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Fringe Accessibility: Booster 2016

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Slides from my workshop on accessibility at Booster Conference 2016 in Bergen, Norway. 23 different techniques for fun and awesomeness.

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Fringe Accessibility: Booster 2016

  1. 1. Fringe Accessibility Techniques (That Probably Shouldn’t Be) Presented by Adrian Roselli for Booster Conference 2016 #booster2016 Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/Booster
  2. 2. What We’ll Cover • Intro • The (not really) Fringe • Key Takeaways Work with me, people.
  3. 3. Intro 1 of 3 sections.
  4. 4. About Adrian Roselli • Co-written four books. • Technical editor for two books. • Written over fifty articles, most recently for .net Magazine and Web Standards Sherpa. • You might know me from the food lines downstairs. Great bedtime reading!
  5. 5. About Adrian Roselli • Member of W3C HTML Working Group*, W3C Accessibility Task Force, five W3C Community Groups. • Building for the web since 1994. • Business owner / founder, ~20 years. • Now independent / unemployed. • Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com. • Avoid on Twitter @aardrian. I warned you.
  6. 6. What is a11y? • A numeronym for “accessibility”: • The first and last letter, • The number of characters omitted. • Prominent on Twitter (character restrictions): • #a11y • Examples: • l10n → localization • i18n → internationalization Ain’t language funsies?
  7. 7. Accessibility Gets No Respect In fairness, Sherwin Williams needs to come up with a lot of color names... “Cyberspace” (gray) “Online” (blue) “Lime Rickey” (green)
  8. 8. Accessibility Gets No Respect …however I think the team could have done better than this.
  9. 9. Any Disability • In the United States: • 10.4% aged 21-64 years old, • 25% aged 65-74 years old, • 50% aged 75+. • Includes: • Visual • Hearing • Mobility • Cognitive http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  10. 10. Vision Impairments • 285 million worldwide: • 39 million are blind, • 246 million have low vision, • 82% of people living with blindness are aged 50 and above. • 1.8% of Americans aged 21-64. • 4.0% of Americans aged 65-74. • 9.8% of Americans aged 75+. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  11. 11. Hearing Impairments • 360 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss. • 17% (36 million) of American adults report some degree of hearing loss: • 18% aged 45-64 years old, • 30% aged 65-74 years old, • 47% aged 75+ years old. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/ https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/Pages/quick.aspx
  12. 12. Mobility Impairments • In the United States: • 5.5% aged 21-64 years old. • 15.6% aged 65-74 years old. • 32.9% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012
  13. 13. Cognitive Impairments • Dyslexia, • Dyscalculia, • Memory issues, • Distractions (ADD, ADHD), • In the United States: • 4.3% aged 21-64 years old. • 5.4% aged 65-74 years old. • 14.4% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML
  14. 14. The (not really) Fringe 2 of 3 sections.
  15. 15. Use @alt Text on Images
  16. 16. Use @alt Text on Images
  17. 17. Use @alt Text on Images • Can you still make sense of the page? • Is content missing? • Can you still use the site? • Is your alt text useful? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  18. 18. Use @alt Text on Images http://www.4syllables.com.au/2010/12/text-alternatives-decision-tree/ http://dev.w3.org/html5/alt-techniques/#tree 1. What role does image play? 2. Does it present new info? 3. What type of info? Informative Yes alt="" or <a href="foo"><img alt="">Link</a> alt="" or Use CSS alt="descriptive identification" or alt="short label" + caption PurelyDecorative Sensory No alt="label for link" alt=“short alternative" or alt="short label" + caption alt="short label + location of long alternative" or long text alternative on same or linked page Long/Complex Short/Simple
  19. 19. Use On-Page Descriptions http://adrianroselli.com/2014/04/we-need-to-raise-stink-about-net.html
  20. 20. Use On-Page Descriptions • Not just for longdesc or aria-describedat, but any long description technique, • Use an in-page anchor, • Don’t link to another page without reason: • Consider burden of loading a new page, • Consider burden of re-loading original page. • Based on results of latest WebAIM screen reader survey results. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-on-page-image-descriptions.html
