Zoology Seminar 2011


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Zoology Seminar 2011

  1. 2. ZOOLOGY SEMINAR By Watson & Crick group Std XII.A
  2. 3. Our group includes.... <ul><li>Ajay Zacharia </li></ul><ul><li>Azwad V.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul D. Vithayathil </li></ul><ul><li>Sharun Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Aelikutty Johny </li></ul><ul><li>Aparna E.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Deeptha Jayakumar </li></ul><ul><li>Jaisy James </li></ul><ul><li>Janifer N. Zahran </li></ul><ul><li>Linda Joise George </li></ul><ul><li>Neha Omgy </li></ul><ul><li>Rona Shake </li></ul><ul><li>Shallin T.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Noel </li></ul><ul><li>Joju Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Reswin A. Khader </li></ul><ul><li>Vishak P.M. </li></ul><ul><li>Anju M. George </li></ul><ul><li>Aysha Sathar </li></ul><ul><li>Farha Jafar </li></ul><ul><li>Janaky S. </li></ul><ul><li>Jitha Johny </li></ul><ul><li>Merlin John </li></ul><ul><li>Ria Mariam Eldho </li></ul><ul><li>Rukhsana S. </li></ul><ul><li>Surya Francis </li></ul>
  3. 4. WELCOME...... :D
  6. 8. Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is a term we use to describe the variety of life on Earth. It refers to the wide variety of ecosystems and living organisms: animals, plants, their habitats and their genes
  7. 10. LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION <ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological diversity </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation  is all the different genes contained in all the living species including individual plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity  is all the different species, as well as the differences within and between different species </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Ecological diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem diversity  is all the different habitats, biological communities and ecological processes, as well as variation within individual ecosystems </li></ul>
  11. 16. Biodiversity supports many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in water purification, recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils.
  12. 17. Valuing Biodiversity <ul><li>Most values are assigned by humans </li></ul><ul><li>Most are related to human survival </li></ul>
  13. 18. Use values <ul><li>Direct uses of biodiversity: consumptive - food, medicines, non-consumptive - eco-tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to trade & commerce, monetary value readily assigned, varies with demand </li></ul>
  14. 20. Non-use values <ul><li>Indirectly related to humans, ecosystem services, future options, aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary valuation difficult </li></ul>
  15. 22. HOW MANY SPECIES ARE THERE ON EARTH? <ul><li>Scientists have yet to discover, or classify, about 90 percent of the plant and animal species on Earth, which is estimated to be home to just under 9 million species, a study says </li></ul>
  16. 24. HOW MANY SPECIES ARE THERE IN INDIA? 250,000(12) 15,000(6) Flowering Plants 21,730(11) 2546(5) Fishes 4,522(10) 197(4) Amphibians 6,550(9) 408(3) Reptiles 9,702(8) 1224(2) Birds 4,629(7) 350(1) Mammals Number of species in the world (SW) Number of species in India (SI) Group
  17. 25. Patterns of biodiversity
  18. 26. <ul><li>Latitudinal gradients </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the  latitudinal diversity gradient  (LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. Put another way, in the present day localities at lower latitudes generally have more species than localities at higher latitudes. The LDG has been observed to varying degrees in Earth's past </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>Species-Area relationships </li></ul><ul><li>In ecology, a  species-area curve  is a relationship between the area of a habitat, or of part of a habitat, and the number of species found within that area. Larger areas tend to contain larger numbers of species, and empirically, the relative numbers seem to follow systematic mathematical relationships </li></ul>
  20. 29. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIES DIVERSITY TO THE ECOSYSTEM <ul><li>According to the Encyclopedia of Earth, species diversity is a measurement of an ecosystem's species richness and species evenness. If an ecosystem has poor species diversity, it may not function properly or efficiently. </li></ul>
  21. 31. PATTERNS OF BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>The patterns of species diversity in an area or at any one time are set by some combination of three factors:  chance, history and necessity. </li></ul>
  22. 32. Chance <ul><li>The random processes of birth, death and migration. A lizard might arrive unpredictably on a remote island, for example, because the log it was on happened to float in the right direction. </li></ul>
  23. 33. History <ul><li>The correlation through time as a function of reproduction. In other words, if a species was abundant in the near past, chances are that it will be abundant today. Also, progeny tend to cluster near the parents, therefore, we tend to find organisms in &quot;pockets&quot; rather than evenly distributed in space </li></ul>
  24. 34. Necessity <ul><li>The laws of growth, competition and interaction. Different species flourish in different conditions. The number of species that can coexist will depend on how complex the environment is and on how strongly they compete with one another. And, of course, the number of species of herbivores, predators and parasites will depend on the number of plants, prey and hosts. </li></ul>
  25. 35. Threats to biodiversity
  26. 36. <ul><li>In our eagerness to improve living conditions for the six billion members of our species, we humans are imposing serious threats to the survival of much biodiversity, including many species whose direct value is clearly established. Almost all ecosystems are greatly modified by humans, who transform habitats and exterminate rivals and competitors. </li></ul>
  27. 37. Habitat degradation <ul><li>The greatest threat is the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. This includes clearing forests for timber or plantations, overgrazing, draining wetlands and the destruction of heath lands and coral reefs. </li></ul>
