THE NATURE ANDMEANING OFDEVELOPMENTAbigail Pugal-SomeraFDM 201 Principles and Processes of DevelopmentManagement
Definition of DevelopmentDefined by the Business Dictionary as:• The systematic use of scientific and technical knowledgeto meet specific objectives or requirements.• An extension of the theoretical or practical aspects of aconcept, design, discovery, or invention.• The process of economic and social transformation thatis based on complex cultural and environmental factorsand their interactions.
Definition of Development“The act of developing or disclosing that which isunknown; a gradual unfolding process by whichanything is developed, as a plan or method, oran image upon a photographic plate; gradualadvancement or growth through a series ofprogressive changes; also, the result ofdeveloping, or a developed state.”
Evolutionary Concept ofDevelopment• Economic Growth as Proxy for Development– Policies that led to growth were necessarily seen as pro-development and inherently good; policies that had little,negligible or negative impact on growth were seen asnecessarily improper.– Little consideration was given to the evolution of otherfactors, such as inequality, poverty or social well-being.
Evolutionary Concept ofDevelopment– Whatever its goals and whatever the means to pursuethese goals, a society would need first to produce thewealth required to implement whatever objectives itgave itself.– Growth would always be a necessary objective, andthe more growth there was, the wider the “realm ofpossibilities” became.
widely accepteddefinition ofdevelopment by Todaro
Human Development• In 1990, the UNDP introduced the concept ofhuman development as “a process of enlargingpeople’s choices.”• Income was seen as an important option thatpeople must have in order to realize their fullpotential but has not been seen as an end initself.
Human Development“Development must be more than justthe expansion of income and wealth. Itsfocus must be people.” (UNDP 1990)
Human Development-RelatedIndicatorsNational Level:1. Carry out independent national human rightsassessments;2. Align national legislation with internationalstandards;3. Promote human rights norms through education,sensitization of public authorities, and mediacampaigning;4. Strengthen a network of human rightsinstitutions; and
Human Development-RelatedIndicators5. Promote a rights –enabling economic environment, byfocusing public action where it is most effective andnecessary, integrating human rights considerations intoeconomic policy-making, and involving private non-state actors in human rights promotion
Human Development-RelatedIndicatorsInternational Level:1. Reduce global inequality and marginalization by, mostnotably, strengthening a rights-based approach todevelopment cooperation and improving globaleconomic rules;2. Prevention of conflict, by embarking on new efforts forpeace-making, peace-building and peace-keeping3. Strengthening the international human rights machinery
Human Development-RelatedIndicators4. Strengthening regional human rights approaches;and5. Mobilizing the support of private international actorsfor human rights.
Human DevelopmentIndicators in the PhilippinesHuman Development Index Ranking 114
Health Life expectancy at birth (years) 69.0Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
EducationMean years of schooling (of adults) (years) 8.9Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
Human DevelopmentIndicators in the PhilippinesIncomeGNI per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $)(Constant 2005 international $) 3,752
Inequality Inequality-adjusted HDI value 0.524Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
PovertyMPI: Multidimensional poverty index (%) 0.064Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
GenderGII: Gender Inequality Index, value 0.418Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
SustainabilityCarbon dioxide emissions per capita (tonnes) 0.9Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
DemographyPopulation, total both sexes (thousands) 96,471.5Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
Composite indices Non-income HDI value 0.724Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
Innovation and technologyFixed and mobile telephone subscribers per 100 people(per100 people) 92.9Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
Trade, economy and income Income index 0.535Human DevelopmentIndicators in the Philippines
Human Development IndexPhilippines - shows no improvement in HDI ranking. The HDI is a keyindicator of citizens state of health, education, and income, among others.Despite gains it has made on the economic front, the Philippines remainedat 114th globally for the 5th straight year in the HumanDevelopment Index (HDI) released by the United Nations DevelopmentProgram (UNDP) on Friday, March 15. 2013
Millennium DevelopmentGoals• The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eightinternational development goals that were officiallyestablished following the Millennium Summit of theUnited Nations in 2000, following the adoption of theUnited Nations Millennium Declaration. All 193 UnitedNations member states and at least 23 internationalorganizations have agreed to achieve these goals by theyear 2015.
Millennium DevelopmentGoals• The goals are:• 1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,• 2. Achieving universal primary education,• 3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women,• 4. Reducing child mortality rates,• 5. Improving maternal health,• 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases,• 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability, and• 8. Developing a global partnership for development.
Millennium DevelopmentGoals• Each of the goals has specific stated targets and datesfor achieving those targets. To accelerate progress, theG8 Finance Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provideenough funds to the World Bank, the InternationalMonetary Fund (IMF), and the African DevelopmentBank (AfDB) to cancel an additional $40 to $55 billion indebt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted PoorCountries (HIPC) to allow impoverished countries tore-channel the resources saved from the forgiven debt tosocial programs for improving health and education andfor alleviating poverty.
Programs and Projects• Social– Social development has improved the access of Filipinos toquality basic social service delivery in education, training andculture; health and nutrition; population and development;housing; social protection; and asset reform.– The country is on track in pursuing the Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs) on poverty, gender and equality, child health,disease control and sanitation.– However, the country lags in achieving universal primaryeducation, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS.Moreover, large discrepancies across regions need to beaddressed by the social development sector in the next sixyears.
