Civil Rights

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Civil Rights

  1. 1. LIFE Magazine – Civil Rights
  2. 2. Pre Class <ul><li>What is the message of this cartoon? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s this cartoonist’s POV regarding race relations? </li></ul>Cartoon by Jon Kennedy, Little Rock Arkansas Democrat, May 17, 1954 (Courtesy of Arkansas Democrat-Gazette )
  3. 3. The Civil Rights Movement
  4. 4. Battling Segregation
  5. 5. The Segregation System <ul><li>Civil Rights Act (1875) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed segregation in public facilities, places of public amusement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struck down in 1883 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upheld Louisiana’s “separate but equal” law as constitutional </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Jim Crow Emerges <ul><li>States responded to Plessy ruling with “Jim Crow” laws </li></ul><ul><li>Separated the races (forbade interracial marriage, restrictions on social contact, sep. public facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities for blacks = inferior </li></ul>
  7. 7. What set the stage for the modern Civil Rights movement? <ul><li>WWII opened up job opportunities for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>African American soldiers returned home from the war determined to fight for their own freedom </li></ul><ul><li>During the war, organizations had campaigned for civil rights </li></ul>
  8. 8. Challenging Segregation <ul><li>Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas </li></ul>FIRST DAY The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education integrated the schools. But today its meaning is at issue. Here, the first day of desegregation, on Sept. 8, 1954, at Fort Myer Elementary School in Fort Myer, Va.
  9. 9. Brown v. the Board <ul><li>NAACP – prove inequality of separate schools </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Warren – separate schools could NEVER be equal </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation = UNCONSTITUTIONAL; violation of 14 th Amendment </li></ul>Thurgood Marshall
  10. 10. People across the country, like these from Poolesville, Maryland, in 1956, took to the streets to protest integration. This kind of opposition exposed the deep divide in the nation, and revealed the difficulty of enforcing the high court’s decision. (Courtesy of Washington Star Collection, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library)
  11. 11. Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas; African American students arriving in a U.S. Army car. Supplied by NAACP
  12. 12. As white students jeer her and Arkansas National Guards look on, Elizabeth Eckford enters Little Rock Central High School in 1957 Eckford didn’t receive the call from the NAACP stating they would provide transportation; she set out along to desegregate Central High.
  13. 13. Reaction to Brown: The Little Rock Crisis <ul><li>AK’s gov. sends Natl Guard to keep students out of Central High </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower’s response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AK National guard and paratroopers sent to Central High to escort students </li></ul></ul>Members of the 101st Airborne escort the Little Rock 9 into school.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Had there been no May 17, 1954, I’m not sure there would have been a Little Rock. I’m not sure there would have been a Martin Luther King Jr., or Rosa Parks, had it not been for May 17, 1954. It created an environment for us to push, for us to pull. </li></ul><ul><li>We live in a different country, a better country, because of what happened here in 1954. And we must never forget it. We must tell the story again, over and over and over. — U.S. Rep. John Lewis at a ceremony commemorating the 48th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education at Topeka’s First United Methodist Church </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott <ul><li>Montgomery Improvement Association – organized a boycott of Montgomery busses </li></ul>“ It was time for someone to stand up – or, in my case, sit down” – Rosa Parks
  16. 16. If any single event touched off the activist phase of the civil rights movement, it was the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56. Triggered by the refusal of a black seamstress, Mrs. Rosa Parks, to take her place at the back of a city bus when the driver demanded it, this grass-roots movement led by the young Martin Luther King lasted for just over a year, from 1955 to late in the next year. For the first time since the depression, political initiative shifted from Washington back into the country itself, in this case the courts, schools, lunch counters, courthouses, streets and jails of the South. ---from The Experience of Politics Cartoon by Laura Gray, first appeared in The Militant, 2/13/56
  17. 17. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) <ul><li>President – Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots movement (African American churches) </li></ul><ul><li>to “carry on non-violent crusades” against racism </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Soul Force” <ul><li>Civil disobedience – the refusal to obey an unjust law </li></ul>“ We will not hate you, but we cannot …obey your unjust laws…We will soon wear you down by our capacity to suffer. And in winning our freedom, we will so appeal to your heart and conscience that we will win you in the process”
  19. 19. Student Non-Violent Coordination Committee (SNCC) <ul><li>Used sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters across the South </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Condoleezza Rice Remembers Dr. King </li></ul>
  21. 22. Triumphs of a Crusade
  22. 23. Freedom Riders