  28. 38. Over-exploitation <ul><li>Excessive exploitation has pushed some species to the verge of extinction. Included are the tiger, Giant Panda, Black Rhinoceros, cod and several whale species. Between 1979 and 1989 the African elephant population was halved by ivory poaching. Other species have been relentlessly persecuted as vermin, often based on wrong assumptions about the supposed harm they caused. For centuries in Britain, Red Kites had a price on their head as ‘lamb-killers’, in spite of their lack of strength for such a task. </li></ul>
  29. 40. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>a </li></ul>
  30. 41. CAUSES OF BIODIVERSITY LOSSES <ul><li>a </li></ul>
  31. 42. <ul><li>Habitat loss and fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>This is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Habitat loss is directly linked to human induced pressures on land. </li></ul>
  32. 44. <ul><li>Over-exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Over-hunting, over-fishing or over-collecting of a species can quickly lead to its decline. Changing consumption patterns of human is often cited as the key reason for this unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. </li></ul>
  33. 45. <ul><li>Alien species invasions </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of exotic species that replace local and native species is cited as the second largest of biodiversity loss. Alien invasive species replace, and offer result in the extinction of native species. The annual economic damage caused by invasive plant and animal species is estimated to be in the region of US$1.4 trillion. </li></ul>
  34. 47. <ul><li>Co-extinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Biological systems respond slowly to changes in their surrounding environment. Pollution and contamination cause irreversible damage to species. Both climate variability and climate change cause biodiversity loss. Species and populations may be lost permanently, if they are not provided with enough time to adapt to changing climate conditions. </li></ul>
  36. 50. WHY SHOULD WE CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY? <ul><li>Biodiversity is the cornerstone of our existence on Earth. It is also important to conserve biodiversity for the sake of our own curiosity and aesthetic appreciation.  </li></ul>
  37. 52. <ul><li>Narrowly utilitarian arguments </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>
  38. 53. <ul><li>Broadly utilitarian arguments </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>
  39. 54. <ul><li>Ethical arguments </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>
  40. 55. The present scenario...
  41. 57. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>Species and ecosystems need space to develop and recover. At least 10% of all ecosystem types should be under protection to maintain nature and natural landscapes. </li></ul>
  42. 58. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>Without biodiversity there will be no agriculture. Farming practices should not jeopardize species survival: improving farmland diversity and reducing the usage of pesticides and fertilizer are key efforts to saving biodiversity. Organic agriculture practices can serve as an example in many areas. </li></ul>
  43. 59. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>Climate change is considered to be the greatest challenge for humanity. With changing conditions, ecosystems and habitats will change as well. It is an obligation to fight climate change and make sure that species can migrate or adapt to new surroundings. </li></ul>
  44. 60. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>If you release a species outside its usual habitat, it might simply die. In other cases, the so-called alien invasive species have thrived and destroyed local flora and fauna. As you never know how things turn out, reducing these invasions is crucial. </li></ul>
  45. 62. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>75% of all fisheries are fully exploited or over-fished. Species like cod, haddock and halibut are already threatened. If we do not move towards sustainable use, there will be no fish left for our grandchildren. </li></ul>
  46. 63. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>Roads, factories and housing destroy habitats for animals and plants. If urban and rural development continues to ignore nature, our surroundings will be dominated by concrete and pollution. </li></ul>
  47. 64. Seven steps to save biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity is the foundation for sustainable development. Its ecosystem services provide the basis for all economic activity. Biodiversity concerns need thus be integrated into all areas of policy-making. Measures include market incentives, development assistance, biodiversity-friendly trade and international governance processes. </li></ul>
  48. 66. HOW DO WE CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY? <ul><li>Conservation biology matured in the mid-20th century as ecologists, naturalists, and other scientists began to research and address issues pertaining to global biodiversity declines. </li></ul>
  49. 67. <ul><li>In situ conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of habitats, species and ecosystems where they naturally occur. This is in-situ conservation and the natural processes and interaction are conserved as well as the elements of biodiversity. </li></ul>
  50. 68. ENDEMISM <ul><li>Endemism  is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. </li></ul>
  51. 70. SACRED GROVES <ul><li>A  sacred grove  is a grove of trees of special religious importance to a particular culture. Sacred groves were most prominent in the Ancient Near East and prehistoric Europe, but feature in various cultures throughout the world. </li></ul>
  52. 72. <ul><li>Ex situ conservation </li></ul><ul><li>The conservation of elements of biodiversity out of the context of their natural habitats is referred to as ex-situ conservation. Zoos, botanical gardens and seed banks are all example of ex-situ conservation. </li></ul>
  53. 73. Organizations came forward for the conservation of biodiversity
  54. 77. How beautiful our earth is when biodiversity is conserved...?
  55. 78. Thank you.....
  56. 79. THE END