Post war usa


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Rundown of post-war USA & brief highlights of Civil Rights movement. Many hyperlinks throughout enhance multimedia experience.

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Post war usa

  1. 1. Post War USA
  2. 2. Immediately after the war <ul><li>What was the world like? (be specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>South America? </li></ul><ul><li>The USA? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Returning soldiers <ul><li>2/3 of American men were in the military </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately after the war, they would need jobs, homes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the GI Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped returning vets to: set up farms & businesses, pay for college or new homes, paid unemployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> GI Bill continues to help veterans today </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. President Truman <ul><li>Took over following FDR’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Won 1948 election (surprise) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted reforms (Fair Deal), Congress rejected most of them; including a national health care plan. </li></ul>
  5. 5. From this point on, the USA begins to resemble the America you currently reside in
  6. 6. I like Ike <ul><li>WWII General Republican Dwight Eisenhower elected 1952. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st TV campaign </li></ul><ul><li>“Middle of the Road”… used both Republican & Democratic ideas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Eisenhower Administration <ul><li>Ended Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>Cut federal budget </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded social security & other New Deal programs </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored the Civil Rights Bill of 1957 (Congress weakened it… became useless) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Highway Act of 1957 (why we have the interstate system, why we are so dependant on cars) </li></ul><ul><li>Kept the peace during Cold War madness </li></ul>
  8. 9. Baby Boom <ul><li>US population grew by 29 million in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returning soldiers marrying & having kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower infant mortality </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Economic Boom <ul><li>New technology made workers more productive </li></ul><ul><li>US was manufacturing EVERYTHING </li></ul><ul><li>People had jobs, therefore money to buy things </li></ul>
  10. 11. Spending Spree! <ul><li>High standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Americans saved less & spent more </li></ul><ul><li>Cars, appliances, homes, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Moving to the suburbs <ul><li>William Levitt created first burb in Long Island </li></ul><ul><li>New development, outside of city, all houses look the same </li></ul><ul><li>No African Americans allowed </li></ul>
  12. 13. Suburbs begin decline of cities <ul><li>Millions move from cities to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of business follow people to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Cities lose businesses, populations, taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Who is left in cities? </li></ul>
  13. 14. 1950’s culture <ul><li>Cars… everyone was buying American cars, especially GM </li></ul><ul><li>TV: homogenized American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Rock n’ Roll: invented sprang from African American R & B (Chuck </li></ul><ul><li>Berry, Little Richard) </li></ul><ul><li>later popularized by white </li></ul><ul><li>Musicians like Elvis </li></ul>
  14. 15. “ Teenagers” invented <ul><li>Word “teenager” coined in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rock n’ roll music & culture provided teens with a way to rebel against their parents </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Beats <ul><li>Beatniks rejected new American culture of materialism and homogeny. </li></ul><ul><li>Writers like Kerouac, Ginsberg, & Burroughs wrote poetry & fiction in new ways, exploring the darker side of American life & culture </li></ul>
  16. 17. Howl I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked, dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix,
  17. 18. Howl angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection to the starry dynamo in the machinery of night,
  18. 19. Howl who poverty and tatters and hollow-eyed and high sat up smoking in the supernatural darkness of cold-water flats floating across the tops of cities contemplating jazz,
  19. 20. Howl who bared their brains to Heaven under the El and saw Mohammedan angels staggering on tenement roofs illuminated, who passed through universities with radiant cool eyes hallucinating Arkansas and Blake-light tragedy among the scholars of war,
  20. 21. Howl who were expelled from the academies for crazy & publishing obscene odes on the windows of the skull, who cowered in unshaven rooms in underwear, burning their money in wastebaskets and listening to the Terror through the wall,
  21. 22. Music <ul><li>Outside of Rock n’ Roll towering figures in jazz such as Miles Davis and Dave Brubeck emerged in the 1950’s. </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Racial discrimination was a fact of life throughout the country for both African Americans and Hispanics. </li></ul><ul><li>In the North minorities faced housing and job discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>In the South they also faced segregation (Jim Crow laws). They were forced to use inferior facilities everywhere they went. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Segregation <ul><li>In 1896 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal in the Plessy v. Ferguson case </li></ul><ul><li>“ Separate but equal” </li></ul>
