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IB ESS Topic 4: Conservation and biodiversity

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This topic raises some engaging issues of debate concerning the moral justification for exploiting
species and the moral imperative for conserving them. Do other organisms have a right to moral
consideration? How is this justified? Do panda bears have a greater right than lichens? What about the rights
of “pest” or pathogenic organisms? To what extent are these a

Published in: Environment

IB ESS Topic 4: Conservation and biodiversity

  1. 1. Topic 4: Conservation and biodiversity 1Guru IB ESS
  2. 2. 4.1.1 Define the terms biodiversity, genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity 2Guru IB ESS
  3. 3. • Biodiversity is the amount of biological or living diversity in a specific area. • It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity, and genetic diversity What is Biodiversity? 3Guru IB ESS
  4. 4. • Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. • Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. 4Guru IB ESS
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  11. 11. What is Species? A group of closely related organisms that are ve ry similar to each other and are usually capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. 11Guru IB ESS
  12. 12. What is Species Diversity? Species diversity is a measurement of the number of different species and how abundant they are compared to other species in a specific area. 12Guru IB ESS
  13. 13. • The different sample areas showing species richness (sample area 1) • Species evenness (sample area 2) and • Diversity due to taxonomically unrelated species (sample area 3) 13Guru IB ESS
  14. 14. What is Genetic Diversity? • Genetic diversity is the range of genetic material which is present in a species. 14Guru IB ESS
  15. 15. • Genetic diversity is a level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in a particular one species. 15Guru IB ESS
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  18. 18. Giraffe Genetic diversity 18Guru IB ESS
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  20. 20. Human Genetic diversity 20Guru IB ESS
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  26. 26. How this Genetic Diversity is important? • Genetic diversity and biodiversity are dependent upon each other -- that diversity within a species is necessary to maintain diversity among species, and vice versa. • If any one type is removed from the system, the cycle can break down, and the community becomes dominated by a single species 26Guru IB ESS
  27. 27. What is Habitat Diversity? • Habitat diversity is the range of different habitats in an ecosystem . • Habitat diversity takes many forms: • The variety of plants and animals on a site; • Structural diversity or the vertical arrangement of vegetation from canopy to forest floor; horizontal diversity or the distribution of habitat. 27Guru IB ESS
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  29. 29. Habitat Diversity • Variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, wetlands, and other biological communities, • (niches per unit area). 29Guru IB ESS
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  33. 33. Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998–2018 Critical and endangered Threatened Stable or intact ANTARCTICA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Antarctic Circle Pacific Ocean Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean 150°90°60°E0°30°W90°120°150°0° 60° 30°N 30°S 60° Arctic CircleArctic Circle 33Guru IB ESS
  34. 34. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? Instrumental value: usefulness to us. Intrinsic value: because they exist, Regardless of whether they are useful to us or not. 34Guru IB ESS
  35. 35. Ecological Services of Biodiversity: • Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biosphere – Photosynthesis – Pollination – Soil formation and maintenance – Nutrient recycling – Moderation of weather extremes – Purification of air and water 35Guru IB ESS
  36. 36. RECAP • What is Biodiversity? • What is Genetic Diversity • What is Habitat Diversity? • What is Species Diversity? • Ecological Services of Biodiversity: 36Guru IB ESS
  37. 37. 4.1.2 Outline the mechanism of natural selection as a possible driving force for speciation 37Guru IB ESS
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  39. 39. • The cumulative and gradual change in the genetic characteristic of successive generations of a species; What is Evolution? 39Guru IB ESS
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  43. 43. What is Natural selection The process where organism that are better adapted to their surrounding are more likely to survive and produce more offspring 43Guru IB ESS
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  45. 45. CHARLES DARWIN 45Guru IB ESS
  46. 46. Isabela Darwin Wolf Pinta Marchena Genovesa Fernandia Santiago Bartolomé Råbida Pin zon Seymour Baltra Santa Cruz Santa Fe Tortuga Española San Cristobal Floreana EQUATOR Galåpagos Islands 46Guru IB ESS
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  48. 48. Darwin’s Conclusion • all species tend to over-reproduce • This leads to competition for limited resources (a ‘struggle for existence’) • Species show variation (all individuals are not alike) From this Darwin concluded that: • Those best adapted to their surroundings survive • These can then go on to reproduce. 48Guru IB ESS
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  50. 50. Land Iguana Marine Iguana 50Guru IB ESS
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  52. 52. FOUNDER SPECIES insect and nectar eatersfruit and seed eaters KAUAI AKIALAOA AMAKIHI IIWI APAPANE KONA FINCH extinct LAYSAN FINCH AKIAPOLAAU MAUI PARROTBILL 52Guru IB ESS
  53. 53. Based on his observations, Darwin proposed that EVOLUTION occurs by NATURAL SELECTION. 53Guru IB ESS
  54. 54. • Diego • Sid • Crash and Eddie 54Guru IB ESS
  55. 55. Saber-toothed cat Or Smilodon 55Guru IB ESS
  56. 56. Ground sloth 56Guru IB ESS
  57. 57. Opossum 57Guru IB ESS
  58. 58. Natural Selection • Natural selection is the process by which heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population over successive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution. 58Guru IB ESS
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  60. 60. Why Natural Selection is Important? Natural selection is the engine that drives Evolution. The organisms best suited to survive in their particular circumstances have a greater chance of passing their traits on to the next generation. These factors work together to produce the amazingly diverse range of life forms present on Earth. 60Guru IB ESS
