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The 1 st  Civilizations of the Americas Chapter 2.1
Most Common View <ul><li>Hunters crossed a  land bridge from Asia to America  near the end of the last Ice Age. </li></ul>
Important Civilizations Developed in the Americas <ul><li>Olmecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest known </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Mayas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rain forests of Guatemala and Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Mexico@Lake Texcoco; capital-Tenochtitlan </li></ul...
Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Incas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W. Coast of S. America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built huge...
Native American Cultures Chapter 2.2
Early Cultures of N. America <ul><li>Southwest- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hohokams dug irrigation ditches for farming the dese...
Culture Areas <ul><li>Northwest- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Families held  potlatch  ceremonial dinners to show off their wealt...
Culture Areas <ul><li>Southeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist climate great for fishing and farming; the Natchez were ...
Culture Areas <ul><li>Arctic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups like the Inuits hunted seals in the arctic waters. They used al...
Culture Areas <ul><li>Intermountain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups like the  Utes  lived in cold, dry conditions unsuitable ...
Culture Areas <ul><li>Great Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cheyennes and other groups relied on the buffalo for basic ne...
What did they have in common? <ul><li>A deep respect for nature, including animals and the forces of nature…They believed ...
In common…cont. <ul><li>Ceremonies @harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pueblo groups had  Kachinas,  spirits believed to br...
Iroquois Confederacy <ul><li>The Eastern Woodlands of NY were home to the Iroquois, the “People of the Long House.” </li><...
Iroquois Women <ul><li>Owned the household property </li></ul><ul><li>Planted and harvested the crops </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
League of Iroquois <ul><li>Led by 50 Iroquois  sachems (tribal leaders) </li></ul><ul><li>An alliance of the 5 Iroquois na...
Trade Networks of Africa and Asia Chapter 2.3
<ul><li>During the Middle Ages, the center of all trade was in the Arab world.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Most Arab merchants practiced the religion of Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Muslims followed the teachings of Muhammad as they still do today. These teachings are found in the  Quran .  </li...
<ul><li>As they traded and made their annual pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, their religion spread, also. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As Muslims traded with others in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, they began the 1 st  global age. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The most famous trade route, although quite dangerous, was the Silk Road, which linked China with the Middle East....
<ul><li>Initially, the Chinese were reluctant to trade with outsiders. It was an isolated empire. </li></ul>
<ul><li>When the new emperor  Zheng He  came to power in 1402, he sent traders to Southeast Asia, Arabia, and Africa. </li...
<ul><li>Later emperors reverted to the closed door idea. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In Africa the city-states in the East and the kingdoms of the West were the centers for trade. In between lay the ...
<ul><li>To the East was Zimbabwe, Kilwa, and Sofala. They spoke Swahili, and they were the ports that exported African gol...
<ul><li>To the West were the gold rich empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>The most important city was Timbuktu. It was the seat of culture and education, and the home of the most famous We...
Tradition and Change in Europe Chapter 2.4
Jews and Christians <ul><li>Both believed in one God, who determined their laws and moral behaviors. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Early Jewish (Hebrew or Israelite) law began with the 10 Commandments. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Christians followed the teachings of Jesus, who they believed was the Messiah(Savior) promised to the Jews. </li><...
<ul><li>During the time of the Roman Empire, Christians began sending  missionaries  throughout Europe to teach about Jesu...
Greeks and Romans <ul><li>Greeks practiced  direct democracy , with ordinary citizens voting. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Romans began as  republic , with citizens choosing representatives to govern them. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Two things that helped the Roman Empire spread: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law - all were equal under the law </li></ul...
The Crusades and Trade <ul><li>The “Holy Wars” between Christians and Muslims lasted about 200 years, from 1100 to 1300. <...
<ul><li>European Christians gathered new ideas, new goods, and new technologies that they wanted to have back home.   </li...
During the Renaissance <ul><li>Gutenberg invented the printing press. More people had the opportunity to read. </li></ul>
<ul><li>European rulers developed powerful monarchies, but couldn’t control Muslim and Italian merchants of the Mediterran...