  21. 21. Hyperlinks! http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  22. 22. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  23. 23. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  24. 24. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  25. 25. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  26. 26. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  27. 27. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  28. 28. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  29. 29. Hyperlinks! • Is there any “click here,” “more,” “link to…”? • Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? • Do you warn before opening new windows? • Do links to downloads provide helpful info? • Are you using pagination links? • Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? • Is there alt text for image links? • Is the link text consistent? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/
  30. 30. Use Link Underlines http://www.theverge.com/2014/3/13/5503894/google-removes-underlined-links-site-redesign
  31. 31. Use Link Underlines • You are not Google: • Users know Google’s layout, • Users probably don’t visit your site daily. • Relying on color alone will not suffice (WCAG 1.4.1 [A], 1.4.3 [AA]), • Necessary contrast values: • 4.5:1 between text and its background for copy, • 3:1 between text and its background for larger text, • 3:1 between surrounding text and a hyperlink, plus an additional visual cue (G183). http://adrianroselli.com/2014/03/i-dont-care-what-google-did-just-keep.html
  32. 32. Use :focus Styles https://www.virginamerica.com/
  33. 33. Use :focus Styles • Particularly if you removed link underlines, • Everywhere you have :hover, add :focus, • Look for :focus{outline:none;} in libraries: • If you find it, remove it. • Easy to test with the tab key. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/06/keep-focus-outline.html
  34. 34. Tritanopia Color Contrast
  35. 35. Protanopia Color Contrast
  36. 36. Deuteranopia Color Contrast
  37. 37. Color Contrast • Is there enough contrast? • Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible? • WCAG 2.0: • 4.5:1 for normal text • 3:1 for large text (14+pt & bold, or 18+pt) • Tools: • Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer • Lea Verou’s Contrast Ratio • WebAIM Color Contrast Checker • CheckMyColours.com http://www.inpixelitrust.fr/blog/en/tips-create-accessible-color-palette/ http://alistapart.com/blog/post/easy-color-contrast-testing
  38. 38. Use <label> (properly)
  39. 39. Use <label> (properly) • Match the for attribute to the field’s id attribute. • When you click label text next to a text box, does the cursor appear in the field? • When you click label text next to a radio / checkbox, does it get toggled? • When you click label text next to a select menu, does it get focus? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/
  40. 40. Use HTML5
  41. 41. Use HTML5 <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main">
  42. 42. Use HTML5 “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  43. 43. Use HTML5 <header role="banner"> <nav role="navigation"> <aside role="complementary"> <form role="search"> <footer role="contentinfo"> <main role="main"> “Mobile” often means narrow screen in RWD, as well as this context.
  44. 44. Use HTML5 • Sectioning elements already have accessibility built in. Use them. • <header> • <nav> • <main> (one per page) • <aside> • <footer> • <form> (a search form) This stuff is baked in!
  45. 45. Use Only One <main> per Page Modified version of Hixie’s image at https://github.com/whatwg/html/issues/100#issuecomment-138620240
  46. 46. Use Only One <main> per Page • <main> maps directly to role="main", • AT users expect one main content block, may miss subsequent <main>s, • AT doesn’t expose that are multiples, • Can erode trust in landmark navigation. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/use-only-one-main-on-a-page.html
  47. 47. Use <h#> Wisely
  48. 48. Use <h#> Wisely • Use only one <h1> per page, • Don’t skip heading levels, • Use appropriate nesting, • There is no Document Outline Algorithm: • Don’t use <h1> within every new <section> nor <article>, • This will not affect your SEO. http://adrianroselli.com/2013/12/the-truth-about-truth-about-multiple-h1.html
