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  • Reducing the Spread of Infectious Diseases
    Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of the disease and influence its emergence into populations. The most effective method of stemming the spread of infectious disease is through vaccination. Vaccines consist of weakened or killed microbes, or just components of a pathogen, and stimulate the body’s natural defenses—the immune system—to combat infections. Vaccination has eliminated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliovirus from much of the world, and drastically reduced the incidence of childhood infections, such as measles, mumps, and whooping cough, at least in the developed world. Influenza vaccines are available to reduce the occurrence of seasonal flu, although the shot must be given yearly due to the extreme variance of the influenza virus from season to season. Vaccines for other infectious diseases, especially HIV, still are being sought.
    Antibiotics are effective for many types of bacterial infections (although they are entirely useless against viruses). But increasingly, bacteria are becoming resistant to the arsenal of antibiotics at our disposal. Very few drugs work well against viruses (anti-viral drugs for influenza and HIV were discussed in the previous two slides). Anti-fungal drugs exist, but their use is limited.
    There are no vaccines against protozoan parasites, and other medications against them are becoming ineffective. Therefore, protection from insect vectors such as mosquitoes and control of mosquito populations are crucial strategies in containing the spread of insect-borne diseases, such as malaria. Good sanitation, water purification, hand washing, and proper cooking and storage of foods all help to reduce the prevalence of infectious disease. In cases of highly contagious, often fatal diseases, quarantine is employed as a means of preventing the spread of disease through a community. However, regardless of the disease, it is wise to limit contact with other individuals when ill.
    Hahn, D. B., Payne, W. A., & Mauer, E. B. (2005). Focus on health (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
    National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2006). Microbes in sickness and in health. Retrieved 9-20-2006 from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/microbes.htm
    Image Reference
    Gathany, J. (2003). Influenza virus vaccine, (ID# 5404). CDC. Retrieved 8-14-2006 from http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/quicksearch.asp
  • Diseases

    1. 1. DISEASES Vivek Kumar st. vincent Pallotti College of Engineering
    4. 4. DISEASE A disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.
    5. 5. Types of Diseases           Infectious diseases Contagious diseases Food borne illness Communicable diseases Non-communicable diseases Airborne diseases Lifestyle diseases Mental disorders Organic disease Water prone disease
    6. 6. Infectious diseases Any disease caused by the presence of pathogens in the body is called an infectious disease. The main sources of pathogens are soil, contaminated water, and infected animals, including other people Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
    7. 7. Continued……    The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. Infectious pathogens include some viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. Infectious diseases are sometimes called "contagious" when they are easily transmitted by contact with an ill person or their secretions (e.g., influenza). Thus, a contagious disease is a subset of infectious disease that is especially infective or easily transmitted.
    8. 8. Agents of infectious diseases  Bacteria  Viruses  Protozoa (Protists)  Fungi  Helminths (Animals)
    9. 9. Phases of infectious diseases      Incubation period – time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms. Prodromal phase – mild, nonspecific symptoms that signal onset of some diseases. Clinical phase – a person experiences typical signs and symptoms of disease. Decline phase - subsidence of symptoms. Recovery phase – symptoms have disappeared, tissues heal, and the body regains strength.
    10. 10. Some infectious diseases Disease Cause Affected Organ Transmission Smallpox Virus Skin Droplet Influenza Virus Respiratory system Direct contact HIV/AIDS Virus Immune system Body Fluid Hepatitis B Virus Liver Body Fluid Tetanus Bacteria Nervous system Puncture Wound Strep Throat Bacteria Respiratory system Droplet Tuberculosis Bacteria Respiratory Droplet
    11. 11. Causes of Infectious Diseases
    12. 12. Worldwide mortality due to infectious disease RANK CAUSE OF DEATH DEATH IN 2002 % OF DEATH DEATH IN 1993 1993 N/A ALL INFECTIOUS DISEASE 14.7 25.9% 16.4 32.2 1 Diarrheal diseases 1.8 3.2% 3.0 2 2 Tuberculosis  1.6 2.7% 2.7 3 3 Malaria 1.3 2.4% 2.0 4 4 Measles 0.6 1.1% 1.1 5 5 Tetanus 0.21 0.4% 0.15 12 6 Meningitis 0.17 0.3% 0.25 8 7 3.9 Lower respiratory infections 6.9% 4.1 1 8 Hepatitis B 0.2% 0.93 6 0.10 RANK
    13. 13. Reducing the Spread of Infectious Diseases      Vaccines Antimicrobial drugs Good personal hygiene and sanitation Protection against mosquitoes Quarantine
    14. 14. Overview of Infectious Diseases
    15. 15. Water-borne diseases Diseases caused by ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal excrement, which contain pathogenic microorganisms that means any disease which is transported and supported by water is called water born diseases eg. Include cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other diarrheal diseases
    16. 16. Causes of Water-borne Diseases
    17. 17.  In addition, water-borne disease can be caused by the pollution of water with chemicals that have an adverse effect on health. Arsenic Fluoride Nitrates from fertilizers Carcinogenic pesticides (DDT) Lead (from pipes) Heavy Metals
    18. 18. Effects of Water-borne diseases         ~80% of infectious diseases > 5 million people die each year > 2 million die from water-related diarrhea alone Most of those dying are small children Lost work days Missed educational opportunities Official and unofficial healthcare costs Draining of family resources
    19. 19. Analysis
    20. 20. Analysis
    21. 21. Analysis
    22. 22. Analysis
    23. 23. COMMON TYPES OF WATER-BORNE DISAESES.    BOTULISM- Clostridium botulinum .Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract by consuming contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food. Dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing,vomiting and sometimes  diarrhea. Death is usually caused by  respiratory failure DYSENTRY-Caused by a number of species in the generaShigella andSalmonella with the most common beingShigella dysenteriae . Frequent passage of  faeces . Hepatitis A - Hepatitis A virus (HAV).Can manifest itself in water (and food)Symptoms are only  acute  (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight
    24. 24. CHOLERA      Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration. Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration. Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholera . It can take anywhere from a few hours to 5 days for symptoms to appear after infection. Symptoms typically appear in 2-3 days. For example, fowl or chicken cholera is a disease that can rapidly kill chickens and other species . disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps,nausia. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.