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  63. 63. Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). A hummingbird's long bill and tongue evolved to let the bird reach deep into a flower for nectar 63Guru IB ESS
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  65. 65. What is the role of Natural Selection in the formation of new species? • Natural selection is the process where organism that are better adapted to surrounding are more likely to survive and produce more offspring • All species show variation and all species show over reproduction • Variation is caused by GENETIC DIVERSITY 65Guru IB ESS
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  68. 68. • The genetic characteristic that are successful are passed on to will survive or not • The genetic characteristic that are successful are passed on to the next generation when an individual reproduces. • Overtime there is gradual change in the genetic characteristic of a species and this leads to the formation of new species 68Guru IB ESS
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  70. 70. What is SPECIATION? • The formation of one or more new species from the pre existing species is called 'Speciation'. • New species are developed mainly by isolation and variation. 70Guru IB ESS
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  73. 73. Fig. 20.10, p. 319 RACCOON RED PANDA GIANT PANDA DIVERGENCE approximately 40 million years ago DIVERGENCE 15-20 million years ago SPECTACLED BEAR SLOTH BEAR SUN BEAR BLACK BEAR POLAR BEAR BROWN BEAR 73Guru IB ESS
  74. 74. 4.1.3 State the isolation can lead to different species being produced that are unable to interbreed to yield fertile offspring 74Guru IB ESS
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  80. 80. Spiny anteater Unique Species Platypus 80Guru IB ESS
  81. 81. Koala MARSUPIALS Tasmanian Devil 81Guru IB ESS
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  88. 88. Have you ever wondered how polar bears came to be white? • It makes perfect sense; the white bears blend into the white arctic terrain easily. • Polar bears evolved to adapt to their environment. • Every species adapts through the generations to survive in its habitat, or else it faces extinction 88Guru IB ESS
  89. 89. Porcupine fish 89Guru IB ESS
  90. 90. PELICAN 90Guru IB ESS
  91. 91. Triceratops 91Guru IB ESS
  92. 92. Black Francolin 92Guru IB ESS
  93. 93. 4 TYPES OF ISOLATION 1.Geographical isolation: 2.Ecological isolation: 3.Temporal isolation: 4.Behavioural isolation 93Guru IB ESS
  94. 94. 1. Geographical isolation: forms are separated by land or water barriers that they are unable to cross. 94Guru IB ESS
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  103. 103. 2.Ecological isolation: the forms fail to meet because they live in different places within the same geographic region. 103Guru IB ESS
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  108. 108. 3.Temporal isolation: The forms are active at different seasons or times of day. For example, one population would be temporally isolated from another if it's breeding season was in the fall while the other's was in the spring 108Guru IB ESS
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  111. 111. 4.Behavioural isolation: Behavioral isolations is an isolating mechanism in which two species do not mate because of differences in courtship behavior. For example, there are two different species of cricket that would be indistinguishable unless you heard their mating song. 111Guru IB ESS
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  115. 115. Nonvertebrate chordates Jawless fishes Cartilaginous fishes Bony fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals 115Guru IB ESS
  116. 116. Fig. 27.19a, p. 471 North America MONOTREMES, MARSUPIALS EVOLVE AND MIGRATE THROUGH PANGEA South America Antarctica AustraliaIndia Africa Eurasia About 150 million years ago, during the Jurassic 116Guru IB ESS
  117. 117. Fig. 27.19b, p. 471 PLACENTAL MAMMALS EVOLVE; ADAPTIVE RADIATIONS BEGIN Isolation of the early monotremes, marsupials on this land mass Between 100 and 85 million years ago, during the Cretaceous 117Guru IB ESS
  118. 118. Two tigons (male to the left, female to the right) • 118Guru IB ESS
  119. 119. A Liger-Lion/Tiger 119Guru IB ESS
  120. 120. A "boblynx" -- a hybrid of bobcat and lynx; 120Guru IB ESS
  121. 121. A "zonkey" -- a hybrid of zebra and donkey; 121Guru IB ESS
  122. 122. INTRODUCTION 1.Are the Himalayas getting higher? 2.Is the Atlantic Ocean growing and the Pacific Ocean shrinking? 3.Are we standing on large plates of the Earth?s crust that are moving at the rate a fingernail grows? 122Guru IB ESS
  123. 123. • 4.1.4 Explain how plate activity has influenced evolution and biodiversity. 123Guru IB ESS
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  127. 127. • This theory explains the movement of the Earth's plates and also explains the cause of earthquakes, volcanoes, oceanic trenches, mountain range formation, and many other geologic phenomenon. What is Plate Tectonics? 127Guru IB ESS
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  132. 132. • At the locations where two tectonic plates interact, a boundary between these plates is called PLATE BOUNDARIES • There are three types of boundaries. • These boundaries are divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries, and transform or conservative boundaries. Plates Boundaries 132Guru IB ESS
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  138. 138. How does plate activity lead to speciation? 138Guru IB ESS
  139. 139. 1.The formation of new mountain or rift valleys forms a barrier between two populations. 139Guru IB ESS
  140. 140. 2. New habitats are created. 3. The increase in habitat diversity leads to an increase in species diversity as the number of available niches increases. 140Guru IB ESS
  141. 141. 4. The geographical barrier could separate species and put them in two different ecosystems with climates that might be completely different. 141Guru IB ESS
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  144. 144. Separated populations would adapt to their new surroundings and eventually evolve into new species 144Guru IB ESS
  145. 145. How islands can be created through plate activity: 145Guru IB ESS
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  147. 147. • Populations that are located on islands can result in speciation. • 1. The formation of volcanic islands creates new environments • 2. Animals and plants colonize the new islands • 3. The animals and plants adapt to local conditions • 4. This leads to speciation and increased regional diversity. 147Guru IB ESS
