Civil rights movement

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Civil rights movement

  1. 1. The Civil RightsThe Civil Rights MovementMovement 1954-19681954-1968
  2. 2. ““It wasn’t no CivilIt wasn’t no Civil War. Wasn’t noWar. Wasn’t no World War. JustWorld War. Just people in the samepeople in the same country fighting eachcountry fighting each other”other”
  3. 3. The Civil Rights MovementThe Civil Rights Movement Journal #19Journal #19 .. From your past study of History Identify the Who (leaders), What (goals, accomplishments) and , when (time period) of the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.
  4. 4. Unit IV 1820 18501850 18541854 18571857 18601860
  5. 5. The Emancipation Proclamation 1863The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 . In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln had one thing on his mind when the Civil War broke out: preserve the Unionpreserve the Union. On Jan. 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas free.
  6. 6. CIVIL WAR andCIVIL WAR and RECONSTRUCTIONRECONSTRUCTION 1313thth AmendmentAmendment SSlavery abolishedlavery abolished 1414thth AmendmentAmendment CCitizenship extendeditizenship extended 1515thth AmendmentAmendment African AmericansAfrican Americans VVotingoting
  7. 7. Post ReconstructionPost Reconstruction 1877 +1877 +Jim Crow LawsJim Crow Laws Lasting effects ofLasting effects of Plessy vs.Plessy vs. FergusonFerguson (1896)(1896)InequalityInequality SocialSocial PoliticalPolitical EconomicEconomic
  8. 8. PlePlessssyy SSanctionedanctioned SSegregationegregation
  9. 9. The Legacy of Reconstruction The Legacy ofThe Legacy of ReconstructionReconstruction
  10. 10. Don’t acceptDon’t accept inferiorityinferiority Self respect moreSelf respect more important thanimportant than wealthwealth Political powerPolitical power Agriculture, mechanics,Agriculture, mechanics, commerce, domesticcommerce, domestic serviceservice Common labor,Common labor, ““dignity in tilling the fielddignity in tilling the field Opportunity to earn aOpportunity to earn a dollardollar Social equality isSocial equality is Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington WEB DuBoisWEB DuBois
  11. 11. The FoundationThe Foundation
  12. 12. A FAMILIAR THEME?A FAMILIAR THEME? HenryHenry Johnson andJohnson and the NY’s 369ththe NY’s 369th Infantry;Infantry; “Harlem“Harlem Hellfighters”Hellfighters” The 54The 54thth MassachusettsMassachusetts inspiration forinspiration for the filmthe film “GLORY”“GLORY” The Civil War 1860-1865The Civil War 1860-1865 World War I 1914-1919World War I 1914-1919
  13. 13. WORLD WAR IIWORLD WAR II World War II 1941-45World War II 1941-45 332nd332nd Fighter PilotFighter Pilot Squadron;Squadron; thethe "Tuskegee"Tuskegee AirmenAirmen"" Segregated ArmedSegregated Armed forcesforces DiscriminationDiscrimination PrejudicePrejudice 1947 HST orders1947 HST orders integration of theintegration of the militarymilitary
  14. 14. 11stst African-African- American toAmerican to play in majorplay in major leagueleague baseballbaseball Significance?Significance? JACKIE ROBINSON 1947JACKIE ROBINSON 1947
  15. 15. SOUTHERN JUSTICESOUTHERN JUSTICE The Case of Emmett TillThe Case of Emmett Till (1955)(1955)
  16. 16. CRIME: Allegedly whistling at a white woman PUNISHMENT: Brutally beaten by 2 white men The Case of Emmett TillThe Case of Emmett Till (1955)(1955)
  17. 17. The Death of Emmett TillThe Death of Emmett Till (Words and Music by Bob Dylan)(Words and Music by Bob Dylan) 'Twas down in Mississippi no so long ago,'Twas down in Mississippi no so long ago, When a young boy from Chicago townWhen a young boy from Chicago town stepped through a Southern door.stepped through a Southern door. This boy's dreadful tragedy I can stillThis boy's dreadful tragedy I can still remember well,remember well, The color of his skin was black and his nameThe color of his skin was black and his name was Emmett Till.was Emmett Till.
  18. 18.  Issue: Is separate but equal isIssue: Is separate but equal is constitutional?constitutional?  ConceptsConcepts: 1414thth amendment, civil rightsamendment, civil rights  Background:Background: Who was Linda Brown -Who was Linda Brown - How were her rights denied?How were her rights denied?  Significance: Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896); separate but equal is unconstitutional BROWN vs. The BOARD ofBROWN vs. The BOARD of EDUCATION (1954)EDUCATION (1954)
