Example: oooglie oooglie googlie googlie
PROTODECLARATIVESThe child uses gestures to make adescription about the statement.
PROTOIMPERATIVESThe child still uses gestures but thesegestures are used to let someone do forhim/her. Make statements about the thingsand let someone do it for him/her.
• Bilingualism is the ability to speak or write fluently in two languages.• It refers to those children who speak/have been spoken to in two languages in the home since birth and who are spoken to in only or both of those two languages at daycare or school
Aside from the obvious advantage of being able to speak more than one language,itimpacts the child positively in the sense of self esteem ,future job opportunities and ability to live and travel abroad.
There are two major patterns inbilingual language acquisition:• Simultaneous Bilingualism• Sequential Bilingualism.
• In simultaneous bilingualism,the child acquires two languages at the same time before the age of 3 years• In the first stage they may mix words or parts of words from both languages in the first stage.
• Stage 2 occurs at 4 years and older when distinction between the two languages takes place ,and the child uses each language seperately e.g. I like ice-cream. Gusto ko ng sorbetes.
• Sequential bilingualism also occurs before the child is 3 years old, but the child can draw on the knowledge and experience of the first language while acquiring the second language
Ages of bilingual acquisitonOne way of categorizing types ofbilingual acquisition is by the ageat which the two languages areacquired- infants, child,adolescent, and adult.
Infant or early bilingual acquisiton involves the child learning twolanguages virtually simultaneosly from the outset. Sometimes this results from having parents who have different native languages, but also speak the other parent’s language.
• Early age of bilingual exposure has a significant impact on multiple aspects of a child’s development: linguistic, cognitive and reading.Children who experience early and extensive exposure to both of their languages quickly grasp the fundamentals of both of their languages and in a manner similar to that of monolingual language learners
Child bilingual acquisiton may start quite early in life, but involves the successive acquisition of two languages, as do adolescent and adult bilingualism.
This may be occasioned by the familymoving to another country, the arrivalof a caregiver who speaks a different language, or the child starting a nursery class or school is taught in adifferent language from the one used at home.
Adolescent bilingual acquisition refers to the acquisiton of a second language after puberty, while adult bilingual acquisition refers to acquisition after the teen years.
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIESMonolingual children can differ in the types of strategies they use when first to start to talk.Analytic learners Gestalt learners(left brain dominant) (right brained)
Analytic Learners• learn single words and later string them together in multiword uttereances.learn more quickly in large part because things are usually taught in an analytic manner in the public school
Gestalt learners• Concentrate on acquiring multiwords expressions(You know what? I wanna do it, etc) , which they initially treat as a whole, and only break down into their constituent parts.
A comparison between analytic and gestalt modes in language acquisitionAnalytic Mode Gestalt Mode•Basic units of •Basic units oflanguage are single language may bewords. words, multiword utterances, phrases, and/or clauses
Analytic Mode Gestalt Mode•Early language •Early languageacquisition involves acquisition involvesmovement from acquisition ofsingle words to two multiword utterancesand three-words functioning as singleutterances units.
1. Bilingualism does not impact on early languagemilestones like babbling.2. In bilingual homes, infants readily discriminatebetween two languages phonologically andgrammatically.3. Learning a grammatical device as using “s” todenote plurals in one language facilitate learningcorresponding devices in other language.
4. Bilingualism is associated with an advantage in 4metalinguistic ability or capacity to think aboutlanguage among preschool and school agechildren.5. Most bilingual children manifest greater abiliythan monolingual children when it comes tofocusing attention on language skills.
Bilingual children have been shown to have:1. better metalinguistic awareness (abilityto identify and describe characteristicsand features of language);2. better classification skills;3. better concept formation;4. better analogical reasoning;5. better visual-spatial skills;6. better storytelling skills;7. better semantic development.
1. Limited VocabularyInfants in bilingual homes haveexpressive vocabularies thatare as large as those of themonolingual, but the words theyknow are divided between twolanguages resulting into amore limited vocabulary whichcontinues into the school years.
2. Think more slowly in thelanguage in which they havethe lesser fluency.Bilingual children are fluent inboth languages and thus,encounter fewer problems,But they, do not attain equalfluency.
3. Parents who choosebilingualism shouldconsider whether they canhelp their childrenachieve fluency in bothlanguages.
4. Children who speak their immigrant parentslanguage tend to be attached to their parentsculture of origin and therefore are able to speakthe language.
Language and culture have important implications for how achildren learn languages in school and how teachers teachlanguage.Some Implications are:1. Children use the four language system at the same time in the process of communicating.2. Children bring their unique backgrounds of experience to the process of learning.3. Children’s cultural and linguistic diversity impact on the student’s learning process.