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  152. 152. • The formation of new mountain or rift valley forms a barrier between two population How does the movement of tectonic plates effect the environment? 152Guru IB ESS
  153. 153. • New Habitats created • The increase in habitat diversity leads to an increase in species diversity as the number of available niches increases 153Guru IB ESS
  154. 154. • The geographical barrier could separate species and put them in two different ecosystem with climates • Separated populations would adapt to their new surrounding and eventually evolve into new species 154Guru IB ESS
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  157. 157. • These forms can change the nutrition available to animals and plants through different available sediments and soils, and by making one new habitat more habitable by a particular species. • Finally, large landforms such as placement of mountain ranges can actually influence the large-scale climate. 157Guru IB ESS
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  167. 167. • Unique animals in Himalayas………… 167Guru IB ESS
  168. 168. Himalayan ibex 168Guru IB ESS
  169. 169. Marco Polo sheep 169Guru IB ESS
  170. 170. Brown bear 170Guru IB ESS
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  173. 173. Zebroid Zebra + Equine= Zebro 173Guru IB ESS
  174. 174. Beefalo 174Guru IB ESS
  175. 175. Bill Gates' flower fly names were in "recognition of [their] great contributions to the science of Dipterology 175Guru IB ESS
  176. 176. kooteninchela deppi The species name deppi comes from the actor Johnny Depp, after his role as "Edward Scissorhands" in the film of the same name 176Guru IB ESS
  177. 177. • 4.1.5 Explain the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat. 177Guru IB ESS
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  179. 179. How does the diversity and stability during succession? 1. As a succession progresses, the complexity of an ecosystem increases. As complexity increases, diversity becomes greater. 2. Each seral stage of succession helps create a deeper soil with more nutrients, which allows larger plants to grow 3. Changes in the plant community increases habitat diversity 4. This leads to greater species and genetic diversity 179Guru IB ESS
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  182. 182. • 5.Greater habitat leads to an increase in niches, which allows more species to live together • 6.Climax communities have more complex system and so are more stable then earlier stages such as pioneer communities 182Guru IB ESS
  183. 183. How does human activities alter succession Logging, Grazing and burning Refer Notes…. 183Guru IB ESS
  184. 184. 4.2.1.Identify factors that lead to loss of diversity 184Guru IB ESS
  185. 185. FACTORS 185Guru IB ESS
  186. 186. FACTOR 1 NATURAL EVENTS • Natural events such a volcanoes,drought,ice ages and meteor impact have led to loss of biodiversity. • Changes in the Australian climate as a result of movements in tectonic plates and global warming have caused increase in the frequency of fires 186Guru IB ESS
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  188. 188. Human Factors lead to loss of biodiversity Habitat destruction caused by humans includes conversion of land to agriculture, urban sprawl, infrastructure development, and other anthropogenic changes to the characteristics of habitat destruction caused by humans . Habitat destruction by human activity mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the most important cause of species extinction worldwide. 188Guru IB ESS
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  194. 194. • Some agricultural methods are a threat to native species. • These methods include the introduction of monocultures, and the use of pesticides and genetically modified (GM) species. • Native species are less able to compete with species that are introduced through agriculture. • Monocultures mean a large loss of diversity compared to the native ecosystems that they replace. • Non-specific pesticides can destroy native as well as imported pest species and this leads to a loss of diversity. How agricultural methods are a threat to native species? 194Guru IB ESS
  195. 195. habitat fragmentation 195Guru IB ESS
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  198. 198. The term habitat fragmentation includes five discrete phenomena 1. Reduction in the total area of the habitat 2. Decrease of the interior 3. Isolation of one habitat fragment from other areas of habitat 4. Breaking up of one patch of habitat into several smaller patches 5. Decrease in the average size of each patch of habitat 198Guru IB ESS
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  200. 200. The remaining fragmented habitats of the African Elephant 200Guru IB ESS
  201. 201. Identify the Indian endangered goat? 201Guru IB ESS
  202. 202. Nilgiri Tahr 202Guru IB ESS
  203. 203. • 4.2.2 Discuss the perceived vulnerability of tropical rainforests and their relative value in contributing to global biodiversity. 203Guru IB ESS
  204. 204. What is Tropical Rainforest? • Tropical rainforest is a biome found 10 degrees north or south of the equator. They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific Islands 204Guru IB ESS
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  206. 206. • Rainforests are home to half of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. • Tropical rain forests are called the "world's largest pharmacy" because over one-quarter of modern medicines originate from its plants. • The undergrowth in a rainforest is restricted in many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level Why rainforest is Important? 206Guru IB ESS
  207. 207. • The rainforests are home to more species or populations than all other biomes added together. 80% of the world's biodiversity are found in tropical rainforests 207Guru IB ESS
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  209. 209. INQUIRES 209Guru IB ESS
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  211. 211. What is the relative value of tropical rainforest in contributing to global diversity? 1. Tropical rainforest cover only 5.9 % of the earths land surface but may contain up to 50% of all species 2. Rainfall is high in tropical rainforest and have constant temperatures, high levels of sunlight and high net primary productivity. 3. Rainforest are complex ecosystem with many layers. 4. The complex layered structure of rainforest increases habitat diversity 5. Many rainforest have large number of endemic species 211Guru IB ESS
