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So you want to go 4Dplanning trees into your farmscape
Christopher Buschhaus, PhD
Hannah Buschhaus, MSc
ACORN Conference 2...
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
Row
1 D (line)
Row
Field
2 D (area)
Row
Field
2 D (area)
Row
Field
Crop
rotation
3 D (area x time)
Row
Field
Crop
rotation
Succession
planting
3 D (area x time)
Row
Field
Crop
rotation
Succession
planting
?
4 D (volume x time)
Agroforestry
“a land management
approach that
purposefully
integrates the growing
of trees with crops or
livestock” 1
1 ht...
Agroforestry
“a land management
approach that
purposefully
integrates the growing
of trees with crops or
livestock” 1
1 ht...
1 Photo credit: Hannah Buschhaus
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana
Biodiversity
“co...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/
2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pears...
Agroforestry
“a land management
approach that
purposefully
integrates the growing
of trees with crops or
livestock” 1
1 ht...
Agroforestry
“a land management
approach that
purposefully
integrates the growing
of trees with crops or
livestock” 1
1 ht...
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
Buffers
Integrate
d
riparian
systems
Buffers
Silvopast
ure
Integrate
d
riparian
systems
Buffers
Shade
systems
Silvopast
ure
Integrate
d
riparian
systems
Buffers
Shade
systems
Silvopast
ure
Sun
systems
Integrate
d
riparian
systems
Buffers
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
Pollinator habitat
Pollinator habitat
Beneficials habitat
• Windbreak
• Odour reduction
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agroforestry/shelterbelt-planning-and-est
• Sight break / privacy screen
• Waterway protection
• Biomass/fuel source
PEI Buffer zone fact sheet. Department of Environment, Labour, and
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro
• Waterway protection
• Biomass/fuel source
• Additional revenue
• Carbon sequestration
• Beautification
• Biodiversity booster
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro
• Density
• Longevity
• Establishment time
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
Do It Your
Self . . .
Propagation
cuttings
rooted material
coppicing beds
Cuttings . . . . . .
In field propagation
Willow, poplar,
etc.
2 bud minimum
Angled bottom
cut
Keep moist
Cuttings . . . . . .
In field propagation
Willow, poplar,
etc.
2 bud minimum
Angled bottom
cut
Keep moist
Rooted Material
Transplanting
1st year survival critical
Water!!!!
Do It Your
Self . . .
Propagation
cuttings
rooted material
coppicing beds
Maintenance
water
weed control
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry – facets
• Agroforestry – functions
• Going 4(D) it…
• Practical notes
• Further que...
Di
• Benefits
• Drawbacks
• Canopy layers
• Tree diversity lists
• Shrub diversity lists
• Combinations matter
• Animal co...
Outline
• Introduction
• Agroforestry facets
• Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, ipm, windbreak,
hedgerow, mi...
• A major goal of organic production is managing for biological
diversity. Intentional management of the 4th dimension
thr...
• Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry
• Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak,
hedger...
• Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry
• Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak,
hedger...
• Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry
• Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak,
hedger...
silvopasture
Row
Field
Crop
rotation
Succession
planting
?
Shade
systems
Silvopast
ure
Sun
systems
Integrate
d
riparian
systems
Buffers
• Pollinator habitat
• Beneficials habitat
• Windbreak
• Sightbreak
• Odour reduction
• Waterway protection
• Biomass/fuel...
So you want to go 4D: planning trees
into your farmscape 

(a closer examination of hedgerows
and windbreaks)
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape
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So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape

Christopher Buschhaus presents at the 2015 Acorn Conference

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So you want to go 4D: Planting Trees into your Farmscape

