The 1960s

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The 1960s

  1. 1. The Sixties<br />
  2. 2. overview<br /><ul><li>Civil Rights
  3. 3. Presidents
  4. 4. John F. Kennedy
  5. 5. Lyndon B. Johnson
  6. 6. Richard Nixon
  7. 7. The Vietnam War
  8. 8. The Counterculture</li></li></ul><li>Civil Rights Protesters Marching From Selma to Montgomery, AL<br />
  9. 9. The Civil Rights movement<br />Phases of the Movement<br /><ul><li>Legalization
  10. 10. mid-1950s to early 1960
  11. 11. Non-Violent Direct Action
  12. 12. 1960 – 1965
  13. 13. Black Nationalism
  14. 14. 1965-1970</li></li></ul><li>legalization<br /><ul><li>What is legalization?
  15. 15. African-Americans relying on legal means to achieve civil rights goals
  16. 16. Brown v. Board of Education
  17. 17. 1954 – ruled segregation unconstitutional in public schools
  18. 18. Separate facilities inherently make them unequal
  19. 19. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
  20. 20. Formed in 1909
  21. 21. Originally focused on legislation to end lynching (the Jesse Washington case was paramount to their cause)
  22. 22. In the 1950s and 1960s, the NAACP championed legalization</li></li></ul><li>Oral History Interviewee on Desegregation in Waco<br />
  23. 23. Non-Violent Direct Action<br /><ul><li>The idea that legalization is moving too slow; not enough is getting done.
  24. 24. Peacefully and non-violently disobeying laws that African-Americans felt were immoral, unfair, and unjust.
  25. 25. Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56
  26. 26. This put non-violent direct action on the radar for minorities throughout the United States
  27. 27. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  28. 28. Non-violent direct action is most commonly associated with him
  29. 29. Demonstration in Birmingham, AL
  30. 30. March on Washington D.C. – August 1963
  31. 31. “I have a dream speech”</li></li></ul><li>Non-Violent Direct Action<br /><ul><li>SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
  32. 32. Played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides of the Civil Rights movement
  33. 33. Especially crucial in organizing voter registration in the South
  34. 34. Freedom Summer of 1964 – got both whites and blacks involved with protesting Civil Rights in the South
  35. 35. Attempting to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi
  36. 36. Sit-in
  37. 37. Protesters would go to restaurants for whites only and sit there all day (typically drug stores with lunch counters)
  38. 38. Goal was to sit and wait for service
  39. 39. Activists were completely passive. They would not resist any action taken against them by law enforcement
  40. 40. Attempting to appeal to the nation’s conscience
  41. 41. Freedom Rides
  42. 42. Civil Rights activists who rode on interstate buses into the segregated South
  43. 43. Goal was to challenge segregated local and state laws by attempting to ride all forms of transportation and break these laws</li></li></ul><li>Birmingham Protesters <br />
  44. 44. Civil Rights Protestor Attacked by Dog<br />
  45. 45. Black nationalism<br /><ul><li>The next step after Non-Violent Direct Action
  46. 46. Activists begin to believe non-violence is not doing enough
  47. 47. Black nationalism incorporates resistance to the accommodation of European cultural and social ways
  48. 48. Essentially, extreme pride in African-American heritage
  49. 49. Nation of Islam
  50. 50. W.D. Fard created the new black nationalist version of the Nation of Islam
  51. 51. Black people were the very first humans and that whites had emerged out of scientific experiments of mad scientists
  52. 52. The mad scientists were attempting to use these experiments to dilute the strength of the original African people
  53. 53. Basically, whites are the mutant devils of this experiment
  54. 54. Elijah Poole – gets converted by W.D. Fard and takes over the movement; takes the name “Elijah Mohammed”
  55. 55. Poole is the individual who converts Malcom X </li></li></ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcom X<br />
  56. 56. Black nationalism<br /><ul><li>Nation of Islam / Black Nationalism combined
  57. 57. Movement picks up in the latter half of the 1960s
  58. 58. The massive decolonization of African countries in the 1940s and 1950s greatly enhances the idea that Africa is worthy of activists’ attention, pride, and respect
  59. 59. This generates the idea that African-Americans controlling their political destiny should be a significant pillar of the Civil Rights movement
  60. 60. Black Power
  61. 61. Was not a program, but is a representative mood of disillusionment and alienation from a white-dominated America
  62. 62. June 1966 – James Meredith wants to prove that conditions are different in Mississippi
  63. 63. Planned to march through Mississippi in an attempt to convince blacks that they can vote
  64. 64. Meredith gets attacked when he crosses the Mississippi state line; gets severely injured