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  220. 220. What is the role of deforestation in the development of Green politics? 1. Green politics is a political viewpoint that places an importance on ecological and environmental goals and sustainable development 2. The green movement aims to reduce deforestation and increase reforestation 3. The Green movement started in part as result of the threats to tropical rainforest. 4. Many politicians get involved because they know it is an important for may voters 220Guru IB ESS
  221. 221. REFER NOTES • The Threats and Losses • Consequences? 221Guru IB ESS
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  229. 229. • Composition of the soil, nutrients are locked up in the trees, less than 10% of the Amazonian soils are suitable for agriculture. • Subsistence farming • Cattle ranching • Mining • Oil extraction • Hydroelectric dams 229Guru IB ESS
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  231. 231. A satellite image of a 1,300 square-kilometer area of Brazil's Amazon Basin, north of Manus. Once the rainforest is accessible, it can easily be cleared; this allows destruction from numerous factors to occur 231Guru IB ESS
  232. 232. Deforestation in Brazil CARING 232Guru IB ESS
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  235. 235. – A single pond in Brazil can sustain a greater variety of fish than are found in all of Europe's rivers; – Over 2000 species of fish have been identified in the Amazon Basin - more species than the entire Atlantic ocean. 235Guru IB ESS
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  238. 238. This pattern is among several shapes present in this image of Bolivian deforestation THINKERS 238Guru IB ESS
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  242. 242. • 4.2.3 Discuss current estimates of numbers of species and past and present rates of species extinction. 242Guru IB ESS
  243. 243. What is the current estimate for the number of species on earth? • The total number of species on earth today is still not well understood. • Estimates of the current number of species on the planet range from 5 million to 100 million • So far, science has identified about 1.8 million species. • It is impossible to get an accurate count of the number of species because many species have not been discovered yet 243Guru IB ESS
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  247. 247. • There are areas of the earth that we still know little about of many undiscovered species may live • Without a reliable estimate of the number of species, it is difficult to calculate extinction rates 247Guru IB ESS
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  253. 253. CAUSES FOR MASS EXTINCTION 1. CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION 2. TRIASSIC EXTINCTION 3. PERMAIN-TRISSAIC EXTINCTION 4. LATE DEVONIAN EXTINCTION 5. ORDOVICIAN –SILURINA EXTINCTION 253Guru IB ESS
  254. 254. 1.CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION • Time :65 Million Years Ago • Causes: Wide asteroid • Other reasons: Flood like Volcanic eruption 254Guru IB ESS
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  258. 258. 2.TRIASSIC EXTINCTION • Time : 200 Million Years Ago • Reason : Massive lava eruption in the Atlantic ocean 258Guru IB ESS
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  260. 260. 3.PERMAIN-TRISSAIC EXTINCTION • Time : 250 Million Years Ago • Largest of all • Reason: Asteroid Impact • it almost wiped out land plants entirely. 260Guru IB ESS
  261. 261. 4.LATE DEVONIAN EXTINCTION • Time :364 million years • Reason :This is a difficult event to pin down. Some scientists think it is more like two or more events over the period of 25 million years. 261Guru IB ESS
  262. 262. 5.ORDOVICIAN –SILURINA EXTINCTION • 445 Million Years Ago • Reason :Drop in sea levels as glaciers leads to rising sea levels. • 27 % of all families • 57 % of all genera 262Guru IB ESS
  263. 263. What caused the five past mass extinctions? 263Guru IB ESS
  264. 264. Climate Change 264Guru IB ESS
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  270. 270. Identify the Indian endangered goat? 270Guru IB ESS
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  277. 277. Magnetic reversal of the poles 277Guru IB ESS
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  284. 284. • 4.2.4 Describe and explain the factors that may make species more or less prone to extinction. 284Guru IB ESS
  285. 285. Factor 1:Small population size and limited distribution • Species with small populations sizes and limited distribution are more likely to become extinct. • Species with small populations are also more likely to have low genetic diversity and their inability to adapt to changing conditions can be fatal. • Many of the large cat species have low genetic diversity ,example cheetah, snow leopard and tiger 285Guru IB ESS
  286. 286. Lion-tailed macaque 286Guru IB ESS
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  290. 290. Factor 2 :Degree of Specialization • Specialist species are more likely to become extinct than generalist species. • Specialized species have narrow niche so, if their surrounding change, they may not be able to adapt and change. • Ex :a species food resources may be very specialized such as the giant panda which mainly eats bamboo. • Some animals can live only on certain tree species such as Palila bird which depends on the Mamane tree for its food therefore losing habitat as the Manamne tree is cut down 290Guru IB ESS
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  293. 293. Sarus Crane & Wetland 293Guru IB ESS
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  295. 295. Panda & Bamboo 295Guru IB ESS
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  297. 297. Factor 3- Reproductive Potential • Species that live for a long are more likely to have low reproductive rate and this makes them vulnerable to extinction. • If there is a change in habitat or a predator is introduced the population drops and there are not enough adults to support to maintain population • Animals with long gestation times, like elephants and rhinos are long prone to low rates of reproductive and it can many years to recover from any reduction in population number 297Guru IB ESS
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  301. 301. Factor 4: Poor Competitors • Species that show weak interspecific competition are more likely to become extinct than good competitors • Flightless and slow moving birds such as great auk, dodo are helpless under the pressure of hunting and predation • Their lack of mobility and poor defensive instincts mean that they are easily preyed upon. • Animals that have evolved in area where that have no predators such as dodo are prone to extinction when a predator is introduced 301Guru IB ESS
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  303. 303. • Factor 5 –Trophic level • Top predators are sensitive to any disturbance in the food chain • Any reduction in the numbers of species at lower trophic levels can have dramatic consequences • Top carnivores are therefore particularly sensitive to hunters and reductions in population size • It also possible that species in high tropic level may accumulate toxins such as the American bald eagle 303Guru IB ESS
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  314. 314. 52 Species Move Toward Extinction Each Year 314Guru IB ESS
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  323. 323. The Dodo, the giant flightless of Mauritius, 323Guru IB ESS
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  336. 336. • 4.2.5 Outline the factors used to determine a species’ Red List conservation status. 336Guru IB ESS
  337. 337. The IUCN 337Guru IB ESS
  338. 338. • IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), the world’s largest global environmental network. that maintains the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an attempt to chronicle the plight of endangered species around the world. • The organization publishes the IUCN Red List, compiling information from a network of conservation organizations to rate which species are most endangered. 338Guru IB ESS
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  342. 342. • The IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. 342Guru IB ESS
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  345. 345. What is Red Data Book? • The Red Data Book is the state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi as well as some local sub-species that exist within the territory of the state or country. • • This book provides central information for studies and monitoring programmes on rare and endangered species and their habits. 345Guru IB ESS
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  354. 354. A range of factors are used to determine the conservation status of a species on the Red list Factor 1-The Population size of the species • Smaller populations are more likely to go extinct. The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India as 1,706 354Guru IB ESS
  355. 355. Factor 2-Redution in population size • A reduction in population size may indicate that a species is under threat • Example The European eel 355Guru IB ESS
  356. 356. Factors 3-The number of mature individuals • Species with few mature individuals have lower reproductive rates • Ex :Orang-utan • Orangutan have one of the slowest reproductive rates of all mammal species. They give birth to a single offspring only once every 6 to 8 years. 356Guru IB ESS
  357. 357. Factor 4–Geographic range • Species with a limited geographic range may be under greater threat from extinction 357Guru IB ESS
  358. 358. Factor 5 – Degree of Fragmentation • Species in fragmented habitats may not be able to maintain large enough population sizes • Ex :Sumatran Rhino • Fragmentation of tropical rainforest in south-east Asia has led to a reduction in habitat area for this species 358Guru IB ESS
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  360. 360. Factor 6: Quality of Habitat • Species that live in habitats that are poorer in quality are less likely to survive than species in habitats that are better in quality FISHING CAT 360Guru IB ESS
  361. 361. Factor 7- Area of Occupancy • Species that live in a smaller area are under greater threat from extinction than more widespread species. Loss of the area they live in will lead to loss of the species • Ex: Golden lion Tamarin • This monkey are found only in one small are of Brazil. 361Guru IB ESS
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  365. 365. • According to the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) the top 10 most endangered species(2014) are: • 1.Black Rhino • 2.Giant Panda • 3.Royal Bengal Tiger • 4.Beluga Sturgeon • 5.Goldenseal • 6.Alligator Snapping Turtle • 7.Hawksbill Turtle • 8.Big Leaf Mahogany • 9.Green-Cheeked Parrot • 10.Mako Shark 365Guru IB ESS
  366. 366. 1.Black Rhino 366Guru IB ESS
  367. 367. 2.Giant Panda 367Guru IB ESS
  368. 368. 3.Royal Bengal Tiger 368Guru IB ESS
  369. 369. 4.Beluga Sturgeon 369Guru IB ESS
  370. 370. 5.Goldenseal 370Guru IB ESS
  371. 371. 6.Alligator Snapping Turtle 371Guru IB ESS
  372. 372. 7.Hawksbill Turtle 372Guru IB ESS
  373. 373. 10.Mako Shark 373Guru IB ESS
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  377. 377. Example of Endangered Species • Mountain Gorilla, Arakan Forest Turtle, Darwin's Fox, Javan Rhino, Brazilian Merganser, Gharial, Vaquita 377Guru IB ESS
  378. 378. Mountain Gorilla 378Guru IB ESS
  379. 379. Arakan Forest Turtle 379Guru IB ESS
  380. 380. Darwin's Fox 380Guru IB ESS
  381. 381. Javan Rhino 381Guru IB ESS
  382. 382. Brazilian Merganser 382Guru IB ESS
  383. 383. Vaquita 383Guru IB ESS
  384. 384. Refer Notes • 4.2.6 Describe the case histories of three different species: one that has become extinct, another that is critically endangered, and a third species whose conservation status has been improved by intervention • 4.2.7 Describe the case history of a natural area of biological significance that is threatened by human activities 384Guru IB ESS
  385. 385. • 4.3 Conservation of biodiversity 4.3.1-State the arguments for preserving species and habitats. 385Guru IB ESS
  386. 386. • There are many arguments for preserving species and habitats. These arguments can be divided into 4 groups 386Guru IB ESS
  387. 387. Argument 1 –Ethical Reasons • Everyone has a responsibility to protect resources for future generations. • Ethical reasons also include the idea that every species has right to survive 387Guru IB ESS
  388. 388. Argument 2 –Aesthetic reasons • Species and habitats are pleasant to look at and provide beauty and inspiration 388Guru IB ESS
  389. 389. Argument 3 –Economic reasons • Species and habitats provide financial income. • Species should be preserved to maintain genetic diversity so that resources will e available in the future • Other reasons are commercial resources such as medicines. • Ecotourism is successful when habitats are preserved 389Guru IB ESS
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  391. 391. Argument 4 –Ecological reasons • Rare habitats should be conserved as they may contain endemic species. • Ecosystem with high levels of biodiversity are more stable • Healthy ecosystem are also more likely to provide ecosystem services such as pollination and flood prevention • Species should be preserved because if they disappear they could have effects on the rest of the food chain and ecosystem 391Guru IB ESS