    25. 25. Continued…….  Outbreaks occur when there are disasters or other reasons for a loss of sanitary human waste disposal and the lack of safe fluids and foods for people to ingest. Haiti, a country that had not seen a cholera outbreak in over 50 years, had such circumstances develop in 2010 after a massive earthquake destroyed sanitary facilities and water and food treatment facilities for many Haitians. V. cholera bacteria eventually contaminated primary water sources, resulting in over 530,000 people diagnosed with cholera that resulted in over 7,000 deaths
    26. 26. Control & Prevention   Education Issues − Hygiene education − Good nutrition − Improvements in habitation and general sanitation − Higher education training in water-related issues Global Surveillance − Public health infrastructure − Standardized surveillance of water-borne disease outbreaks − Guidelines must be established for investigating and reporting water-borne diseases
    27. 27. Control & Prevention   Communication and the Media − Impacts at all levels − Very powerful, when others fail General Guidelines − Avoid contacting soil that may be contaminated with human feces. − Do not defecate outdoors. − Dispose of diapers properly. − Wash hands with soap and water before handling food. − When traveling to countries where sanitation and hygiene are poor, avoid water or food that may be contaminated. − Wash, peel or cook all raw vegetables and fruits before eating
    28. 28. CANCER Cancer is a term used to described large group of diseases that are characterized by a cellular malfunction. Healthy cell are programmed to “know what to do and when to do it”. Cancerous cells do not have this programming and therefore grow and replicate out of control. They also serve no physiological function. These cells are now termed a neoplasm.
    29. 29. CANCER       Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer 1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women There are over 100 different forms of cancer
    30. 30. CANCER   The division of normal cells is precisely controlled. New cells are only formed for growth or to replace dead ones. Cancerous cells divide repeatedly out of control even though they are not needed, they crowd out other normal cells and function abnormally. They can also destroy the correct functioning of major organs.
    31. 31. Causes of Cancer      Cancer arises from the mutation of a normal gene. Mutated genes that cause cancer are called oncogenes. It is thought that several mutations need to occur to give rise to cancer Cells that are old or not functioning properly normally self destruct and are replaced by new cells. However, cancerous cells do not self destruct and continue to divide rapidly producing millions of new cancerous cells.
    32. 32. Causes of Cancer     A factor which brings about a mutation is called a mutagen. A mutagen is mutagenic. Any agent that causes cancer is called a carcinogen and is described as carcinogenic. So some mutagens are carcinogenic.
    33. 33. The Development of Cancer  Within every nucleus of every one of the human body's 30 trillion cells exists DNA, the substance that contains the information needed to make and control every cell within the body. Here is a close-up view of a tiny fragment of DNA.
    34. 34. 1. DNA of a normal cell  This piece of DNA is an exact copy of the DNA from which it came. When the parent cell divided to create two cells, the cell's DNA also divided, creating two identical copies of the original DNA.
    35. 35. 2. Mutation of DNA  Here is the same section of DNA but from another cell. If you can imagine that DNA is a twisted ladder, then each rung of the ladder is a pair of joined molecules, or a base pair. With this section of DNA, one of the base pairs is different from the original. This DNA has suffered a mutation, either through miss-copying (when its parent cell divided), or through the damaging effects of exposure to radiation or a chemical carcinogen.
    36. 36. 3. Genetically altered cell  Body cells replicate through mitosis, they respond to their surrounding cells and replicate only to replace other cells. Sometimes a genetic mutation will cause a cell and its descendants to reproduce even though replacement cells are not needed. The DNA of the cell highlighted above has a mutation that causes the cell to replicate even though this tissue doesn't need replacement cells at this time or at this place.