  65. 65. MLK and Stogley Carmichael decided to continue Meredith’s march
  66. 66. Run into hostile whites throughout their journey
  67. 67. King attempts to stay non-violent
  68. 68. Carmichael calls for black power</li></li></ul><li>Black nationalism<br /><ul><li>Black Power (continued)
  69. 69. African-Americans should have independent action in politics
  70. 70. They should control their political destiny
  71. 71. Political power in Southern, rural areas must be controlled by African-Americans
  72. 72. Emphasized
  73. 73. Self-help
  74. 74. Racial solidarity
  75. 75. Retaliatory violence
  76. 76. MLK’s assassination
  77. 77. April 4, 1968
  78. 78. Black power becomes synonymous with the Civil Rights movement
  79. 79. Led to a nationwide wave of riots in over 100 cities</li></li></ul><li>Watt Riots, Los Angeles, CA (1965)<br />
  80. 80. Civil Rights Legislation<br /><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964
  81. 81. Outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment
  82. 82. Included women and mentions whites
  83. 83. Introduced by Kennedy in his civil rights speech on 11 June 1963
  84. 84. Voting Rights Act of 1965
  85. 85. Outlawed discriminatory practices against minorities at the polls
  86. 86. Echoed the 15th amendment
  87. 87. Specifically aimed at literacy tests and poll taxes that were common in the South
  88. 88. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
  89. 89. Abolished the nation-origin quotas that had been a staple since 1924
  90. 90. Civil Rights Act of 1968
  91. 91. Prohibited racial discrimination in housing (sale, rental, or financing)
  92. 92. Equal opportunity based on race, religion, and national origin
  93. 93. Passed during Johnson’s administration</li></li></ul><li>John F. Kennedy<br />
  94. 94. John f. kennedy<br /><ul><li>Kennedy’s Agenda
  95. 95. Cold War mentality; new initiatives aimed at countering communist influence throughout the world
  96. 96. Space program
  97. 97. Peace Corps
  98. 98. Attempts to oust Castro from Cuba (Bay of Pigs Incident)
  99. 99. Did little for Civil Rights
  100. 100. Too worried about reelection
  101. 101. The Cuban Missile Crisis
  102. 102. October 1962 – American spy planes discover that the Soviet Union was installing missiles in Cuba that were capable of reaching the United States (fear of nuclear warfare)
  103. 103. Ends with an agreement with the Soviet Union
  104. 104. Soviets take missiles out of Cuba
  105. 105. Americans take missiles out of Turkey
  106. 106. Kennedy spins this to appear that he confronted Castro and made him back down</li></li></ul><li>Lyndon B. Johnson<br />
  107. 107. Lyndon b. Johnson<br /><ul><li>Kennedy’s assassination
  108. 108. 22 November 1963 – Kennedy is shot down in Dallas
  109. 109. Johnson takes the oath of office on Air Force One 2 hours and 8 minutes after Kennedy was shot
  110. 110. The Great Society
  111. 111. The most sweeping proposal for government action to promote welfare since the New Deal
  112. 112. Unlike the New Deal, the Great Society was a response to prosperity, not depression
  113. 113. Items:
  114. 114. Federal funding for education
  115. 115. “War on Poverty”
  116. 116. Medicare and Medicaid
  117. 117. The Vietnam War was greatly responsible for the Great Society’s demise
  118. 118. Johnson ended up spending all his time and funding on the war </li></li></ul><li>Richard nixon<br />
  119. 119. Richard nixon<br /><ul><li>Campaign of 1968
  120. 120. Ran on a platform of law and order, appealing to the “Silent Majority”
  121. 121. Backlash to the anti-war movement, Civil Rights movement, and the counterculture (and all the riots associated with all of the above)
  122. 122. The Imperial Presidency
  123. 123. Acted much less like a president and more like an emperor
  124. 124. Over time, Americans have become accustomed to a president with great power over many issues
  125. 125. Imperial presidents decided their job was not just carry out laws, but to decide which laws should be carried out
  126. 126. Richard Nixon typifies this
  127. 127. Foreign Policy
  128. 128. Conservatives saw Nixon’s policies as dangerously soft towards communism
  129. 129. Nixon and Henry Kissinger were a strong foreign policy team that continued the policies of their predecessors, attempting to undermine governments deemed dangerous to democracy</li></li></ul><li>Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger<br />
  130. 130. The Vietnam war<br />
  131. 131. Vietnam war overview<br /><ul><li>North Vietnam
  132. 132. Communist, ruled by Ho Chi Minh
  133. 133. Attempting to take over South Vietnam
  134. 134. Often used conventional warfare, also used guerilla tactics
  135. 135. South Vietnam
  136. 136. Anti-communist; supported by the United States
  137. 137. Attempting to resist communist take-over by North Vietnam
  138. 138. Relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to counter North Vietnam’s large number of troops
  139. 139. Why does the United States get involved?