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  394. 394. • 4.3.2 Compare and contrast the role and activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in preserving and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity. 394Guru IB ESS
  395. 395. What are inter governmental and non governmental organization? • An inter governmental organization is an organization that is established through international agreements in order to protect the Earth’s natural resources. 395Guru IB ESS
  396. 396. Examples of Inter governmental organization • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) • The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) • World Nature Organization (WNO) 396Guru IB ESS
  397. 397. What is non-governmental organization ? • A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not run by the governments of any country. • NGOs are not funded or influenced by governments in any way. 397Guru IB ESS
  398. 398. • World Nature Organization (WNO) • World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) • Greenpeace 398Guru IB ESS
  399. 399. Similarities between IGOs and NGOs are: • They look to resolve concerns that affect the world. • They use the media to get their message across and to influence decision making. • They operate both locally and globally to preserve and restore ecosystems and biodiversity. • They publish reports and articles about their activities. 399Guru IB ESS
  400. 400. • Contrast of IGO & NGO 400Guru IB ESS
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  402. 402. • Roles of 402Guru IB ESS
  403. 403. UNEP 403Guru IB ESS
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  406. 406. FUNCTION OF UNEP 406Guru IB ESS
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  409. 409. MAIN FUNCTIONS 1. International Legal instrument for conserving the biodiversity 2. Provide vision and support for all the countries 3. Authority to draw up legally binding international conventions and documents but cannot force countries to sign nor compliance 409Guru IB ESS
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  414. 414. FUNCTION OF WWF •The WWF performs many functions in the preservation and protection of the environment and animal species. 414Guru IB ESS
  415. 415. STRENGTH WEAKNESS Simpler to focus on1 species at a time than on many species Not ecologically sound: Media high profile species Eg:elephant,tiger Media dosen’t work with obcure Research easier to focus on a single species Research needs context of the whole environment Focus on genetic and speices diversity Ignores community and ecosystem biodiversity Easier to control trade(CITES) Controversy with CITES-ban vs controlled trade eg elephants and ivory Only need key speices How do you decide on key species Strength & Weakness-CITES 415Guru IB ESS
  416. 416. CITES 416Guru IB ESS
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  421. 421. Function of CITES 1. CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of listed species to certain controls. 2. These require that all import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a permitting system. 421Guru IB ESS
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  423. 423. 1. Greenpeace is a non governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam. 2. Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. 423Guru IB ESS
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  430. 430. FUNCTION 1. Defending our oceans by challenging wasteful and destructive fishing, and creating a global network of marine reserves. 2. Protecting the world’s remaining ancient forest which are depended on by many animals, plants and people. 3. Creating a toxin free future with safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals in today's products and manufacturing. 430Guru IB ESS
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  432. 432. Refer notes….. • 4.2.6 Describe the case histories of three different species: one that has become extinct, another that is critically endangered, and a third species whose conservation status has been improved by intervention. • 4.2.7 Describe the case history of a natural area of biological significance that is threatened by human activities. 432Guru IB ESS
  433. 433. • 4.3.2 Outline recent International convention biodiversity 433Guru IB ESS
  434. 434. • International Conventions -1 • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment • The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972,having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment 434Guru IB ESS
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  439. 439. International Conventions -2 • The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. 439Guru IB ESS
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  442. 442. • In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. 442Guru IB ESS
  443. 443. • International Convention -3 • International Union for Conservation of Nature • The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization dedicated to finding "pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges". • The organization publishes the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species. 443Guru IB ESS
  444. 444. • The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement • 2. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems • 3. Preservation of genetic diversity • 4. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems • 5. Priority requirements: ecological process and life-support systems • 6. Priority requirements: genetic diversity • 7. Priority requirements: sustainable utilization 444Guru IB ESS
  445. 445. • There are two types of conversation methods • In-situ Conversation • Ex-Situ Conversation 445Guru IB ESS
  446. 446. • In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation". • It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat or • Either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. • The natural surroundings or the entire ecosystems is protected and maintained so that all the constituent species are conserved and benefited. 446Guru IB ESS
  447. 447. 1. National Park & Sanctuaries: These are usually small reserves meant for the protection of large number of species. 2. Natural Reserves or Biosphere Reserves: Large protected area with boundaries properly identified by legislation. Strategies of In-Situ Conservation 447Guru IB ESS
  448. 448. How many Tiger reserves in India They are 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger 448Guru IB ESS
