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Chapter 1 slides

  1. 1. UFS 104 : CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKINGCHAPTER 1:What is Creative Thinking © 2010 Cosmopoint
  2. 2. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingTopic Outlines   What is Creative Thinking and why should you be creative ?   How to be creative and Myths about Creative Thinking and Problem Solving   3 Basic Principles   Theories of Creative Process   Characteristic of Creative Thinking   Enhancing Creative Thinking in Students and Removing Blockage © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 2 of 28
  3. 3. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingLearning Outcomes At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:   Understand and describe what is creative thinking   Understand the views of creative thinking   Understand the principles of creative thinking   Understanding and enhance creative in their thinking © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 3 of 28
  4. 4. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhat is Creative Thinking? An Ability. •  to imagine or invent something new. •  As we will see below, creativity is not the ability to create out of nothing (only God can do that), but the ability to generate new ideas by combining, changing, or reapplying existing ideas. •  Some creative ideas are astonishing and brilliant, while others are just simple, good, practical ideas that no one seems to have thought of yet. •  everyone has substantial creative ability. Just look at how creative children are. •  In adults, creativity has too often been suppressed through education, but it is still there and can be reawakened. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 4 of 28 Topics
  5. 5. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhat is Creative Thinking? An Attitude. •  Creativity is also an attitude: the ability to accept change and newness, a willingness to play with ideas and possibilities, a flexibility of outlook, the habit of enjoying the good, while looking for ways to improve it. •  We are socialized into accepting only a small number of permitted or normal things, like chocolate-covered strawberries, for example. •  The creative person realizes that there are other possibilities, like peanut butter and banana sandwiches, or chocolate-covered prunes. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 5 of 28 Topics
  6. 6. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhat is Creative Thinking? A Process. •  Creative people work hard and continually to improve ideas and solutions, by making gradual alterations and refinements to their works. •  Contrary to the mythology surrounding creativity, very, very few works of creative excellence are produced with a single stroke of brilliance or in a frenzy of rapid activity. •  Much closer to the real truth are the stories of companies who had to take the invention away from the inventor in order to market it because the inventor would have kept on tweaking it and fiddling with it, always trying to make it a little better. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 6 of 28 Topics
  7. 7. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhat is Creative Thinking? © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 7 of 28
  8. 8. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhy should you be Creative? come up with more ideas creativity can help you do a in a shorter space of time better job of what you do. and more good ideas. generating ideas quickly - More ideas and better ideas will spring some that ideas - thats something better solve your problem in that can help any person new and exciting ways. in any job. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 8 of 28 Topics
  9. 9. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingWhy should you be Creative? Each of us has creative talents that Most often people who believe that reflect our individual personality and they are creative will achieve experiences in pursuing creativity. success in their career achieving creativity, be able to think positively and have a good attitude A positive attitude and mindset for beneficial change guides your brain for example willing to learn new and energy toward getting the things to improve your level of results your desire. knowledge and educational. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 9 of 28 Topics
  10. 10. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingHow to be Creative? •  Broaden yourself to more than one field. •  Read widely. •  Use analogies to link things together. •  Work on different projects at the same time. Make new connections •  Use visual as well as verbal representations. •  Dont work on what everyone else is doing. •  Use multiple methods. •  Find new ways of making problems soluble, e.g. by new techniques. •  Take anomalies seriously. •  Learn from failures. Expect the unexpected •  Recover from failures. •  Avoid excessive attachment to your own ideas. •  Be willing to recognize and admit mistakes •  Focus on key problems. •  Be systematic and keep records. Be persistent •  Confirm early, disconfirm late. •  Concentrate tenaciously on a subject. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 10 of 28 Topics