  140. 140. Communist containment
  141. 141. U.S. involvement escalates in 1960
  142. 142. Number of committed U.S. troops triple in 1961 and triple again in 1962</li></li></ul><li>Vietnam War<br />The Vietnam War in the Kennedy Administration<br /><ul><li>Functioning under the Cold War mentality
  143. 143. Fears the “Domino effect”
  144. 144. If South Vietnam falls to communism, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand would fall to communism
  145. 145. This would effectively ruin anti-communist efforts in East Asia
  146. 146. Rationalization for the war
  147. 147. The United States wanted to protect national interests and its security
  148. 148. Used the idealistic and moralistic approach
  149. 149. “Helping the good of humanity through the spread of democracy”
  150. 150. Kennedy was hesitant to act on Vietnam as he was worried about reelection
  151. 151. This occurred throughout his entire administration </li></li></ul><li>
  152. 152. Vietnam War<br />The Vietnam War in the Johnson Administration<br /><ul><li>Johnson escalates the war occurring in four steps
  153. 153. Johnson’s hands-on approach – we will win the war
  154. 154. Bombing of North Vietnam
  155. 155. Ground Troops
  156. 156. Full Commitment
  157. 157. Johnson had a machismo mentality toward the Vietnam War
  158. 158. Still very committed to the Cold War mentality
  159. 159. He over estimated the appeal of democratic principles in the face of communism
  160. 160. Also afraid of the Domino Effect
  161. 161. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) – assist any country against communist aggression
  162. 162. He did not want to be the first president to lose a war
  163. 163. Both he and Kennedy ignored the Vietnamese culture and their resistance to imperial powers
  164. 164. Kennedy and Johnson waged the war as a limited war
  165. 165. Not keen on adopting the guerilla tactics of the Vietnamese
  166. 166. The real victim of the Vietnam War under the Johnson administration was his Great Society legislation
  167. 167. His funding and attention was focused squarely on the war (Tet Offensive)</li></li></ul><li>
  168. 168. Vietnam War<br />The Vietnam War in the Nixon Administration<br /><ul><li>The Vietnam War was at the center of the nation’s political life at the time of Nixon’s election
  169. 169. During his campaign, Nixon claimed he had a “secret plan” to end the war if he was elected
  170. 170. Didn’t have one; just a campaign ploy
  171. 171. Nixon expands the war less than two months after he was elected
  172. 172. Approved a bombing campaign in Cambodia
  173. 173. Nixon either destroyed or falsified most of the records on this campaign
  174. 174. After the New York Times reported on this campaign, Nixon becomes paranoid of leaks in his administration
  175. 175. Begins wire-tapping
  176. 176. Nov. 3, 1969 – Nixon announces that American defeat in Vietnam would lead to a communist massacre and a collapse of confidence in American leadership (becomes a justification to escalate the war)
  177. 177. Anti-War protest was at an all-time high
  178. 178. Nixon attempts to quell this by pulling troops out of Vietnam
  179. 179. Subsequently, he sends in troops to Cambodia</li></li></ul><li>The counterculture<br />
  180. 180. The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>American culture prior to the 1960s
  181. 181. World War II / Cold War mentality
  182. 182. Television and mass media are becoming common (creating a national culture)
  183. 183. Emergence of a consumer culture (shift from the 1920s)
  184. 184. Nationalism
  185. 185. Prosperity and affluence
  186. 186. Social mobility
  187. 187. Baby boomers (more people = more consumption)
  188. 188. The national culture is linked with consumption
  189. 189. Television is the medium for this progression
  190. 190. Affluence: most items are within price ranges that people can afford
  191. 191. The Counterculture emerges as an alternative to the typical American culture</li></li></ul><li>The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>Society was not a comfortable place for those in the counterculture
  192. 192. They felt disaffected and alienated
  193. 193. Most participants were white, middle-class Americans and products of the baby boom
  194. 194. Primarily reared in the 1950s with the traditional focus on conformity and social values
  195. 195. They came of age when there was great pressure for change politically