  49. 49. <button>, <input>, or <a> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  50. 50. <button>, <input>, or <a> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  51. 51. <button>, <input>, or <a> • Don’t use a <div> nor <span>. • Does the control take me to another page? • Use an <a href> . • Note: does not fire on space-bar. • Does the control change something on the current page? • Use a <button>. • Does the control submit form fields? • Use a <input type="submit"> or <button type="submit">. http://adrianroselli.com/2016/01/links-buttons-submits-and-divs-oh-hell.html
  52. 52. Don’t Use tabindex > 0 https://www.digitalgov.gov/2014/11/17/user-experience-impossible-the-line-between-accessibility-and-usability/
  53. 53. Don’t Use tabindex > 0 • tabindex="-1" • Use to set focus with script, • Does not put it in tab order of page. • tabindex="0" • Allows user to set focus (eg: via keyboard), • Puts in tab order of page (based on DOM). • tabindex="1" (or greater) • Do not do this, • Messes with natural tab order. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/11/dont-use-tabindex-greater-than-0.html
  54. 54. Maybe Use tabindex = 0 http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  55. 55. Maybe Use tabindex = 0 • Do you have scrolling content boxes? • Keyboard users cannot access it. • Do you have content that displays on hover? • Keyboard users probably cannot access it. • A technique: • <div role="region" aria-label="[if appropriate]" tabindex="0"> http://adrianroselli.com/2016/02/keyboard-and-overflow.html
  56. 56. Set lang attribute on <html> http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
  57. 57. Set lang attribute on <html> http://codepen.io/aardrian/pen/rOGYNL
  58. 58. Set lang attribute on <html> • VoiceOver uses to auto-switch voices, • VoiceOver uses appropriate accenting, • JAWS loads correct phonetic engine / phonologic dictionary, • NVDA matches VoiceOver and JAWS, • Use the correct lang value: • Sub-tags are ok, • Avoid private-use: en-GB-x-hixie http://adrianroselli.com/2015/01/on-use-of-lang-attribute.html
  59. 59. Source Order Matters http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/MavVeb/ Firefox Chrome
  60. 60. Source Order Matters • CSS techniques allow visual order to break from DOM order: • Floats, • Absolute positioning, • Flexbox (see 5.4.1 of ED for a11y note), • Grid (read Rachel Andrew on subgrid). • WCAG 1.3.2 and 2.4.3 describe meaningful sequence and tab order matching visual flow, • Different behavior among different browsers. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/09/source-order-matters.html http://200ok.nl/a11y-flexbox/
  61. 61. Don’t Disable Zoom http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/dYNJOV http://codepen.io/aardrian/full/ojBpjw
  62. 62. Don’t Disable Zoom • Allow users on mobile to zoom in, • Look in <meta name="viewport"> for this: • minimum-scale=1.0 • maximum-scale=1.0 • user-scalable=no • Look in @-ms-viewport {} for this: • zoom:1.0 • Enhance! • (Google AMP HTML is getting fixed) http://adrianroselli.com/2015/10/dont-disable-zoom.html
  63. 63. Avoid Infinite Scroll http://www.pewresearch.org/category/publications/
  64. 64. Avoid Infinite Scroll • Makes it impossible to access some content: • Footer, • Sidebar links. • Destroys the back button, • Makes it impossible to share a URL to specific “page” of results, • Makes it impossible to jump ahead several “pages” of results, • Can overwhelm AT users, less powerful devices. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/05/so-you-think-you-built-good-infinite.html http://adrianroselli.com/2015/05/for-infinite-scroll-bounce-rate-is.html
  65. 65. Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia http://opendyslexic.org/try-it/
  66. 66. Reconsider Typefaces for Dyslexia • Use good typography rules: • Avoid justified text, • Use generous line spacing / leading, • Use generous letter spacing, • Avoid italics, • Generally use sans serif faces, • Use larger text, • Use good contrast, • Use clear, concise writing. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/03/typefaces-for-dyslexia.html
  67. 67. Test in Windows High Contrast Mode
  68. 68. Test in Windows High Contrast Mode • It removes CSS background images, • Colors defined in your CSS are overridden, • To activate: • Left ALT + left SHIFT + PRINT SCREEN • Media queries: • -ms-high-contrast: active • -ms-high-contrast: black-on-white • -ms-high-contrast: white-on-black http://adrianroselli.com/2012/08/css-background-images-high-contrast-mode.html
  69. 69. Use Captions/Subtitles https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V592VMJeXc8
  70. 70. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCqN_cCLnnk Use Captions/Subtitles