    37. 37. 4. Spread and second mutation  The genetically altered cells have, over time, reproduced unchecked, crowding out the surrounding normal cells. The growth may contain one million cells and be the size of a pinhead. At this point the cells continue to look the same as the surrounding healthy cells. After about a million divisions, there's a good chance that one of the new cells will have mutated further. This cell, now carrying two mutant genes, could have an altered appearance and be even more prone to reproduce unchecked.
    38. 38. 5. Third mutation  Not all mutations that lead to cancerous cells result in the cells reproducing at a faster, more uncontrolled rate. For example, a mutation may simply cause a cell to keep from self-destructing. All normal cells have surveillance mechanisms that look for damage or for problems with their own control systems. If such problems are found, the cell destroys itself. Over time and after many cell divisions, a third mutation may arise. If the mutation gives the cell some further advantage, that cell will grow more vigorously than its predecessors and thus speed up the growth of the tumour.
    39. 39. 6. Fourth mutation  The new type of cells grow rapidly, allowing for more opportunities for mutations. The next mutation paves the way for the development of an even more aggressive cancer. At this point the tumour is still contained.
    40. 40. 7. Breaking through the membrane  The newer, wilder cells created by another mutation are able to push their way through the epithelial tissue's basement membrane, which is a meshwork of protein that normally creates a barrier. The invasive cells in this tumour are no longer contained. At this point the cancer is still too small to be detected.
    41. 41. 8. Angiogenesis   Often during the development of earlier stages of the tumour, or perhaps by the time the tumour has broken through the basement membrane (as pictured above), angiogenesis takes place. Angiogenesis is the recruitment of blood vessels from the network of neighbouring vessels. Without blood and the nutrients it carries, a tumour would be unable to continue growing. With the new blood supply, however, the growth of the tumour accelerates; it soon contains thousand million cells and, now the size of a small grape, is large enough to be detected as a lump.
    42. 42. 9.Invasion and dispersal  The tumour has now invaded the tissue beyond the basement membrane. Individual cells from the tumour enter into the network of newly formed blood vessels, using these vessels as highways by which they can move to other parts of the body. A tumour as small as a gram can send out a million tumour cells into blood vessels a day.
    43. 43. 10. Tumour cells travel - metastasis   What makes most tumours so lethal is their ability to metastasize -- that is, establish new tumour sites at other locations throughout the body. Secondary tumours. Metastasis is now underway, as tumour cells from the original cancer growth travel throughout the body. Most of these cells will die soon after entering the blood or lymph circulation.
    44. 44. 11. Metastasis   To form a secondary tumour, a tumour cell needs to leave the vessel system and invade tissue. The cell must attach itself to a vessel's wall. Once this is done, it can work its way through the vessel and enter the tissue. Although perhaps less than one in 10,000 tumour cells will survive long enough to establish a new tumour site, a few survivors can escape and initiate new colonies of the cancer.
    45. 45. Types of cancer     Blood Cancer: The cells in the bone marrow that give rise to  red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets can sometimes become cancerous. These cancers are leukemia or lymphoma. Bone Cancer: Bone cancer is a relatively rare type of cancer that can affect both children and adults, but primarily affects children and teens. Brain Cancer: Brain tumors can be malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous). They affect both children and adults. Malignant brain tumors don't often spread beyond the brain. However, other types of cancer have the ability to spread to the brain. Breast Cancer: Breast cancer is a common type of cancer that affects women and much less commonly, men. More than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer.
    46. 46. Types of cancer Digestive/Gastrointestinal Cancers This is a broad category of cancer that affects everything from the esophagus to the anus. Each type is specific and has its own symptoms, causes, and treatments.  Eye Cancer: Like other organs in the human body, the eyes are vulnerable to cancer as well. Eye cancer can affect both children and adults.  Endocrine Cancers: The endocrine system is an instrumental part of the body that is responsible for glandular and hormonal activity. Thyroid cancer is the most common of the endocrine cancer types and generally, the least fatal.  Genitourinary Cancers: These types of cancer affect the male genitalia and urinary tract.   Gynecologic Cancers: This group of cancer types affect the organs of the female reproductive system. Specialized oncologists called  gynecologic oncologists are recommended for treating gynecologic cancer.  
    47. 47. Types of cancer Head and Neck Cancer: Most head and neck cancers affect moist mucosal surfaces of the head and neck, like the mouth, throat, and nose. Causes of head and neck cancer vary, but cigarette smoking plays a role.  Respiratory Cancers: Cigarette smoking is the primary cause for cancer affecting the respiratory system. Exposure to asbestos is also a factor.   Skin Cancers: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer among men and women. Exposure to the UV rays of the sun is the primary cause for non-melanoma skin cancer and also melanoma. 
    48. 48. T E CARE AK THANK YOU