Mercantilism was more a policy than it was a theory for England. What is a policy? Mnemonic device hint: Mercantilism Have you ever heard someone say, sounds a lot like “Honesty is the best policy?” the word merchandise. Does that mean that we are 100% honest all the time, or that we should always say exactly what we think? More likely, we think that being honest is the general guideline for all of our practices.
So we see that England had set mercantilism policy in place. Nations have different kinds of policies. Sometimes we talk about economic policies, and sometimes we talk about foreign policies. What is good policy for a country may or may not be good policy for an individual. For instance, we may think a person is courageous to stand up to being hit without hitting back. However, a nation can’t afford to back away from an aggressor. Knowing how things work for us individually and as families will help us to understand England’s economic policy of mercantilism.
England and the colonists thought of England as being the “Mother” country. Like a mother in a family, she looked out for the welfare of the children (the colonies), but she also had great expectations of them.Unlike a good parent, though, England wanted everything to work out to the advantage of the Mother Country, rather than to the good of the colonies. Whereas a parent might want to make sacrifices for a child, the reverse was expected of the colonies.Another analogy might be a large corporation….
ANOTHER ANALOGY Think of a large corporation that has franchises available. Compare to England, and the franchise owners to the colonies. The franchise owners might make a good living, but they will not do as well as the corporation. Likewise, colonies did not do as well as England.
Just as the franchise owners have to follow certain rules set up by the corporation, the colonies would have to follow certain rules set up by England. Just as it is a good thing for the corporation for the franchises to do well, it was also a good thing for the colonies to do well. The ultimate goal for the corporation is for the corporation to do well, just as with England, it was the ultimate goal for England to do well.
MERCANTILISM Navigation Acts 1. The colonies could sell some goods (tobacco and cotton) only to England. Remember, we said that England wanted to get the raw materials to make other goods that they could sell. Selling goods creates wealth, and they thought that having the most gold and silver was the name of the game. 2. The ships they used could only be from England or the colonies. 3. Encourage ship building in the colonies.
NORTHAMERICA Triangular Trade ENGLAND Check out the web site below to understand AFRICA triangular trade! http://www.eduplace.com/ki ds/socsci/books/application s/imaps/maps/g5s_u3/inde x.html
The leg of the triangle going from Africa to the West Indies was called the Middle Passage. Most sources say that about 30 million to 60 million slaves were sent from Africa to the Indies, but only about 1/3 survived the trip. The following sited is hosted by a British college instructor who is interested in slavery and abolition in England and the colonies. He has several documents that you might find interesting: http://www.brycchancarey.com/index.htm
CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT IN ENGLANDINSPIRED COLONISTS. The Glorious Revolution led to an English Bill of Rights. Parliament removed King James II. They installed William and Mary of The Netherlands. William and Mary agreed to a bill of rights. (These were rights the government promised to protect.) Colonists expected to have the same rights. Right to trial by jury No army called up without Parliament’s consent No tax increase without Parliament’s consent
COLONIAL SOCIETY GENTRY-wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, lawyers, royal officials MIDDLE CLASS-small farmers, skilled craftsmen, tradespeople INDENTURED SERVANTS-contracted to work a number of yrs to pay off passage to America
WOMEN AND AFRICANS Women did far more than traditional “women’s work.” Some farmed and learned trades, especially in the backcountry, where everyone in the family pitched in. Africans brought many of their methods for farming and parts of their native language with them (Gullah is an example of this hybrid language in the Carolinas.*) Some slaves learned new skills and included African styles in their designs. *R. H. Brown is from that area, speaks the language, and has written a book about it.
GREAT AWAKENING A religious movement with emotion-packed preaching by ministers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield Many new churches split off from old ones More tolerance for different beliefs Result: The ability to shed old systems of religion to think and believe independently helped colonists to gain a sense of more democratic feelings
EDUCATION IN THE COLONIES New England-1st public schools in MA Middle Colonies-private schools Southern Colonies- Tutors Apprenticeships for pre-teen and teen boys to learn trades from the masters in their fields Dame schools for New England girls to learn etiquette and homemaking skills.
ENLIGHTENMENT Apply reason and scientific methods to the study of society. Ben Franklin was a good example of enlightenment spirit, because he wanted to use reasoning with his inventions and public service to make the world a better place.
GROWING CITIES Philadelphia Boston New York Charleston
TRIAL OF JOHN PETER ZENGER Criticized NY Governor in his newspaper Accused of libel Found not guilty Led to freedom of press as an accepted right