  24. 25. Even baseball was segregated
  25. 26. 1947; Jackie Robinson <ul><li>Born in Georgia to a family of sharecroppers, Robinson became the first African American in MLB since 1889. </li></ul><ul><li>Played for the Brooklyn Dodgers, for years he endured open hostility from fans & teammates </li></ul><ul><li>He won NL Rookie of the year </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997 his number was retired throughout MLB </li></ul>
  26. 27. 1948; The military integrates <ul><li>In 1948, President Truman ordered that the military be integrated. </li></ul><ul><li>The Korean War was the first war fought with an integrated military. </li></ul>
  27. 28. 1954; Brown v. Board of Education <ul><li>The Supreme Court combined five cases under the heading of Brown v. Board of Education, because each case was about desegregating schools </li></ul><ul><li>The NAACP helped to bring the lawsuits to the Supreme Court </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Decision <ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren worked diligently to make sure that the Supreme Court’s decision was unanimous </li></ul><ul><li>Separate but equal was declared unconstitutional on the basis of the 14 th amendment. </li></ul><ul><li>- “ We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are always unequal.” </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Between 1882-1968 </li></ul><ul><li>3,446 African Americans were lynched </li></ul>Lynching
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Strange Fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern trees bear strange fruit, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black body swinging in the Southern breeze, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoral scene of the gallant South, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then the sudden smell of burning flesh! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here is fruit for the crows to pluck, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here is a strange and bitter crop. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. 1955; Emmett Till lynched <ul><li>14 year old Emmett Till was kidnapped & brutally murdered for whistling at a white woman. Two men were arrested, then acquitted by an all-white jury. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Emmett Till <ul><li>A 14 year old African American boy from Chicago went to the small town of Money Mississippi to visit relatives </li></ul><ul><li>He and his cousins stopped at a white-owned grocery for refreshments </li></ul><ul><li>Emmett whistled at the store-owner’s wife </li></ul><ul><li>Several days later he was kidnapped and murdered </li></ul>
  33. 34. The Murder <ul><li>Roy Bryant (the storeowner) & his brother-in-law J.W. Milam kidnapped Emmett from his uncle’s home. </li></ul><ul><li>They took him to a barn, beat him brutally, took him to the edge of the Tallahatchie River, shot him, then fastened a large metal fan from a cotton gin to the child with barbed wire, and sunk him in the river. </li></ul>
  34. 36. The Trial <ul><li>Milam and Bryant were acquitted by an all-white jury of murdering Emmett Till after the jury deliberated only 67 minutes. One juror told a reporter that they wouldn't have taken so long if they hadn't stopped to drink pop . Roy Bryant and J. W. Milam stood before photographers, lit up cigars and kissed their wives in celebration of the not guilty verdict. </li></ul><ul><li>The killers were never brought to justice, both died of cancer </li></ul>
  35. 37. Outrage <ul><li>Jet magazine, the nationwide black magazine owned by Chicago-based Johnson Publications, published photographs of Till's mutilated corpse, shocking and outraging African Americans from coast to coast. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Why was this lynching important? <ul><li>The case’s injustice and publicity shocked the nation and inspired many to join the Civil Rights cause. </li></ul>
  37. 39. 1955; Rosa Parks <ul><li>Montgomery, AL: NAACP activist, Rosa Parks refused give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. </li></ul><ul><li>She violated a city ordinance and the bus driver had her arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Her arrest sparked a successful boycott of the Montgomery busses led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Montgomery bus boycott <ul><li>Led by MLK, African Americans refused to ride busses for over a year </li></ul><ul><li>They used carpools or walked to work </li></ul><ul><li>They were threatened by police and others </li></ul><ul><li>King’s home was bombed </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court ruled bus segregation illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott launched civil rights movement & proved success of non-violent protest </li></ul>
  39. 41. 1957, Desegregation in Arkansas <ul><li>AK governor Orval Faubus refused to desegregate AK schools </li></ul><ul><li>He used AK national Guard (state’s rights) to stop African American students from attending Little Rock High </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower called in federal troops to force desegregation of school </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little Rock Nine” first African American students at the high school </li></ul><ul><li>They faced violent discrimination, but graduated </li></ul>
  40. 42. 1960, Woolworth’s Sit-in <ul><li>On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC, and politely asked for service. </li></ul><ul><li>Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge the Jim Crow South. </li></ul>