Programs and Projects• Social– Strategies1. attaining the MDGs;2. providing direct conditional cash transfers (CCT) to the poor;3. achieving universal coverage in health and basic education;4. adopting the community-driven development (CDD) approach;5. converging social protection programs for priority beneficiaries and targetareas;6. accelerating asset reform;7. mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction insocial development;
Programs and Projects8. mainstreaming gender and development;9. strengthening civil society-basic sector participation and public privatepartnership;10. adopting volunteerism; and11. developing and enhancing competence of the bureaucracy andinstitutions.
Programs and Projects• Economic– Growing output and employment are the preconditions forprogress in almost all social and economic aspects ofdevelopment. Productive employment and rising incomes for thevast majority over a long period can do more to combat povertydecisively than any direct assistance government can everprovide.
Programs and Projects• Economic− It is private actors – from the smallest self-employedentrepreneurs to the largest conglomerates – that createproductive jobs and incomes. Government’s responsibilityhowever – through fiscal and monetary policies – is to create anenvironment for vigorous economic activity, as well as to ensurethat enough gains from growth are set aside for larger socialpurposes or channeled into social investments that facilitatefuture growth. These objectives are achieved by governmentdecisions regarding the size and direction of public spending andtaxation (fiscal policy) and by decisions regarding the control ofthe nation’s money supply (monetary policy).
Budget Allocation for 2012Budget AllocationMillions of Pesos(PHP)Millions of US Dollars(USD)%Department of Education ₱238,800 $5,513.7 13.15Department of Public Worksand Highways126,400 2,918.5 6.96Department of NationalDefense108,100 2,496.0 5.95Department of Interior andLocal Government99,800 2,304.3 5.50Department of Agriculture 61,400 1,417.7 3.38Department of Social Welfareand Development48,800 1,126.8 2.69Department of Health 45,800 1,057.5 2.52Department of Transportationand Communications34,700 801.2 1.91State Universities andColleges25,800 595.7 1.42Department of Finance 23,600 544.9 1.30Department of Environmentand Natural Resources17,500 404.1 0.96
Programs and Projects• Governance– Good governance sets the normative standards of development.It fosters participation, ensures transparency, demandsaccountability, promotes efficiency, and upholds the rule of lawin economic, political and administrative institutions andprocesses. It is a hallmark of political maturity but also arequisite for growth and poverty reduction, for there areirreducible minimum levels of governance needed for large-scaleinvestment to occur and for social programs to be supported.
Programs and Projects• Governance– Four Strategies1. Ensure high-quality, efficient, transparent, accountable,financially and physically accessible and nondiscriminatorydelivery of public service;2. Curb both bureaucratic and political corruption;3. Strengthen the rule of law; and4. Enhance citizens’ access to information and participation ingovernance.
Its stellar economic performance and improved business efficiency pushed the Philippinesfive places up a zglobal competitiveness list this year. The Philippines moved to ranking38th of 59 countries in the 2013 World Competitiveness Yearbook (WCY) from being 43rdof 59 in the previous list.This makes the country the 11th most competitive among the Asia-Pacific countries in theWCY, edging out India and Indonesia. The Philippines posted improvements in three outof the reports four competitiveness measures namely economic performance,government efficiency, business efficiency and infrastructure. It showed the most progressin economic performance, where it jumped 11 places to 31st from 42nd.PH five places up in global competitiveness rankSource:| Kim Arveen PatriaYahoo! Southeast Asia Newsroom – May 30, 2013Ranks 38th
Programs and Projects• EnvironmentalThe degraded state of the country’s environment andnatural resources is felt most intensely by the poor,especially the rural communities given that theydepend on these resources for their primary source ofliving. On the other hand, poverty frequentlyaggravates environmental stress as the marginalizedpopulation presses upon limited resources, such asunregulated activities and upland cultivation.
Programs and Projects• Environmental– Strategic Framework1. Improved Conservation, Protection andRehabilitation of Natural Resources– Sustainably manage forests and watersheds– Improve protection and conservation of biodiversity– Enhance coastal and marine resources management– Improve land administration and management– Manage a more equitable utilization of mineralresources
Programs and Projects– Develop and implement environment-friendly enterpriseand livelihood opportunities.2. Improved Environmental Quality for a Cleanerand Healthier Environment− Reduce air pollution in Metro Manila and other majorurban centers− Reduce water pollution to improve water quality in priorityrivers and other economically and ecologically importantwater bodies− Reduce wastes generated and improve waste disposal− Establish a healthier and livable urban environment
Programs and Projects3. Enhanced Resilience of Natural Systemsand Improved Adaptive Capacities of HumanCommunities to Cope with EnvironmentalHazards Including Climate-Related Risks− Strengthen institutional capacities of national andlocal governments for CCA and DRRM− Enhance the resilience of natural systems− Improve adaptive capacities of communities
Referenceshttp://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/phl.htmlPhilippine Development Plan 2011-2016 Published by: NationalEconomic and Development AuthorityForeign Direct Investment and Human Development The evolutionof the concept of development: from economic growth tohuman development by Matthias Sant’ Ana Centre dePhilosophie du Droit (CPDR) – UCLouvain IAP VI/O6Democratic Governance and Theory of Collective Action