<ul><li>They sought new trade routes to Africa and Asia. </li></ul>
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  1. 1. The 1 st Civilizations of the Americas Chapter 2.1
  2. 2. Most Common View <ul><li>Hunters crossed a land bridge from Asia to America near the end of the last Ice Age. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Important Civilizations Developed in the Americas <ul><li>Olmecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived along the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved huge stone heads </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Mayas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rain forests of Guatemala and Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed concept of Zero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests & nobles at the top of society; laborers & farmers at the bottom </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Mexico@Lake Texcoco; capital-Tenochtitlan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed causeways and chinampas (floating gardens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society: Emperor, Priests & nobles, warriors, merchants & artisans, farmers, slaves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Imp. Civilizations, cont. <ul><li>Incas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W. Coast of S. America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built huge system of roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept numerical gov’t and trade records w/ a quipu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought of emperor as a god </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Native American Cultures Chapter 2.2
  8. 8. Early Cultures of N. America <ul><li>Southwest- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hohokams dug irrigation ditches for farming the desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anasazis built large houses of adobe ( sun dried) brick </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Culture Areas <ul><li>Northwest- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Families held potlatch ceremonial dinners to show off their wealth. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Culture Areas <ul><li>Southeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist climate great for fishing and farming; the Natchez were in this area </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Culture Areas <ul><li>Arctic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups like the Inuits hunted seals in the arctic waters. They used all of the seal, including the meat, skin, fat, and bone. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Culture Areas <ul><li>Intermountain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups like the Utes lived in cold, dry conditions unsuitable for farming. They gathered roots and hunted mountain sheep. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Culture Areas <ul><li>Great Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cheyennes and other groups relied on the buffalo for basic needs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What did they have in common? <ul><li>A deep respect for nature, including animals and the forces of nature…They believed that people must adapt to the natural world to maintain balance. </li></ul>
  15. 15. In common…cont. <ul><li>Ceremonies @harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pueblo groups had Kachinas, spirits believed to bring good harvests, represented by masked dancers @ their harvest ceremonies. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Iroquois Confederacy <ul><li>The Eastern Woodlands of NY were home to the Iroquois, the “People of the Long House.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Iroquois Women <ul><li>Owned the household property </li></ul><ul><li>Planted and harvested the crops </li></ul><ul><li>Chose clan leaders </li></ul>
  18. 18. League of Iroquois <ul><li>Led by 50 Iroquois sachems (tribal leaders) </li></ul><ul><li>An alliance of the 5 Iroquois nations to end fighting between them </li></ul>
  19. 19. Trade Networks of Africa and Asia Chapter 2.3
  20. 20. <ul><li>During the Middle Ages, the center of all trade was in the Arab world. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Most Arab merchants practiced the religion of Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Muslims followed the teachings of Muhammad as they still do today. These teachings are found in the Quran . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>As they traded and made their annual pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, their religion spread, also. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>As Muslims traded with others in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, they began the 1 st global age. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The most famous trade route, although quite dangerous, was the Silk Road, which linked China with the Middle East. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Initially, the Chinese were reluctant to trade with outsiders. It was an isolated empire. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>When the new emperor Zheng He came to power in 1402, he sent traders to Southeast Asia, Arabia, and Africa. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Later emperors reverted to the closed door idea. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>In Africa the city-states in the East and the kingdoms of the West were the centers for trade. In between lay the great Sahara Desert. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>To the East was Zimbabwe, Kilwa, and Sofala. They spoke Swahili, and they were the ports that exported African gold, ivory, and hardwood to India and China. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>To the West were the gold rich empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The most important city was Timbuktu. It was the seat of culture and education, and the home of the most famous West African ruler, Mansa Musa. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Tradition and Change in Europe Chapter 2.4
  34. 34. Jews and Christians <ul><li>Both believed in one God, who determined their laws and moral behaviors. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Early Jewish (Hebrew or Israelite) law began with the 10 Commandments. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Christians followed the teachings of Jesus, who they believed was the Messiah(Savior) promised to the Jews. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>During the time of the Roman Empire, Christians began sending missionaries throughout Europe to teach about Jesus. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Greeks and Romans <ul><li>Greeks practiced direct democracy , with ordinary citizens voting. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Romans began as republic , with citizens choosing representatives to govern them. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Two things that helped the Roman Empire spread: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law - all were equal under the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language -Latin connected people from diverse regions. It is the basis for Romance languages today. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Crusades and Trade <ul><li>The “Holy Wars” between Christians and Muslims lasted about 200 years, from 1100 to 1300. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>European Christians gathered new ideas, new goods, and new technologies that they wanted to have back home. </li></ul>
  43. 43. During the Renaissance <ul><li>Gutenberg invented the printing press. More people had the opportunity to read. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>European rulers developed powerful monarchies, but couldn’t control Muslim and Italian merchants of the Mediterranean area. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>They sought new trade routes to Africa and Asia. </li></ul>

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