  1. 1. So you want to go 4Dplanning trees into your farmscape Christopher Buschhaus, PhD Hannah Buschhaus, MSc ACORN Conference 2015 Charlottetown, PEI, Canada 2015.11.25
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  3. 3. Row 1 D (line)
  4. 4. Row Field 2 D (area)
  5. 5. Row Field 2 D (area)
  6. 6. Row Field Crop rotation 3 D (area x time)
  7. 7. Row Field Crop rotation Succession planting 3 D (area x time)
  8. 8. Row Field Crop rotation Succession planting ? 4 D (volume x time)
  9. 9. Agroforestry “a land management approach that purposefully integrates the growing of trees with crops or livestock” 1 1 http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/agroforestry/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana +
  10. 10. Agroforestry “a land management approach that purposefully integrates the growing of trees with crops or livestock” 1 1 http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/agroforestry/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2
  11. 11. 1 Photo credit: Hannah Buschhaus 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1
  12. 12. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1
  13. 13. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1
  14. 14. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1 Species richness
  15. 15. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1
  16. 16. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1 Species evenness
  17. 17. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1 Species evenness
  18. 18. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1
  19. 19. 1 http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/store/organicseed/organic/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 1 Why do we care about biodiversity?
  20. 20. Agroforestry “a land management approach that purposefully integrates the growing of trees with crops or livestock” 1 1 http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/agroforestry/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2
  21. 21. Agroforestry “a land management approach that purposefully integrates the growing of trees with crops or livestock” 1 1 http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/agroforestry/ 2 Smith et al. 2014. Elements of Ecology. Canadian edition. Pearson Cana Biodiversity “composite measure of biological variation; incorporates genetic, species, and regional diversity” 2 Canopy Understory Shrub layer Herb layer Ground
  22. 22. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  23. 23. Buffers
  24. 24. Integrate d riparian systems Buffers
  25. 25. Silvopast ure Integrate d riparian systems Buffers
  26. 26. Shade systems Silvopast ure Integrate d riparian systems Buffers
  27. 27. Shade systems Silvopast ure Sun systems Integrate d riparian systems Buffers
  28. 28. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  29. 29. Pollinator habitat
  30. 30. Pollinator habitat Beneficials habitat
  31. 31. • Windbreak • Odour reduction http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro
  32. 32. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agroforestry/shelterbelt-planning-and-est
  33. 33. • Sight break / privacy screen
  34. 34. • Waterway protection • Biomass/fuel source PEI Buffer zone fact sheet. Department of Environment, Labour, and
  35. 35. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro • Waterway protection • Biomass/fuel source
  36. 36. • Additional revenue • Carbon sequestration • Beautification • Biodiversity booster
  37. 37. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  38. 38. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro • Density • Longevity • Establishment time
  39. 39. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/
  40. 40. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  41. 41. Do It Your Self . . . Propagation cuttings rooted material coppicing beds
  42. 42. Cuttings . . . . . . In field propagation Willow, poplar, etc. 2 bud minimum Angled bottom cut Keep moist
  43. 43. Cuttings . . . . . . In field propagation Willow, poplar, etc. 2 bud minimum Angled bottom cut Keep moist
  44. 44. Rooted Material Transplanting 1st year survival critical Water!!!!
  45. 45. Do It Your Self . . . Propagation cuttings rooted material coppicing beds Maintenance water weed control
  46. 46. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry – facets • Agroforestry – functions • Going 4(D) it… • Practical notes • Further questions
  47. 47. Di • Benefits • Drawbacks • Canopy layers • Tree diversity lists • Shrub diversity lists • Combinations matter • Animal corridors • Pollinators • Insects (good and bad) • Birds • Hawk posts for vole/mouse
  48. 48. Outline • Introduction • Agroforestry facets • Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, ipm, windbreak, hedgerow, microclimate, crop protection, increasing biodiversity) • Starting up: • Goals (windbreak, sightbreak, pollinator food, habitat, biomass/ fuel…, multitasking) • Budget (time, equipment, trees, etc) • Spacing/apps for trees/shrubs • Practical guides – on-a-budget, weeds, tree selection, propagation, etc.
  49. 49. • A major goal of organic production is managing for biological diversity. Intentional management of the 4th dimension through such systems as hedgerows and shelterbelts benefits both wild and cultivated diversity while simultaneously providing economic benefits to the farming operation. This presentation will highlight the broad framework of 4D-farming before delving into the practical considerations of implementing on-farm agroforestry.
  50. 50. • Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry • Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak, hedgerow, microclimate, crop protection, increasing biodiversity) • Starting up: • Goals (windbreak, sightbreak, pollinator food, habitat, biomass/ fuel…, multitasking) • Budget (time, equipment, trees, etc) • Spacing/apps for trees/shrubs • Practical guides – on-a-budget, weeds, tree selection, propagation, etc.
  51. 51. • Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry • Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak, hedgerow, microclimate, crop protection, increasing biodiversity) • Developing hedgerows/ windbreaks for market-garden farms: • Goals / purpose • Budget (time, equipment, trees, etc) • Practical guides – on-a-budget, weeds, tree selection, spacing, propagation, etc.
  52. 52. • Overview of the multi-faceted aspects of agroforestry • Mechanisms of function / ecology (pollination, windbreak, hedgerow, microclimate, crop protection, increasing biodiversity) • Starting up: • Goals (windbreak, sightbreak, pollinator food, habitat, biomass/ fuel…, multitasking) • Budget (time, equipment, trees, etc) • Spacing/apps for trees/shrubs • Practical guides – on-a-budget, weeds, tree selection, propagation, etc.
  53. 53. silvopasture
  54. 54. Row Field Crop rotation Succession planting ?
  55. 55. Shade systems Silvopast ure Sun systems Integrate d riparian systems Buffers
  56. 56. • Pollinator habitat • Beneficials habitat • Windbreak • Sightbreak • Odour reduction • Waterway protection • Biomass/fuel source • Additional revenue • Carbon sequestration • Beautification • Biodiversity booster
  57. 57. So you want to go 4D: planning trees into your farmscape 
 (a closer examination of hedgerows and windbreaks)
  58. 58. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agricultural-practices/agro

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