  449. 449. 1. Best strategy for long term protection of biodiversity. 2. It is cheaper to protect populations in their natural habitat. 3. Reduces the cost of conservation to a large extent 1. Protected areas are not always large enough and not well maintained. 2. Many protected areas often used for tourism. 3. Required large areas to preserve Advantages & Disadvantages 449Guru IB ESS
  450. 450. 4. For herbivores there has to plenty of vegetation. 5. Large number of animals protected and maintained. 6. Natural disaster provides an opportunity to organism to adjust the conditions 4. Involves lot of human activity 450Guru IB ESS
  451. 451. 1. Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site conservation". 2. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal outside of its natural habitat; 3. for example, by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. 4. While ex-situ conservation comprises some of the oldest and best known conservation methods, it also involves newer, sometimes controversial laboratory methods Ex-situ conservation 451Guru IB ESS
  452. 452. 452Guru IB ESS
  453. 453. 5. Zoos and botanical gardens are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, 6. Endangered animal species are preserved using similar techniques 453Guru IB ESS
  454. 454. 1. Identification of Species for ex-situ conservation. 2. Long Term captive breeding. 3. Short –term propagation and release 4. Animal translocation. 5. Advanced technology in service of endangered species 6. Establishment of botanical gardens and zoos. Strategies of Ex-Situ Conservation 454Guru IB ESS
  455. 455. 1. Habitat conservation is a land management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore, habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range. 2. It is a priority of many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology 455Guru IB ESS
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  457. 457. 3. Some of the conservation movement's goals are to protect habitats and promote continued recreational opportunities for people such as hiking, bird watching, fishing and hunting. 457Guru IB ESS
  458. 458. Human &Animal Conflict 1. Human wildlife conflict is one of the main threats to the continued survival of many parts of the world. 2. As human population expand and natural habitats shrink, people and animals increasingly coming into conflict for living spcae and food. 3. There are possibilities that entire population of endangered species may wipe out because of war caused by human 458Guru IB ESS
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  463. 463. • Human-wildlife conflict refers to the interaction between wild animals and people and the resultant negative impact on people or their resources, or wild animals or their habitat. • It occurs when wildlife needs overlap with those of human populations, creating costs to residents and wild animals 463Guru IB ESS
  464. 464. 464Guru IB ESS
  465. 465. connect Vipul Ved Prakash 465Guru IB ESS
  466. 466. • Apple has bought Topsy Labs, a social media analytics firm co-founded by Indian Americans Rishab Aiyer Ghosh and Vipul Ved Prakash, for over $200 million. The company tracks trending topics on microblogging site Twitter and other social media networks. Topsy has analysed all tweets since 2006 and recently announced a free search engine for tweets. 466Guru IB ESS
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  468. 468. • 4.3.3 State and explain the criteria used to design protected areas. 468Guru IB ESS
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  470. 470. What are protected area? • Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognised natural, ecological and/or cultural values. 470Guru IB ESS
  471. 471. Design of Protected Areas • The design of protected areas is an important field of research in conservation biology. • The essential questions involve criteria for the size, shape, and positioning of protected areas to optimize their ability to protect biodiversity. • Conservation biologists recommend that protected areas be as large and numerous as possible. 471Guru IB ESS
  472. 472. What is a biosphere reserve? • Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. 472Guru IB ESS
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  477. 477. Criteria criteria used to design protected areas • Area • Edge effects • Shape • Corridor 477Guru IB ESS
  478. 478. AREA • Larger reserves as one large area can support more species than several smaller species. • Because large reserves have more habitats and can support more top carnivores. • Larger reserves have higher population numbers of each species and greater stability 478Guru IB ESS
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  482. 482. What is Edge Effects? • At the edge of a protected area there is a change in abiotic components. • This change includes more wind, more warmth, and less humid conditions compared to the interior of the reserve. • These are called edge effects. 482Guru IB ESS
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  484. 484. • In ecology, edge effects refer to the changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two habitats • Areas with small habitat fragments exhibit especially pronounced edge effects that may extend throughout the range. • As the edge effects increase, the boundary habitat allows for greater biodiversity. 484Guru IB ESS
  485. 485. • Edge effects will attract species that are not found deeper in the reserve but that survive successfully in the edge conditions. • Edge effects may also attract exotic species from outside the reserve. 485Guru IB ESS
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  495. 495. SHAPE • The best shape for a reserve is a circle because this has the high edge effects. • In practice the shape is determined by what is available and where the habitats to be conserved are located 495Guru IB ESS
  496. 496. Corridors • Corridors join up area of a reserve that are surrounded by disturbed areas. • Corridors HAVE MANY BENEFITS • Corridors allow gene flow through movement of animals in and out of the area. • Corridors also allow the movement of large mammals and top carnivores between separated parts of the reserve. • Illegal hunters can also more easily move from one reserve to another 496Guru IB ESS
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  501. 501. Buffer zones • Buffer zones are areas created to enhance the protection of a conservation area, often peripheral to it, inside or outside • These areas minimize disturbance from outside influences such as people agriculture. • For example a nearby town or extensive disturbance such as logging can directly impact a protected area if it not surrounded by an area that buffers 501Guru IB ESS