  11. 11. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingHow to be Creative? •  Pursue projects that are fun. •  Play with ideas and things. •  Ask interesting questions. •  Take risks. Get excited •  Have a devotion for truth and a passion for reputation. •  Have an inclination toward originality and a taste for research. •  Have a desire for the gratification of discovery. •  Have a strong desire to comprehend. •  Never do anything that bores you •  Find smart collaborators. •  Organize good teams. •  Study how others are successful. •  Listen to people with experience. •  Foster different cognitive styles. Be sociable •  Communicate your work to others. •  Marry for psychological compatibility. •  Tell close colleagues everything you know. •  Communicate research results effectively. •  Learn from winners. •  Have people to fall back on when you get into trouble •  Find rich environments. •  Build instruments. •  Seek inspiration in nature. Use the world •  Have good laboratory facilities and use them. •  Observe and reflect intensely. •  Perform experiments that rigorously test hypotheses © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 11 of 28 Topics
  12. 12. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingThree Basic Principles New ideas are composed of old elements Creativity is mainly about alternative possibilities - how to come up with new and useful ideas. To come up with something new is to produce something that is distinctive and special. Ideas are usually composed of different elements, and we look for new combination of ideas by joining different ideas together, deleting some elements, or replacing some elements by other ones. Not all new ideas are on a par The kind of creativity that is valued is the ability to come up with new and useful ideas, ideas that serve an important need or creates a new trend that makes an impact Artistic creativity consists in the creation of artwork and expressing ones ideas and emotions through various forms of art. Cognitive creativity is a matter of coming up with solutions to practical or theoretical problems Creativity is enhanced by the ability to detect connections between ideas A successful marketing campaign might appeal to certain psychological studies and relate to particular trends in the society. This involves seeing a connection between the subject matter one is interested in (the marketing exercise) and other subjects (sociology and psychology) which might seem somewhat remote © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 12 of 28 Topics
  13. 13. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingMyths about Creative Thinking and Problem Solving Every problem has only one solution (or one right answer) goal of problem solving is to solve the problem, and most problems can be solved in any number of ways The best answer/solution/method has already been found history of any solution set and youll see that improvements, new solutions, new right answers, are always being found.yourself. many solutions now seen as best or at least entrenched were put in place hastily and without much thought Creative answers are complex technologically a few problems require complex technological solutions Even many problems that seem to require a technological solution can be addressed in other ways. Ideas either come or they dont. Nothing will help many successful techniques for stimulating idea generation © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 13 of 28 Topics
  14. 14. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingUsing Sensing and meaning Sight: what appeals your eye as you have a vision. Come in to a conclusion clearly and sum up whether it is the size, color, title or the art work that appeals you. Hearing: What do you hear? Does it sound stiff, fine or confusing? Concentrate and think about how does it feel when you proceed with an intention to read in further towards the end of it. Smell: Does your favorite book have a peculiar smell? Does it remind you of some place? Touch: Try to recollect the feeling at your first touch at the elements. Then think of what you felt each time you touched it. Think of what the texture of it made you feel like. Does it feel smooth, grainy or rough? Taste: This may sound bizarre! However, taste has an important role to play. You need to imagine the taste your tongue provides you when you think of the product. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 14 of 28 Topics
  15. 15. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingUsing your Sense Once you are through with working out on your five senses, your brain is left with certain images and these pictures would enhance your power of concentration. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 15 of 28
  16. 16. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingUsing your Sense Remember, that you require putting in a lot of sensations into your creative thinking activity. The exercise for creative thinking …will storm your brain with excellent IDEAS © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 16 of 28
  17. 17. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingTheories of Creative Process •  Divided into 2 stages: •  Similar to Dawning’s theory •  Pooling elements - Process •  We just need to leave the involve gathering problem alone. information related to the •  Think other think that will problem make your relax and happy •  Searching for a combination in the creative process Saturation Incubation •  It’s a final stage Verification Inspiration •  When incubation is due •  Valid the process in order to to the process of ensure it’s applicable unconscious mind solutions or not •  The problem can be •  If it’s fail, the creative settled more easily process need to return to without any interruption . the first step © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 17 of 28 Topics