  71. 71. Use Captions/Subtitles • Everybody uses them: • Working in public, in bed, at home, • Surfing in public, in bed, at work. • Should include audio descriptions, • Should include speaker identification, • Review auto-captions (“craptions”): • NoMoreCraptions.com http://adrianroselli.com/2013/11/captions-in-everyday-use.html
  72. 72. Use Captions/Subtitles • Do video/audio clips have text alternatives? • Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built into the player or separate text links? • Is there an audio description available? • Tools: • Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial, Vimeo captioning tutorial, • Tiffany Brown’s WebVTT tutorial, • DIY Resources for Closed Captioning and Transcription from 3 Play Media. http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/
  73. 73. Don’t Tweet Pictures of Text https://twitter.com/jmspool/status/546303256990076929 https://twitter.com/lukew/status/541986091960528896 https://twitter.com/altonbrown/status/653030164985708544
  74. 74. Don’t Tweet Pictures of Text • Twitter has no provision for alt text, • Make your own: • Reply to own tweet with alt text, • Link to a tweet and provide alt text, • Link to long-form alternative text. • @alt_text_bot as interesting experiment: • By Cameron Cundiff for NYU ABILITY hackathon, • Uses CloudSight API. http://adrianroselli.com/2014/12/dont-tweet-pictures-of-text.html http://adrianroselli.com/2015/04/twitter-accidentally-takes-step-toward.html http://adrianroselli.com/2015/04/alt-text-bot-image-descriptions-ftw.html
  75. 75. Share a11y Experiences http://blog.podio.com/2015/07/08/hard-truths-helped-us-start-improving-podio-experience-visually-impaired/ https://medium.com/medium-eng/five-goofy-things-medium-did-that-break-accessibility-3bc804ae818d
  76. 76. Share a11y Experiences • We’re all trying to do what we can, • Don’t attack someone who doesn’t know what they don’t know, • Someone may find something you never considered, • You may get feedback on something you never considered, • a11ywins.tumblr.com FTW: • Thanks to Marcy Sutton. http://adrianroselli.com/2015/07/lets-share-more-accessibility-experiences.html
  77. 77. Tweak User Stories & Personas • Components: • User, • Outcome, • Value. • Writing: • As user, I want outcome. • As user, I want outcome so that value. • In order to get value as user, I want outcome. How to Write User Stories for Web Accessibility
  78. 78. Tweak User Stories & Personas • As a user on a sun-lit patio, I want to be able to read the content and see the controls. Add beer and as a user I may have trouble focusing.
  79. 79. Tweak User Stories & Personas • As a user in bed with a sleeping spouse, I want to watch a training video in silence so that I can get caught up at work. As a user who doesn’t want to get punched for having slacked off at work.
  80. 80. Tweak User Stories & Personas • In order to click links as a user with no elbow room in coach class with a tiny trackpad, I want click areas to be large enough and adequately spaced. As a user in coach class who also paid too much for the drink he’s spilling on his keyboard.
  81. 81. Tweak User Stories & Personas • As a user distracted by the TV, I want clear headings and labels so that I don’t lose my place. As a user who really should be finishing his work in the office.
  82. 82. Tweak User Stories & Personas Adrian • Works when he should be relaxing, relaxes when he should be working. • Lives between motorcycles. • Works late at night with the TV on. • Uses sub-titles in Netflix. • Keeps all screens as dark as possible. That photo is from official ID.
  83. 83. Key Takeaways 3 of 3 sections.
  84. 84. Stairamp Dean Bouchard on Flickrhttp://incl.ca/the-problems-with-ramps-blended-into-stairs/
  85. 85. ≠ Checklist • Accessibility is not a checklist. No matter how pretty that checklist looks nor how many items you get to check.
  86. 86. Snowtreeramp Nicolas Steenhouthttps://twitter.com/vavroom/status/571092086365261824 “Wheelchair ramp at pharmacy not only hasn’t been cleared of snow but has 2 potted trees to ensure nobody can pass.”
  87. 87. = Process • Accessibility is not a checklist. • Accessibility is an ongoing process. You know, kinda like all software.
  88. 88. Presented by Adrian Roselli for Booster Conference 2016 My thanks and apologies. Slides from this talk will be available at rosel.li/Booster Fringe Accessibility Techniques (That Probably Shouldn’t Be)

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