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  505. 505. • 4.3.4 Evaluate the success of a named protected area • Danum Valley Conservation Area in Malaysia as an example of a protected area. 505Guru IB ESS
  506. 506. Problems……………… ….. 506Guru IB ESS
  507. 507. Controversy over the design of protected areas involves the following key elements: 1.Populations in larger protected areas should have a smaller risk of extinction, compared to those in smaller reserves. 2.However, if there are populations in several different reserves, the redundancy might prevent extinction in the event of a catastrophic loss in one reserve. 507Guru IB ESS
  508. 508. 508Guru IB ESS
  509. 509. • Reserves can also be designed to have less edge habitat. 1.This refers to transitions between ecosystem types, such as that between a forest and a field. 2.Edge habitat is often penetrated by invasive species and predators, which can become important problems in some protected areas. 509Guru IB ESS
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  513. 513. 1) For many ecological functions to operate well, there must be connections among habitats. This is particularly true of the dispersal of plants and animals. 2) This need can be accommodated if protected areas are linked by corridors of suitable habitat, or if they are clumped close together. 513Guru IB ESS
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  515. 515. STRENGTH WEAKNESS Simpler to focus on1 species at a time than on many species Not ecologically sound: Media high profile species Eg:elephant,tiger Media doesn't work with obscure Research easier to focus on a single species Research needs context of the whole environment Focus on genetic and species diversity Ignores community and ecosystem biodiversity Easier to control trade(CITES) Controversy with CITES-ban vs. controlled trade e.g. elephants and ivory Only need key species How do you decide on key species STRENGTH & WEAKNESS OF CONSERVING SINGLE SPECIES 515Guru IB ESS
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  517. 517. • 1.Creating Biodiversity hotspot • 2.Habitat creation • 3.Breed in Captivity • 4.Habitat Management • 5.Reintroduction 5 Ways 517Guru IB ESS
  518. 518. 1.Creating Biodiversity hotspots • A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. 518Guru IB ESS
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  521. 521. 2.Habitat creation 1. National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, zoological parks and botanical gardens and sanctuaries work as protected areas for wild life. 2. They help in conserving the wild life in their wild state. Besides being the protected habitats of various species, they are also good places to take a tour of. 521Guru IB ESS
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  525. 525. 3.Breed in Captivity 1. Breed endangered species in captivity in places such as zoos and animal parks. 2. Once the young animals reach maturity, they can be released into the wild where they can continue to increase the population. 525Guru IB ESS
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  527. 527. 4.Habitat Management 1. Habitat Management refers to taking care of the habitat of the wildlife. 2. Study of different kind of habitats, devising ways of protecting it, its preservation and regular checking of these habitats through census and statistical data help a great deal in working out a plan of action in managing a habitat and the species. 527Guru IB ESS
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  529. 529. 5.Reintroduction 1. Several endangered species were allowed to reproduce and flourish in places and habitats that suited them. 2. These places were similar to their original habitats. Later, they were introduced to protected areas such as parks and reserves and also to their original habitats after they were found fit to fight for survival. 529Guru IB ESS
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  532. 532. • 4.3.5 Discuss and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the species-based approach to conservation 532Guru IB ESS
  533. 533. What is the species-based approach to conservation? • The species-based approach to conservation is an approach that focuses on specific individual species that are vulnerable. • The aim is to attract interest in their conservation. • The species-based approach attracts attention, and therefore funding for conservation, and can successfully preserve a species in zoos and botanic gardens. 533Guru IB ESS
  534. 534. Identify this Indian animal 534Guru IB ESS
  535. 535. The Indian giant squirrel, or Malabar giant squirrel 535Guru IB ESS
  536. 536. 536Guru IB ESS
  537. 537. Evaluation of CITES Some strengths of CITES include: • It is supported by many countries (178) and it protects many species (ca. 35 000). • It is legally binding and so countries that have signed the convention must accept its conditions. • The treaty works across international borders. 537Guru IB ESS
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  541. 541. Limitations of CITES include: • It does not replace national laws; countries that have signed the agreement must make their own laws to ensure that CITES is put into practice at national level. • It is difficult to enforce. • Fines are relatively small and may not stop poaching and smuggling. • In some countries it is only weakly supported and is not very effective. Despite the agreement, illegal hunting still occurs. 541Guru IB ESS
  542. 542. • Evaluation of captive breeding, reintroduction programmes, and zoos 542Guru IB ESS
  543. 543. There are many strengths to modern zoos: • Education of the public about species and conservation • Research in zoos increases the knowledge of individual species • Zoos allow species to be held while habitats are being restored. • Weaknesses of zoos include: • Possibility that captive animals may be unable to adapt to being back in the wild Some people object to animals being kept in captivity for profit 543Guru IB ESS
  544. 544. Which is the biggest national park in the World? 544Guru IB ESS
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  548. 548. Which is the biggest Zoo in the World? Monarto Zoological Park in Australia 548Guru IB ESS
  549. 549. Weaknesses of captive breeding and reintroduction programmes include: • They do not directly conserve natural habitat diversity of the species • Not all species breed easily in captivity, for example giant pandas • Captive animals released into the wild may be easy prey for predators. 549Guru IB ESS
  550. 550. Created By K.Guru Charan kumar IB ESS Teacher 550Guru IB ESS Biodiversity & Conservation

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