  18. 18. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingCharacteristic of Creative Thinking Originality Elaboration Fluency Flexibility •  Refers to the •  The ability to clarify on •  The ability to produce •  ability to shift his mental uniqueness of any given a particular subject. an abundance of ideas set when the response. •  Elaboration is the circumstances require •  Originality is shown by bridge the individual it. an unusual, unique, or must access in order to •  For example, as a •  Flexibility is the ability to fashion designer, you rare response communicate his try to come out or overcome mental ‘creative’ idea to outside produce as much as blocks, to adjust the of himself. approach to a problem •  For example •  Shown by the number you can in giving ideas •  Not to get stuck by •  Design a dream and your creativity of additions and details towards the main assuming rules and computer of the future. that can be made to conditions which do not objective of the •  Think of how many some simple stimulus to company. apply to a problem things you could use a make it more complex. cable for. •  The additions can be in •  How many uses can the form of decoration, •  For example, you you list for a VCD? be able to work under colour, shading or pressure and be able design. to control your emotions © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 18 of 28 Topics
  19. 19. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingEnhancing Creative Thinking in Students •  Remove the creative thinking blockages in students STEP 1 •  Make them aware of the nature of the creative process STEP 2 •  Introduce and practice creative thinking strategies STEP 3 •  Create a creative environment STEP 4 © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 19 of 28 Topics
  20. 20. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingRemoving Blockages to Creative Thinking Cant accept the To remove – failure - convince ourselves Fear to fail is always punishments and that making Fears of Failure developed in our criticism in front of mistakes is normal mind the people after and a process of making errors successful learning find ways to get blocked by negative hold so that they influences may think can feel good find that they may Lack of Confidence everything they do be unhappy and will be unsuccessful avoid taking risks depressed – don’t want to try because they afraid of failures functional fixity - conceptual fixity – one is unable to conceptual fixity and one is unable to Thinking Fixity functional fixity imagine the concept imagine thinking in other than usual after being revealed way © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 20 of 28
  21. 21. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingRemoving Blockages to Creative Thinking the best way – breathing space when creativity need breathing in the middle of Lack of Breathing blocks - natural space for the the creative Space for Incubation for one to let the process over- process before problem alone think the problem producing new ideas unable to remain open minded when Should be help to facing ambiguous In order to avoid cope – and chaotic situation – introduced with Low Tolerance for disharmonies and Help - “no unusual situation Ambiguity fears these withdrawn” from the in increasingly world but open to the experience challenging steps “world” – process to produce be creative © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 21 of 28
  22. 22. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingFears of Failure - Trying to Find the “Right” Answer! One of the worst aspects of formal education is the focus on the correct answer to a particular question or problem. While this approach helps us function in society, it hurts creative thinking because real-life issues are ambiguous. There’s often more than one “correct” answer, and the second one you come up with might be better than the first. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 22 of 28
  23. 23. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingLack of Confidence - don’t want to try! We hate being wrong, and yet mistakes often teach us the most. Thomas Edison was wrong 1,800 times before getting the light bulb right. Edison’s greatest strength was that he was not afraid to be wrong. The best thing we do is learn from our mistakes, but we have to free ourselves to make mistakes in the first place. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 23 of 28
  24. 24. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingThinking Fixity - Following Rules ! One way to view creative thinking is to look at it as a destructive force. You’re tearing away the often arbitrary rules that others have set for you, and asking either “why” or “why not” whenever confronted with the way “everyone” does things. This is easier said than done, since people will often defend the rules they follow even in the face of evidence that the rule doesn’t work. People love to celebrate rebels like Richard Branson, but few seem brave enough to emulate him. Quit worshipping rule breakers and start breaking some rules. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 24 of 28
  25. 25. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingLack of Breathing Space for Incubation!Give time…..!Try not to evaluate the actual feasibility of an approach until you’ve allowed it to exist on its own for a bit.Spend time asking “what if” as often as possible, and simply allow your imagination to go where it wants.You might just find yourself discovering a crazy idea that’s so insanely practical that no one’s thought ofit before. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 25 of 28
  26. 26. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingLow Tolerance for Ambiguity!We rationally realize thatmost every situation isambiguous to somedegree.And although dividingcomplex situations intoblack and white boxescan lead to disaster, westill do it. The fact thatmost people areuncomfortable exploringuncertainty gives you anadvantage, as long as youcan embrace ambiguityrather than run from it. © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 26 of 28
  27. 27. Chapter 1: What is Creative ThinkingMovie – How to be creative by Tony Buzan © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 27 of 28
  28. 28. Chapter 1: What is Creative Thinking THANK YOU SEE YOU NEXT WEEK WITH CHAPTER 2 THE CREATIVE TECHNIQUE © 2010 Cosmopoint Slide 28 of 28