World History Ch. 10 Section 3 Notes


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World History Ch. 10 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. African Kingdoms Section 3 The Kingdoms of West Africa Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Empire of Ghana • Mali Empire • Map: West African Kingdoms • Faces of History: Mansa Musa
  2. 2. African Kingdoms Section 3 The Kingdoms of West Africa Preview, continued • Empire of Songhai • Quick Facts: Trading Empires of West Africa • Other West African States • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the Salt Trade
  3. 3. African Kingdoms Section 3 The Kingdoms of West Africa Main Idea The expansion of trade across the Sahara led to the development of great empires and other states in West Africa. Reading Focus • How did trade contribute to the rise of Ghana? • How did strong rulers build the empire of Mali? • What were the greatest achievements of the Songhai Empire? • What other societies arose in West Africa?
  4. 4. Section 3 African Kingdoms Empire of Ghana 1. Trade was vital to the societies of West Africa. That region produced valuable resources—notably gold—that brought high prices. By the 800s, rulers of Ghana had used the wealth from these products to create a huge, powerful empire. The Rise of Ghana • Ghana had many resources, but location delayed development as trading empire • Had no easy access to sea • Sahara desert blocked overland trade routes Desert Travel Goods for Gold • First few centuries AD, North African traders learned how to cross Sahara • Once traders began crossing Sahara, Ghana became key player in African trade • Traveled in large caravans with camels • Berber traders traded food, hard goods, copper, salt for gold • Camels did not need much water, could survive trip across harsh desert • Ghana traded salt to people in south, where salt scarce
  5. 5. Section 3 African Kingdoms A Trading Empire Control • 800 AD, Ghana controlled nearly all trade of salt, gold in sub-Saharan Africa • Capital, Koumbi-Saleh, located between Ghana’s gold mines, desert trade routes, was preferred trading place Salt Taxes • Ghana’s kings built great wealth taxing goods brought to empire’s markets • Majority of taxes charged on salt: charged fee for each load of salt brought into Ghana from north, larger fee for each load exported to south Gold Supply Scarce • Gold not taxed the same; taxes might discourage traders from buying gold • To keep gold prices high, kings ruled only they could own large gold nuggets • Others could only own gold dust; kept location of gold mines secret • This kept supply of gold scarce; kept market from being flooded
  6. 6. Section 3 African Kingdoms Kings of Ghana Money from trade, taxes allowed kings to live lavish lifestyle • Luxury surrounding kings described by Muslim writer who visited Ghana: – “He sits in a pavilion around which stand ten pages holding shields and gold-mounted swords: and on his right hand are the sons of the princes of the empire, splendidly clad and with gold plaited into their hair.” • Ghana’s kings also used wealth to build up huge army when needed – Used army to conquer other peoples in area – Captured people sold as slaves to Muslim traders
  7. 7. Section 3 African Kingdoms Ghana’s Decline Attempts at Expansion Results of Conflict • Mid-1000s, Ghana’s empire rich and powerful • Almoravids controlled capital temporarily • King tried to expand to north into lands controlled by Almoravids, a Muslim Berber kingdom • Ghana’s empire was weakened • Attempt led to long war • In 1076, Almoravids captured Koumbi-Saleh, Ghana’s capital • King unable to deal with rebellion in part of empire • Soon Ghana fell into decline; new empire took its place
  8. 8. Section 3 African Kingdoms Summarize How did the kings of Ghana become wealthy? Answer(s): by taxing salt and gold, by controlling the price of gold
  9. 9. Section 3 African Kingdoms Mali Empire 2. After Ghana’s decline, no one kingdom controlled trans-Saharan trade. In the 1230s, the empire of Mali rose to power on the same territory. Mali expanded to the Atlantic Ocean and became a wealthy and sophisticated empire. Rise of Mali Sundiata • Founders of Mali, Malinke had been active in Ghana’s gold trade • Leader of Mali’s rise to power, king named Sundiata • 1230, grew frustrated with policies of neighboring peoples, rose up to conquer them; became leading power in West Africa • After conquest, Sundiata ruled 25 years • Story of reign, accomplishments told in epic, also called Sundiata Mali reached its height in the 1300s under the reign of a mansa, or king, named Musa.
