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Michael Mazourek Cornell University
Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative
Addressing Grower Needs
Addressing Grower Needs
“Breeding, Research, and Education Needs Assessment for
Organic Vegetable Growers in the Northeast...
Crops Prioritized by Growers for Cultivar Development
Arugula
AsianGreens
Basil
Beet
Broccoli
BrusselsSprouts
Cabbage
Carr...
Challenges
Define Seed Resources
• Learn what others are growing in your area
• Ask at conferences like this!
• Call seed suppliers f...
Know Your Crop’s Genus
Search for “Cucurbita Gene List”
“Capsicum Gene List” Search
Requesting PI Accessions from
NPGS (GRIN)
• Cultivar – distinct plant germplasm grown
in agriculture
• Line – true breedin...
Requesting PI Accessions from
NPGS (GRIN)
• Accession – a sample of seed that was
collected, can include mixture
• Potenti...
Seed Borne Disease
• www.vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu
• www.agdia.com
Immunostrip Test
Flowers Can Hint toward Best
Pollination and Breeding Approaches
• Plant that tend to self-pollinate tend to have perfect
...
Peppers
• Perfect flowers
• Self-pollinate readily
• In the field outcross at about 20%
depending on pollinators present
•...
Broccoli- an exception
• Perfect flowers but
• Will not self-pollinate
• Exhibits inbreeding depression
• Self-incompatibi...
Cucumbers
• Monoecious, Gynoecious and more
• No real inbreeding depression
• Although separate male and female flowers
re...
Mendel
• Alleles – different forms for a gene that control a trait
• Dominant allele – written in CAPITAL LETTERS
• Recesi...
Breeding with Hybrids
Dominant traits
• only needs to be inherited from one parent to appear in
progeny – see it in the F1...
S3 on-farm plant breeding i
S3 on-farm plant breeding i
S3 on-farm plant breeding i
S3 on-farm plant breeding i
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S3 on-farm plant breeding i

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On-farm Plant Breeding I

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S3 on-farm plant breeding i

  1. 1. Michael Mazourek Cornell University
  2. 2. Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative Addressing Grower Needs
  3. 3. Addressing Grower Needs “Breeding, Research, and Education Needs Assessment for Organic Vegetable Growers in the Northeast” Hultengren, Glos and Mazourek 2016 https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/44636 210 growers responded to a survey sent to over 1,000 growers in the Northeast. Working group of researchers, students, growers, extension, and seed companies reviewed responses.
  4. 4. Crops Prioritized by Growers for Cultivar Development Arugula AsianGreens Basil Beet Broccoli BrusselsSprouts Cabbage Carrot Cilantro Cucumber Cucurbits Eggplant FavaBean Garlic GreenBean Kale Leek Lettuce Melon Mustard Okra Onion Parsnip Pea Pepper Potato Radish Shallot Spinach SummerSquash SweetCorn SwissChard Tomato Watermelon WinterSquash Cauliflower Celery Certified Organic Grower Responses Responses from growers
  5. 5. Challenges
  6. 6. Define Seed Resources • Learn what others are growing in your area • Ask at conferences like this! • Call seed suppliers for recommendations • Organic variety trial database www.eorganic.info • www.pickacarrot.com – like google for seeds • Seed Savers Exchange • Regional seed groups
  7. 7. Know Your Crop’s Genus
  8. 8. Search for “Cucurbita Gene List”
  9. 9. “Capsicum Gene List” Search
  10. 10. Requesting PI Accessions from NPGS (GRIN) • Cultivar – distinct plant germplasm grown in agriculture • Line – true breeding plant germplasm that may be appropriate for use as a cultivar • Accession – a sample of seed that was collected, can include mixture
  11. 11. Requesting PI Accessions from NPGS (GRIN) • Accession – a sample of seed that was collected, can include mixture • Potential for disease • Not all individuals will have trait you seek • Balance benefit of request with erosion of genetic diversity collected from nature
  12. 12. Seed Borne Disease • www.vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu • www.agdia.com
  13. 13. Immunostrip Test
  14. 14. Flowers Can Hint toward Best Pollination and Breeding Approaches • Plant that tend to self-pollinate tend to have perfect flowers (pollen and pistil on each flower) • These can often be self-pollinated with little to no inbreeding depression • There are exceptions • Plants that tend to outcross tend to have separate male and female flowers tend to outcross • These can often show inbreeding depression • There are exceptions
  15. 15. Peppers • Perfect flowers • Self-pollinate readily • In the field outcross at about 20% depending on pollinators present • Emasculated bud serves as female • Pollinated by open flower shedding pollen
  16. 16. Broccoli- an exception • Perfect flowers but • Will not self-pollinate • Exhibits inbreeding depression • Self-incompatibility common in brassica • Reject pollen similar to themselves • Promotes outcrossing • Circumvent by pollinating like a pepper (bud pollination) • Cytoplasmic male sterility introduced • Controversial • Facilitates hybrid seed production
  17. 17. Cucumbers • Monoecious, Gynoecious and more • No real inbreeding depression • Although separate male and female flowers require vector • Hybrids easily generated by planting gynoecious alongside monoecious plants • Seed increase of gynoecious plants by use of silver or hormones
  18. 18. Mendel • Alleles – different forms for a gene that control a trait • Dominant allele – written in CAPITAL LETTERS • Recesive allele – written in smalls • True Breeding = Homozygous • Cross dominant plant x recessive plant • Heterozygous offspring •AA x aa => Aa F1
  19. 19. Breeding with Hybrids Dominant traits • only needs to be inherited from one parent to appear in progeny – see it in the F1 • visible if present Recessive traits • needs to be inherited from both parents to appear in progeny • plant can be an invisible carrier Hybrid with dominant trait • may or may not be true breeding • Common for disease resistance Hybrid with recessive trait • progeny will be true breeding • Common for domestication traits

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