  41. 43. 1960, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed <ul><li>In October, 1960, students involved in these sit-ins held a conference and established the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The organization adopted the Gandhian theory of nonviolent direct action. This included participation in the Freedom Rides during 1961. </li></ul>
  42. 44. 1961, Freedom Rides Begin <ul><li>During the Freedom Rides, SNCC members rode buses through the deep where discrimination and segregation were most prominent. </li></ul><ul><li>Their goals: organize sit-ins and protests against segregation and to register African American voters </li></ul><ul><li>Many southern whites were opposed to this “interference” </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom riders faced violence and several were murdered. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Murder! <ul><li>On June 21, 1964, three young civil rights workers—a 21-year-old black Mississippian, James Chaney, and two white New Yorkers, Andrew Goodman, 20, and Michael Schwerner, 24—were murdered near Philadelphia, in Nashoba County, Mississippi. They had been working to register black voters in Mississippi during Freedom Summer and had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on trumped-up charges, imprisoned for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, who beat and murdered them. </li></ul>
  44. 46. 1963, March on Washington <ul><li>250,000 people marched to promote Civil Rights and economic equality for African Americans. Participants walked down Constitution and Independence avenues, then — 100 years after the  Emancipation Proclamation was signed — gathered before the Lincoln Monument for speeches, songs, and prayer. Televised live to an audience of millions, the march provided dramatic moments, most memorably the Rev. Martin Luther King’s &quot;I Have a Dream&quot; speech. </li></ul><ul><li>1 year later MLK won Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul>
  45. 48. 1965, Murder at 16 th St Baptist Church <ul><li>Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham was used as a meeting-place for civil rights leaders </li></ul><ul><li>On Sunday, 15th September, at 10.22 a.m., a bomb exploded killing Denise McNair (11), Addie Mae Collins (14), Carole Robertson (14) and Cynthia Wesley (14). The four girls had been attending Sunday school classes at the church. Twenty-three other people were also hurt by the blast. </li></ul>
  46. 49. The Victims
  47. 50. Some measure of justice… eventually <ul><li>It was more than a decade before state authorities took action. Then Attorney General Bill Baxley charged Klan leader Robert &quot;Dynamite Bob&quot; Chambliss with murder. In 1977, he was convicted. </li></ul><ul><li>Chambliss died in jail, never publicly admitting to the bombing. Baxley left office before he could pursue charges against Chambliss' suspected accomplices. One of them has since died. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-eight years after the bombing, Thomas Blanton Jr. was finally convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. A year later, in May 2002, Bobby Frank Cherry was also found guilty for the deaths of the four girls, and given a mandatory sentence of life in prison. </li></ul>
  48. 51. 1964, 24 th Amendment <ul><li>On January 23, 1964, the United States ratified the 24th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting any poll tax in elections for federal officials </li></ul>
  49. 52. Civil Rights Act of 1964 <ul><li>This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. </li></ul>
  50. 53. 1965, Malcolm X Murdered <ul><li>Assassinated at his Harlem mosque. Nation of Islam suspected </li></ul>
  51. 54. 1965, Selma, AL Bloody Sunday <ul><li>Blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed &quot;Bloody Sunday&quot; by the media. The march is helps to push through the voting rights act five months later. </li></ul>
  52. 55. 1965, The Voting Rights Act <ul><li>Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other such requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal. </li></ul>
  53. 56. 1966, Black Panther Party Formed <ul><li>Oakland, CA by Huey Newton & Bobby Seale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. We want freedom We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. We want full employment for our people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. We want an end to the robbery by the white man of our Black Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. We want education far our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. We want all black men to be exempt from military service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. We want an immediate end to POLICE BRUTALITY and MURDER of black people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. We want freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. We want all black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. And as our major political objective, a United Nations-supervised plebiscite to be held throughout the black colony in which only black colonial subjects will be allowed to participate, for the purpose of determining the will of black people as to their national destiny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Power </li></ul></ul>
  54. 58. Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated <ul><li>King Killed, James Earl Ray is convicted of his murder. Five days of race riots erupted in Washington, D.C. following the April 4, 1968 assassination. Civil unrest affected at least 110 U.S. cities; Washington, along with Chicago and Baltimore, were among the most affected. </li></ul>
  55. 59. The 1968 Civil Rights Act Passed <ul><li>Civil Rights Act 1968; prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. </li></ul>