  19. 19. Public Facilities andPublic Facilities and AccommodationsAccommodations Civil rights leaders and groupsCivil rights leaders and groups develop new tactics:develop new tactics: Direct actionDirect action non-violencenon-violence Civil disobedienceCivil disobedience boycottboycott
  20. 20. In 1955 Rosa Parks rode a busIn 1955 Rosa Parks rode a bus and sat in a seat provided forand sat in a seat provided for whites.    Her refusal to givewhites.    Her refusal to give her seat to a white man was theher seat to a white man was the beginning of a bus boycott. Shebeginning of a bus boycott. She was arrested and sent to jail.was arrested and sent to jail.
  21. 21. Montgomery Bus BoycottMontgomery Bus Boycott 19551955 - Rosa Parks and the citizens of- Rosa Parks and the citizens of Montgomery, Alabama boycottMontgomery, Alabama boycott public bus service for 381 dayspublic bus service for 381 days - Supreme Court rule segregated- Supreme Court rule segregated buses are illegalbuses are illegal
  22. 22. Southern StatesSouthern States Resist ComplianceResist Compliance Case Study Little Rock 1957 Theme: Federal State conflict
  23. 23. SIT-INsSIT-INs .. 1960 Sit-ins – (Greensborough, NC)Four black college students sat at a segregated lunch counter (nonviolent resistance).. Local police officers arrested the students This event sparked a series of similar protests at lunch counters across the South.
  24. 24. Public FacilitiesPublic Facilities (cont’d)(cont’d)Birmingham –1963Birmingham –1963 Description?Description? Why did the movementWhy did the movement succeed?succeed? National significance?National significance?
  25. 25. Most racist city in USA?Most racist city in USA? Police dogs used to put downPolice dogs used to put down peaceful protestpeaceful protest Harsh tactics used by localHarsh tactics used by local PolicePolice Birmingham 1963Birmingham 1963
  26. 26. LETTER FROM THELETTER FROM THE BIRMINGHAM JAILBIRMINGHAM JAIL “When you see the vast majority of 20 million negro brothers smothering in the air tight cage of poverty…then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.”
  27. 27. MARCH on WASHINGTONMARCH on WASHINGTON .. More than 200,000 blacks and whites gather before Lincoln Memorial to hear speeches (including King's "I Have a Dream") and protest racial injustice
  28. 28. The March on WashingtonThe March on Washington
  29. 29. Civil Rights Act of 1964Civil Rights Act of 1964  ““We believe thatWe believe that all men areall men are created equal…created equal… yet certain peopleyet certain people are not treatedare not treated equally becauseequally because of the color ofof the color of their skin..”their skin..” ““I have aI have a dream…”dream…”
  30. 30. Civil Rights Act of 1964Civil Rights Act of 1964 1. Banned segregation in all1. Banned segregation in all public accommodationspublic accommodations (restaurants, hotels…)(restaurants, hotels…) 2. Banned segregation in public2. Banned segregation in public owned and operated facilitiesowned and operated facilities (parks, schools…)(parks, schools…) 3. Prohibits discrimination in3. Prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, sexemployment based on race, sex religion and national originreligion and national origin
  31. 31. Bans Poll Taxes as a votingBans Poll Taxes as a voting requirementrequirement 2424thth amendmentamendment
  32. 32. Voting Rights Act of 1965Voting Rights Act of 1965 Authorized federal officials toAuthorized federal officials to register voters where local officialsregister voters where local officials prevented African-Americans fromprevented African-Americans from registering to voteregistering to vote
  33. 33. It doesn't mean that I advocate violence, but at the same time, I am not against using violence in self- defense. I don't call it violence when it's self-defense, I call it intelligence. - Malcolm XMalcolm X .. "Whites can help us but they can't join us. There can be no Black-White unity until there is first some Black unity."
  34. 34. Non-violent protesting. Speaking out for non-violence Passive resistance Suspicious of whites; willing to use "any means necessary" to achieve equality. Was a segregationist until his pilgrimage to Mecca

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