Threats to Biodiversity


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Threats to Biodiversity

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Threats to Biodiversity

  1. 1. AND THREATS TO IT…. Vivek Kumar, St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering and Technology, Nagpur
  2. 2. Contents *Introduction *Threats to biodiversity *Habitat loss *Poaching *Man-wildlife conflicts *Importance of biodiversity *Questions
  3. 3. Biodiversity and threats to it Biodiversity and threats to it
  4. 4. Biodiversity:- Biodiversity is that part of nature which includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a species. The variety and richness of all the plants and animals species at different scales in space-locally, in a region, in the country and the world. And the type of ecosystem, both terrestrial and aquatic within a defined area.
  5. 5. Biodiversity can be observed at three levels 1)Genetic diversity:- each member of any animal or plants species differs widely from other individual in its genetic makeup. 2)Species diversity :- number of species of plants and animals that are present in a region constitutes its species diversity. 3) Ecosystem diversity :- there r large variety of different ecosystems on earth. Each having their own complement of distinctive interlinked species based on the differences in the habitat.
  6. 6. Threats to biodiversity -Habitat destruction - Important to protect habitat in order to protect biodiversity within it. Huge pressure from the World’s rapidly increasing population. - Global climate change - Change in a biotic elements of ecosystems leading to biotic change. - Habitat fragmentation - From human activity. Reduces ability of habitat to support species. - Pollution - Introduction of pollutants such as nutrient overloading with nitrate fertilizer as well as more immediately harmful chemicals. - Over-exploitation - This includes the illegal wildlife trade as well as overfishing, logging of tropical hardwoods etc. - Alien species - Introduced by humans to regions where there are no natural predators. - Disease - Reduction in habitat causing high population densities, encourages spread of diseases.
  7. 7. Habitat loss
  8. 8. Habitat loss:- Habitat loss can be described when an animal loses their home. Every animal in the animal kingdom has a niche, a their in their animal community and without their habitat they no longer have a niche. Reasons of habitat loss by humans: ~ agriculture, farming ~ harvesting natural resources for personal use ~ for industrial and urbanization development Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary causes of species extinction world wide…!!!
  9. 9. Example : The impact upon china’s panda, ones found across the nation. Now it’s only found in fragmented and isolated regions in the south west of the country as a result of wide spread deforestation in the 20th century. There are natural causes too.. Habitat destruction through natural processes such as volcanism, fire and climate change is well documented in the fossil record. One study shows that fragmentation of tropical rainforest in euro 3000 million years ago lead to a great loss of amphibian diversity.
  10. 10. Solutions on for this.. ~ Protecting remaining intact section of natural habitat. ~ Reduce human population and expansion of urbanisation and industries. ~ Educating the public about the importance of natural habitat and bio diversity. ~Solutions to habitat loss can include planting trees, planting home gardens so as to reduce need for man to need large lands for agricultural farms which lead to habitat loss.
  11. 11. PoachingPoaching
  12. 12. Poaching:- Poaching is the hunting and harvesting taking of wild plants or animals, such as through hunting, harvesting, fishing, or trapping. History of poaching ~ Millions of years ago, in the Stone Age  ~Followed through the ages, to even the tribal natives ~but it was during the Late Middle Ages that poaching became a punishable offense
  13. 13. Why Poaching is done??? ~ Poaching is done for large profits gained by the illegal sale or trade of animal parts, meat and pelts. ~ Exists because there is a demand for these products, caused by a lack of education or disregard for the law amongst the buyers ~ Many cultures believe that certain animal parts have medicinal value.
  14. 14. Poaching is not limited to animals its also for plants too…………! Three of the most often poached species in the park are galax, black cohosh, and ginseng. GALAX BLACK COHOSH GINSENG
  15. 15. How does poaching affect the environment?   ~Poaching or illegal hunting causes animals endangered of being extinct. If more animals becomes extinct there's a disruption in the food chain, and that will cause major problems in our ecosystem, resulting eventually in new adaptations of animals, and or species beyond human control. ~Poaching results in animals being hunted too soon for them to have time to reproduce and repopulate.  
  16. 16. Man- wild conflicts
  17. 17. Man-wildlife conflict  Any conflict  that arises where the behavior of one (human or  wildlife) is unacceptably disadvantageous to other   Increase in man wildlife conflict is due to resource limitation like   :                                           1. Space         2. Food          3. Shelter  It is also due to Increasing population of human beings , Loss of  forest, decrease in quality of forest and development activities.     Crops like sugarcane and tea estates are reported to provide  excellent cover for wild animals  There are 661 Protected Areas in the country covering around 4.8%  geographical areas. There are 100 National Parks, 514 Wildlife  Sanctuaries, 43 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves in  the country
  18. 18. A ‘Conflict’ of Words • One-sided Reporting Can Harm  Wildlife • The headlines are invariably  provocative – menace, threat,  fear, attack and death! • In 99.9 per cent of these cases  (with the exception of deliberate  stalking and predation on  humans by big cats), it’s never an  aggressive attack by the animal.  The animal gets cornered,  surrounded by people (big cats)  or faces an abrupt encounter at  short range because of its poor  senses (elephants, bear) and  then attacks out of fear. • reporters and sub editors should  avoid biased or sensationalized  reports
  19. 19.  In India, wild elephants  probably kill far more people  than tiger, leopard or lion.  Damage to agricultural crops  and property, killing of  livestock and human beings  are some of the worst forms  of man-animal conflict.  Farmers  sometimes  poison   and  shoot  wild  animals  as  they damage  their  crops,   but  this  can  be  prevented   by  taking  certain  measures.    2006-07 / 31 / 342  2007-08 / 34 / 241  2008-09 / 46 / 726  2010-11 / 52 / 689
  20. 20.  Governments is working on improvement of habitat to augment food and water availability and to reduce movement of animals from the forests to the habitations.  Training forest staff and police to tackle these situations and creating awareness among the people about the Do’s and Don’ts to minimize conflicts .  construction of boundary walls and solar fences around the sensitive areas to prevent the wild animal attacks.  Some devices of Information Technology, viz., radio collars with Very High Frequency, Global Positioning System and Satellite uplink facilities can be used to track the movements of wild animals .  Ways to reduce the conflicts
  21. 21. >> Generation of soils and maintenance of soil quality >> Maintenance of air quality >> Maintenance of water quality >> Pest control >> Detoxification and decomposition of wastes >> Pollination and crop production >> Climate stabilization >> Prevention and mitigation of natural disasters >> Provision of food security
  22. 22. So…..please conserve the Nature….
  23. 23. Thank you……..
  24. 24. Questions Q.1 biodiversity is the total variety of ________________on planet earth. a)Resources b) life c) materials d)plants Q.2 the world is composed of ___________communities of living organisms. a)Diverse b) similar d) a single group d) mammalian Q.3) india has ____________species of plants. a)4500 b)45000 c)450000 d) 450 Q.4the richness of the species in an ecosystem makes it___________ a)Unstable b)stable c)temporary d)unproductive Q.5)extinction is a major problem as we loose___________ a) Genetic diversity b)ecosystem c)organism d)resources
  25. 25. Q.6) if one species or group of species are destroyed the whole interacting system gets ________ a)Works b)reproduce c)changes d)manipulates Q.7)genetic divers type is the total number of ______possesses by a species a)Genetics b) genetic material c) parts d) substances Q.8) in india, nearly _________species of flowering plants are found. a)1700 b)17000 c)170000 d)175024 Q.9)what is biodiversity ? Q.10) what is habitat loss?