  196. 196. They identified with Kennedy because of his youth
  197. 197. After his assassination, they felt separated from the government
  198. 198. If the Kennedy and Johnson administrations could not bring about change, they had to do it themselves
  199. 199. Education
  200. 200. They thought the structure of the universities were too rigid</li></li></ul><li>The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>The “Technocracy” and/or “THE MAN” and/or “The Establishment”
  201. 201. Fairly interchangeable terms
  202. 202. Everything is controlled by a team of “experts” (sprung up out of the Cold War mentality where everything is intellectually and technologically superior)
  203. 203. In the technocracy, the individual should defer to “the experts” who “know better”
  204. 204. Students started to seek some control over their university lives
  205. 205. Democracy and the Technocracy
  206. 206. Students attempting to reconcile democratic ideals within the context that they should be taking orders and not thinking for themselves
  207. 207. Trinity of the Counterculture
  208. 208. Sex
  209. 209. Drugs
  210. 210. Rock n’ Roll</li></li></ul><li>The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>Divisions in the Counterculture
  211. 211. Political Rebels
  212. 212. Social/Cultural Rebels
  213. 213. Political Rebels
  214. 214. Those who became involved with anti-war movement and the Civil Rights movement
  215. 215. Those who primarily conduct the protests in the late 1960s
  216. 216. Social/Cultural Rebels
  217. 217. Basic “hippies”
  218. 218. The goal of happiness is a goal in itself
  219. 219. Haight-Ashbury – hippies attempt to create their own culture in San Francisco (large-scale hippie commune)
  220. 220. “Return to Nature” – hippies that would drop out of society all together
  221. 221. Sort of a throwback to Transcendentalism</li></li></ul><li>The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>The Counterculture was not a majority of the American population
  222. 222. However, it got a lot of media attention
  223. 223. Families, especially children and mothers suffered from the “free love” mentality
  224. 224. Anti-War Movement
  225. 225. Takes a while for full-scale protests to emerge
  226. 226. Starts in 1967-68
  227. 227. Protesters were tired of the Vietnam War
  228. 228. Kent State Shootings
  229. 229. Protesting after Nixon finally announced he was expanding the war into Cambodia
  230. 230. Thousands of protesters (residents of the town and students)
  231. 231. SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) came in to help protest
  232. 232. National Guard was called in to break up the riots
  233. 233. Rioters marched to Blanket Hill; National Guard opens fire
  234. 234. 13 students shot, 4 fatally wounded</li></li></ul><li>Kent State Shootings at Blanket Hill (1970)<br />
  235. 235. The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>Free Speech Movement
  236. 236. Grew out of protests at U.C. Berkeley
  237. 237. 1964 – administration decided that students could no longer set up tables on campus to support off-campus causes
  238. 238. Civil rights
  239. 239. Capital punishment
  240. 240. Nuclear disarmament
  241. 241. 21 September 1964 – nearly all the campus organizations decided to unite and violate the table ban (under the argument of freedom of speech)
  242. 242. One of the leaders was confronted and told to come to the office
  243. 243. Over 500 stage a sit-in at the administration building
  244. 244. University president suspends 8 students
  245. 245. This only increases the ill will between students and administration
  246. 246. Causes more protests</li></li></ul><li>The Counter Culture<br /><ul><li>Free Speech Movement
  247. 247. Jack Wineberg – organizes students to set up tables over civil rights and political agendas
  248. 248. Refuses to leave when ordered to do so; gets arrested
  249. 249. Over 100 other students show up in a free speech rally; demand to be arrested
  250. 250. Crowd around the police cruiser; stage a sit-in around the car which grows to 3000 people
  251. 251. Lasted for 30 hours; ended when the Berkeley president decides to meet with students
  252. 252. It was the first massive campus demonstration in the 1960s
  253. 253. Most people thought that U.C. Berkeley had fallen into chaos</li>

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