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  11. 11. Section 3 African Kingdoms Mansa Musa A relative of Sundiata, Mansa Musa came to power in 1307. During his reign, Mali’s territory expanded and its population grew. Growing Wealth • During Musa’s reign, Mali grew wealthier than ever Islam in Mali • Mansa Musa devout Muslim • Much wealth came from taxation of gold-salt trade • Introduced into West Africa by Muslim traders in Ghana, Islam did not take hold initially • Mali kept order along Saharan trade routes by using large army • In Mali, Islam became powerful influence, especially among ruling class • Army also kept life in Mali relatively peaceful • 1324, Musa set out on hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca
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  13. 13. Section 3 African Kingdoms Pilgrimage to Mecca • Musa and entourage impressed people with their lavish clothing, generous gifts • Trip to Mecca led to great changes in Mali • Returning to kingdom, Musa brought artists, architects who designed beautiful mosques; also built schools, libraries where people could study Qu’ran, other Islamic writings Effects Outside Africa • Musa’s hajj brought Mali to attention of Europe • Mali began to appear on European maps for first time • Within a century, Europeans began to search West Africa for source of Mali’s riches Decline of Mali • Rulers following Musa not as strong • Several peoples broke away, set up independent kingdoms • Mali also invaded from outside • Among invaders, Tuareg • 1433, captured Timbuktu, a blow from which Mali never recovered
  14. 14. Section 3 African Kingdoms Analyze What effects did Mansa Musa’s travels have in Mali and Europe? Answer(s): brought Mali to the attention of Europeans, who would later travel to West Africa in search of Mali's riches; made Timbuktu a center of learning
  15. 15. Section 3 African Kingdoms Empire of Songhai 3. Songhai • Songhai existed as small kingdom for centuries, paid tribute to Ghana, Mali • Grew wealthy trading goods along Niger River • Came in contact with Muslim traders; Islam became influence on culture Rise of Songhai • 1460s, rulers had become strong, rich enough to take control of former empire of Mali • Songhai’s rise under leadership of military leader, sunni, named Sunni Ali Military Leadership • • • • Ali’s first act as leader: took Timbuktu from the Tuareg Led number of campaigns against neighboring peoples to build empire Military success came from army of skilled cavalry, navy of war canoes Conquered new territories, replaced local leaders with Ali’s own followers
  16. 16. African Kingdoms Section 3 Askia Muhammad • Songhai’s culture reached height under Askia Muhammad • Reign considered to be golden age • During 35 years he ruled, Askia Muhammad expanded Songhai, strengthened its government Pilgrimage • Askia Muhammad, Songhai’s first Muslim ruler • Islam had been introduced earlier; Sunni Ali never became Muslim • To show commitment, Askia Muhammad decided to make pilgrimage to Mecca • Traveled through Egypt, gained support of Muslim rulers
  17. 17. Section 3 African Kingdoms Results of Pilgrimage Trade Resumed • During pilgrimage, Askia Muhammad made contact with traders from North Africa • Trans-Saharan trade that had slowed after fall of Mali resumed once again • Increased commerce made Songhai very wealthy kingdom • Askia Muhammad used wealth to once again make Timbuktu center of culture, Islamic scholarship Control, Decline • To secure control of trade, Askia Muhammad extended Songhai’s borders north into desert, home of the Tuareg • Did not want raiders to interfere with traveling merchants • Reformed government, built offices in capital city of Gao to oversee trade, agriculture, military • Eventually overthrown by son • By 1591 empire conquered by Morocco
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  19. 19. Section 3 African Kingdoms Describe What kind of government did Askia Muhammad create in Songhai? Answer(s): strengthened the government, appointed an official to rule the western part of the empire
  20. 20. African Kingdoms Section 3 Other West African States Hausa City-States • East of Songhai lived people called the Hausa • Hausa society, based on independent city-states, gained regional power • Each city-state included a group of villages surrounded by wooden walls, extensive fields Never United as Empire • City-states never united into empire, but traded, cooperated with each other • Economy based on farming, manufacturing, trade • Much farm labor performed by enslaved people Enslaved Peoples, Artisans • • • • Slaves used to build cities; enslaved became one of Hausa’s chief exports Other important exports included cloth, leather goods Hausa known as skilled weavers, dyers Cotton cloth dyed dark blue in high demand throughout much of West Africa
  21. 21. Section 3 African Kingdoms Yoruba Kingdoms Yoruba • Another complex society developed to south of Songhai among Yoruba • Yoruba several peoples who lived in same area, spoke related languages • Over time Yoruba established number of strong kingdoms • Most powerful were Ife, Oyo Artistic Skills • People of Yoruba kingdoms widely admired for artistic skills • Yoruba artists produced realistic sculptures out of terracotta, bronze, brass, copper; many depict Yoruba leaders, or onis • Materials for statues imported from Sahara traders, who also brought salt to region; in return, Yoruba sent food, ivory north
  22. 22. Section 3 African Kingdoms Kingdom of Benin • • • • • • Southwest of Yoruba kingdoms, powerful kingdom of Benin Located deep in forests of Niger delta; powerful state by the 1000s At heart of kingdom, capital of Benin Huge city, several miles across, featuring large houses, wide streets Mid-1400s, ambitious oba, or ruler, Ewuare came to power in Benin Built powerful army, went to war Trade with Portuguese Benin Art • By Ewuare’s death, Benin stretched from Niger west into central Nigeria • Late 1400s, Portuguese sailors arrived in Benin • Benin sold war captives as slaves • Like Yoruba, people of Benin known for arts • Statues of bronze, brass, copper created to honor notable leaders • Copper plaques displayed in cities • Continued to trade pepper, ivory, cotton for gold from Portuguese • Brought home by Portuguese, this art became popular in Europe
  23. 23. Section 3 African Kingdoms Identify What was one result of contact between Benin and Portugal? Answer(s): Trade between Benin and Portugal began.
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  27. 27. Section 3 African Kingdoms Video The Impact of the Salt Trade Click above to play the video.