Where did they come from? http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist383/OriginalCal ifornians.html• Most scientists agree the Native Americans came across a land bridge from Asia during the last ice age a little over 12,000 years ago. (However, some more recently discovered artifacts have them questioning this theory.)
Early Cultures of N. America• Southwest- hot and dry – Hohokams - irrigation ditches – Anasazis -houses of adobe ( sun dried) brick http://clio.missouristate.edu/lburt/Resources121/AnasazIndians_1.htm
Culture Areas• Northwest Coast- Mild climate; potlatch ceremonial dinners with gift giving.Read here for more info: http://www.umista.org/masks_story/en/ht/potlatch01.html
Culture Areas• Southeast – Warm, moist climate great for fishing and farming; the Natchez were in this area
Culture Areas• Arctic – Groups like the Inuits hunted seals in the arctic waters. They used all of the seal, including the meat, skin, fat, and bone.
Culture Areas• Intermountain – Groups like the Utes lived in cold, dry conditions unsuitable for The original artwork was from 1869. farming. They gathered roots and hunted http://uwlib5.uwyo.edu/omeka/items /show/3230 mountain sheep.
Culture Areas• Great Plains-limited rainfall – The Cheyenne and other groups relied on the buffalo for basic needs.
What did they have in common?1. A deep respect for nature, including animals and the forces of nature…They believed that people must adapt to the natural world to maintain balance.
What did they have in common?2. Ceremonies at harvest – Some Pueblo groups had Kachinas, spirits believed to bring good harvests, represented by masked dancers at their harvest ceremonies.
League of the Iroquois allied Eastern Woodland groups• The Eastern Woodlands of NY were home to the Iroquois, the “People of the Long House.”
League of Iroquois• Led by 50 Iroquois sachems(tribal leaders)• An alliance of the 5 Iroquois nations to end fighting between them
Iroquois Women Owned the household property Planted and harvested the crops Chose clan leaders
• During the Middle Ages, the center of all trade was in the Arab world.
• Most Arab merchants practiced the religion of Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims.
• Muslims followed the teachings of Muhammad as they still do today. These teachings are found in the Qur’an.
• As they traded and made their annual pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, their religion spread, also.
• As Muslims traded with others in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia, they began the 1 global st age.
• The most famous trade route, although quite dangerous, was the Silk Road, which linked China with the Middle East.
• Initially, the Chinese were reluctant to trade with outsiders. It was an isolated empire.
• When a new emperor came to power in 1402, he sent Zheng He to Southeast Asia, Arabia, and Africa. Navigator Number of Number of Ships Crew Zheng He (1405-1433) 48 to 317 28,000 Columbus (1492) 3 90 De Gama (1498) 4 ca. 160 Magellan (1521) 5 265http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=10387
• Later emperors reverted to the closed door idea.
• In Africa the city- states in the East and the kingdoms of the West were the centers for trade. In between lay the great Sahara Desert.
• To the East was Zimbabwe, Kilwa, and Sofala. They spoke Swahili, and they were the ports that This picture taken in the 1880’s in East Africa would be an illegal activity today. exported African gold, ivory, and hardwood to India and China.
• To the West were the gold rich empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
• The most important city was Timbuktu. It was the seat of culture and education, and the home of the most famous West African ruler, Mansa Musa.
Jews and Christians• Both believed in one God, who determined their laws and moral behaviors.
• Early Jewish (Hebrew or Israelite) law began with the 10 Commandments.• Christians followed the teachings of Jesus, who they believed was the Messiah(Savior) promised to the Jews.
• During the time of the Roman Empire, Christians began sending missionaries throughout Europe to teach about Jesus.
Greeks and Romans• Greeks had practiced direct democracy, with ordinary citizens voting.• Romans began as republic, with citizens choosing representatives to govern them.
• Two things that helped the Roman Empire spread: Law- all were equal under the law Language-Latin connected people from diverse regions. It is the basis for Romance languages today. ROMANCE LANGUAGES: Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian
The Crusades and Trade• The “Holy Wars” between Christians and Muslims lasted about 200 years, from 1100 to 1300.
• European Christians gathered new ideas, new goods, and new technologies that they wanted to have back home.
During the Renaissance• Gutenberg invented the printing press. More people had the opportunity to read.
• European rulers developed powerful monarchies, but couldn’t control Muslim and Italian merchants of the Mediterranean area. They sought new trade routes to Africa and Asia.
The Portuguese• Prince Henry developed new ships and navigation schools.• Bartholomeu Dias reached the tip of Africa.• Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at Africa and across the Indian Ocean to India.