  23. 24. <ul><li>Tested Supreme Court’s decision banning segregated seating on interstate bus routes and segregated facilities in bus terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Bus 2 – firebombed; riders beaten </li></ul><ul><li>JFK sends in US marshals </li></ul>
  24. 25. 1961
  25. 26. Dr. King’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”
  26. 27. The Children’s March - 1963
  27. 28. Birmingham, Alabama May 2-3, 1963 <ul><li>police met 1,000s of children with high-pressure fire hoses and attack dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Protests, economic boycott and media coverage led to the desegregation of the city </li></ul><ul><li>JFK – new Civil Rights act </li></ul>
  28. 29. Birmingham Church Bombing
  29. 30. March on Washington <ul><li>… for jobs and freedom </li></ul><ul><li>JFK intro. sweeping civil rights legislation in June, 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. King hoped to speed up passage w/ march </li></ul>
  30. 32. Civil Rights Act (1964) <ul><li>Prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education </li></ul><ul><li>Outlawed racial segregation in all public places and most private businesses </li></ul>During his signing of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson shook hands with the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. (United Press International/ File 1964) '' We have lost the South for a generation . - LBJ&quot;
  31. 33. What about the 15 th Amendment? <ul><li>granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the &quot;right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>So, what kept African Americans from voting in some Southern states? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll taxes, literacy tests </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Fighting for Voting Rights: Freedom Summer <ul><li>College students went into Mississippi to register African American voters </li></ul><ul><li>Trained in non-violent resistance </li></ul>
  33. 35. March: Selma to Montgomery 1965 <ul><li>After murder of Voting rights demonstrator </li></ul><ul><li>Mayhem broke out </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ presents new voting rights act </li></ul>
  34. 37. Victories in Voting Rights <ul><li>24 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Barred poll taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act (1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Banned literacy tests </li></ul><ul><li>Federal officials could enroll voters </li></ul><ul><li>**% of African American voters in South tripled </li></ul>1965: President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 with James Farmer, Director of the Congress of Racial Equality. Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers
  35. 38. “ I’m sick and tired of being sick and tired” Fannie Lou Hamer , American civil rights leader, at the Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey, August 1964
  36. 39. Pre Class <ul><li>List 2 legislative triumphs (changes in the law) of the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Next to each, write a person, group or action that was responsible for it. </li></ul>
  37. 40. Challenges and Changes in the Movement
  38. 41. Segregation <ul><li>De facto – exists by practice and custom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in the North, “white flight,” creation of slums, racial violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De jure – exists by law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which was harder to battle? Why? </li></ul></ul>Watts (Los Angeles, 1965) 1967 – violence in 100 cities
  39. 42. New Groups Emerge* <ul><li>SNCC </li></ul><ul><li>Nonviolent civil disobedience, racial harmony </li></ul>Nation of Islam* Whites = evil, black separatism, armed self-defense Black Panthers* Black nationalism, black power, armed revolt, self-sufficiency, equal housing, employment, protested AA in Vietnam
  40. 43. Malcolm X (Little) <ul><li>“ If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place.” </li></ul>
  41. 44. Malcolm X Early beliefs: Nation of Islam Later: views towards whites softened; ballots over bullets Stokely Carmichael Organizer for SNCC; later became a Black Panther
  42. 45. 1968 – A Turning Point <ul><li>Dr. King’s assassination – worst rioting in US history </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act - 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended discrimination in housing </li></ul></ul>April 4, 1968 - Memphis “ I’m not fearing any man.” – MLK, April 3, 1968
  43. 46. <ul><li>Kerner Commission (1968) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LBJ’s commission to study urban violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: white racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignored findings – white opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the Great Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money to fight poverty and nation’s attention went to fighting in Vietnam </li></ul></ul>LBJ – Civil Rights and Vietnam “ The Great Society has been shot down on the battlefields of Vietnam” - MLK
  44. 47. Civil Rights Gains <ul><li>Legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Acts (1964, 68) </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act (65) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of de jure segregation, poll taxes, literacy tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pride/awareness of racial identity </li></ul><ul><li>New college programs in African American history and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Greater visibility of African Americans in movies/TV </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of schools </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in AA voters, college grads </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of affirmative action programs </li></ul>

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