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S1 stock seed

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Stock Seed

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S1 stock seed

  1. 1. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed www.seedalliance.org Stock Seed Laurie McKenzie PNW Research and Education Associate Organic Seed Alliance
  2. 2. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed What is Stock Seed? • Also referred to as Breeders’ Seed • Generally maintained by the breeder • Highest quality seed to ensure genetic purity
  3. 3. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Classes of Seed • Breeder Seed – source of all classes of certified seed • Foundation Seed – progeny of Breeder or Foundation seed produced under the control of the originator • Registered Seed – progeny of Breeder or Foundation seed produced according to policies and procedures of a regulating body to maintain genetic purity and identity of a variety. Some crops and varieties have no Registered class. • Certified Seed – progeny of Breeder, Foundation, or Registered seed produced according to policies and procedures of a regulating body to maintain genetic purity and identity of a variety.
  4. 4. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed U.S. Federal Seed Act The purpose of the Act, which has state counterparts that may require more disclosure or standards, is for everyone to know what is exactly in the bag. The Act generally applies to any vegetable or agricultural seeds, including lawn and forage seed, that are shipped in interstate commerce or will eventually be shipped in interstate commerce.
  5. 5. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Bag Labels must include: • Name and/or Variety of Seed (% if mixed) • Lot Number • Origin • % Weed Seed • % Inert Matter • Germination Rate (variable depending on crop) – must be done within last 5 months • % Hard Seed
  6. 6. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed In General, Genetic Purity of the seed planted must equal or exceed that of the final product. Genetic purity generally decreases with each subsequent generation of propagation
  7. 7. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Seed Genetic Purity Standards are set by state seed laws and seed certification agencies to ensure buyers receive quality seed. Genetic purity tolerance levels are determined by: • Biology of the species (self- or cross- pollinated) • Variety type (open pollinated or hybrid) • Market-driven standards
  8. 8. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Early Generations such as Breeder and Foundation seed have stricter standards for genetic purity. For Example in California: Max off-types in Foundation Seed = 0-0.2% Max off-types in Certified Seed = 0.1 – 2% * in one pound of Certified seed this would mean (same crop, different variety): - 1 cotton or wheat seed - 2 watermelon seeds - 4 rice seeds - 6 sunflower seeds
  9. 9. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Sec. 201.31 Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce, which shall be construed to include hard seed, are determined and established under section 403(c) of the act. Type Germ % Artichoke 60 Asparagus 70 Bean, Asparagus 75 Bean, Fava 75 Bean, Garden 70 Bean, Lima 70 Bean, Runner 75 Beet 65 Broccoli 75 Brussels Sprouts 70 Burdock, Great 60 Cabbage 75 Cabbage, Chinese 75 Cabbage, Tronchuda 70 Cardoon 60 Carrot 55 Cauliflower 75 Celeriac 55 Celery 55 Chard, Swiss 65
  10. 10. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Self & Cross-Pollinating Species Spectrum SELFERS CROSSERS Peas Lettuce Tomato Pepper Squash Umbels Corn Brassicas Selfers require minimum isolation Crossers require much greater isolation Save from few plants Save from many plants
  11. 11. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed abc abc abC abc abc abC aBC abc abC aBc abc aBC aBc abC AbC abc abC Abc Abc AbC Abc abC ABc abc aBc Abc Abc ABC Abc aBc ABC abC abC ABC ABC ABC Roguing • Moving forward to keep from moving backward
  12. 12. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Selection Maximizing Selection • Uniform field conditions • Consistent and uniform treatment • Large population size • Select before pollination • Grid selection
  13. 13. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Selection Natural Selection favors reproductive traits Artificial selection required for quality
  14. 14. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Genetic Drift Genetic drift is the random change in the frequency of genes in the population as it reproduces. Even in the absence of selection, the plants that grow from one generation to the next may have a slightly different percentage of genes just due to chance. This can result in genetic changes in your variety over time. This is one reason breeder / stock and foundation seed are produced infrequently.
  15. 15. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Maintaining Genetic Purity in Stock Seed Minimize and be aware of contamination from: • Prior crops grown in the field • Pollen transfer from nearby fields • Mixtures during harvesting and handling • Strict rouging of off-types • Before pollination
  16. 16. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Stock Seed Can Be Produced: Frequently – allows the variety to evolve and adapt Infrequently – best for maintaining genetic purity and minimizing change
  17. 17. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Seed Storage ~ Cool, dry, and dark. ~ Minimum fluctuation of storage conditions. ~ Heat and humidity together should stay under 100. ~ Airtight containers with desiccant, or breathable cotton muslin bags. ~ Protection from pests.
  18. 18. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Underground Storage
  19. 19. Advancing the ethical development and stewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed Considerations in Stock Seed Production: • What is your goal? • What is your storage capacity? • Commercial contract stipulations • How much do you want the variety to stay the same over time? • Will you certify or register the seed?

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