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# Wind Turbine

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• Njce! Thanks for sharing.

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• Such a detailed presentation! It's clear and highly informative. Thanks for this set!

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• thanx

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• Nice presentation. The information was introduced in a very detailed manner. There were calculations shown which is effective since you are giving a specific detail about the topic. It was explained further to the benefit of many. With this, many will be influenced to use wind turbines because of its many benefits.

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### Wind Turbine

1. 1. Wind Turbines<br />By: Ahmed Yehya Mohamed MohamedSameh MohamedMohamed MahmoudMoustafaMina FaragAdlyMohamed Anwar<br />
2. 2. wind<br />
3. 3. Wind power calculation<br />Power= work / time<br /> = Kinetic Energy / t<br /> = ½mV2 / t<br /> = ½(ρAd)V2/t<br /> = ½ρAV2(d/t)<br /> = ½ρAV3<br />Power in the Wind = ½ρAV3<br />
4. 4. Inside a Wind Turbine<br />
5. 5.
6. 6. Types of wind turbines according to power<br />Small (10 kW)<br /><ul><li>Homes
7. 7. Farms
8. 8. Remote Applications</li></ul>(e.g. water pumping, telecom sites, icemaking)<br />Intermediate<br /> (10-250 kW)<br /><ul><li>Village Power
9. 9. Hybrid Systems
10. 10. Distributed Power</li></ul>Large (250 kW - 2+MW)<br /><ul><li>Central Station Wind Farms
11. 11. Distributed Power</li></li></ul><li>Types of wind turbinesaccording to design <br />
12. 12. Horizontal axis turbines<br />advantages<br />Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack<br />The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear.<br />High efficiency, since the blades always move perpendicularly to the wind, receiving power through the whole rotation.<br />disadvantages<br />Tall towers and blades up to 90 meters long are difficult to transport. Transportation can now cost 20% of equipment costs.<br />Tall HAWTs are difficult to install, needing very tall and expensive cranes and skilled operators<br />Massive tower construction is required to support the heavy blades, gearbox, and generator<br />
13. 13. Vertical Axis Turbines<br />Advantages<br />Omnidirectional<br />Accepts wind from any angle<br />Components can be mounted at ground level<br />Ease of service<br />Lighter weight towers<br />Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind<br />Disadvantages<br />Rotors generally near ground where wind poorer<br />Centrifugal force stresses blades<br />Poor self-starting capabilities<br />Requires support at top of turbine rotor<br />Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings<br />Overall poor performance and reliability<br />Have never been commercially successful<br />
14. 14. Vertical Axis Turbines<br />advantages<br />Omnidirectional<br />Accepts wind from any angle<br />Components can be mounted at ground level<br />Ease of service<br />Lighter weight towers<br />Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind<br />Disadvantages<br />Rotors generally near ground where wind poorer<br />Centrifugal force stresses blades<br />Poor self-starting capabilities<br />Requires support at top of turbine rotor<br />Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings<br />Overall poor performance and reliability<br />Have never been commercially successful<br />
15. 15. Classification according to number of blades<br />
16. 16. Number of Blades – One<br />Rotor must move more rapidly to capture same amount of wind<br />Gearbox ratio reduced<br />Added weight of counterbalance negates some benefits of lighter design<br />Higher speed means more noise, visual, and wildlife impacts<br />Blades easier to install because entire rotor can be assembled on ground<br />Captures 10% less energy than two blade design<br />Ultimately provide no cost savings<br />
17. 17. Number of Blades - Two<br />Advantages & disadvantages similar to one blade<br />Need teetering hub and or shock absorbers because of gyroscopic imbalances<br />Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs<br />
18. 18. Number of Blades - Three<br />Balance of gyroscopic forces<br />Slower rotation<br />increases gearbox & transmission costs<br />More aesthetic, less noise, fewer bird strikes<br />
19. 19. Airfoil Nomenclaturewind turbines use the same aerodynamic principals as aircraft<br />
20. 20. Lift & Drag Forces<br />The Lift Force is perpendicular to the direction of motion. We want to make this force BIG.<br />The Drag Force is parallel to the direction of motion. We want to make this force small.<br />α = low<br />α = medium<br />&lt;10 degrees<br />α = High<br />Stall!!<br />
21. 21. ΩR<br />Ωr<br />α<br />V<br />V<br />VR = Relative Wind<br />Apparent Wind & Angle of Attack<br />α = angle of attack = angle between the chord line and the direction of the relative wind, VR .<br />VR = wind speed seen by the airfoil – vector sum of V (free stream wind) and ΩR (tip speed).<br />
22. 22. Twist & Taper<br />Speed through the air of a point on the blade changes with distance from hub<br />Therefore, tip speed ratio varies as well<br />To optimize angle of attack all along blade, it must twist from root to tip<br />Fastest<br />Faster<br />Fast<br />
23. 23. Wind turbines sites<br />
24. 24.
25. 25. “The rotor is the single most critical element of any wind turbine… How a wind turbine controls the forces acting on the rotor, particularly in high winds, is of the utmost importance to the long-term, reliable function of any wind turbine.” Paul Gipe<br />Rotor Controls<br />Micro Turbines<br />May not have any controls<br />Blade flutter<br />Small Turbines<br />Furling (upwind) – rotor moves to reduce frontal area facing wind<br />Coning (downwind) – rotor blades come to a sharper cone<br />Passive pitch governors – blades pitch out of wind<br />Medium Turbines<br />Aerodynamic Stall<br />Mechanical Brakes<br />Aerodynamic Brakes<br />
26. 26. Turbine Power Limited By <br /><ul><li>Power in the wind
27. 27. Betz limit (air can not be slowed to zero)
28. 28. Low speed losses - wake rotation
29. 29. Drag losses – aerodynamics and blade geometry
30. 30. Generator and drivetrain inefficiencies</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />