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Wind
                      Turbine




Mostafa Ghadamyari

Ferdowsi university
  1 of Mashhad           Ken Youssefi / Hsu



   Winter 2012
Wind Turbine


How wind is created ?
Sun -> Different absorption -> dT -> density difference -> WIND

Wind energy is created when the atmosphere is heated unevenly by
the Sun, some patches of air become warmer than others. These
warm patches of air rise, other air rushes in to replace them – thus,
wind blows :

A wind turbine extracts energy from moving air by slowing the wind
down, and transferring this energy into a spinning shaft, which
usually turns a generator to produce electricity. The power in the
wind that’s available for harvest depends on both the wind speed
and the area that’s swept by the turbine blades.
Wind Turbine Design
Two types of turbine design: Horizontal axis and Vertical axis.

Horizontal axis turbines: Can reach higher altitude wind but requires
a substantial tower structure. Used in most modern wind turbine
designs.

Vertical axis turbines: No need to turn into wind (yaw), easier
construction and maintenance (generator and gear box are on the
ground) level, lower efficiency.




    Vertical                                               Horizontal axis
    axis                                                   Turbine
    Turbine
Drag or Lift Design

Wind turbines are designed based on either aerodynamic
Drag or Lift force.

                               Drag Design
    The wind literally pushes the blades out of the way.

    Slower rotational speeds and high torque capabilities. Useful for
    providing mechanical work (water pumping e.g.).




4      Engineering 10, SJSU                                     Ken Youssefi / Hsu
Lift Design
•Blade is essentially an airfoil (like wings of
airplanes).

•When air flows past the blade, a wind speed
and pressure differential is created between                           Lift
the upper and lower blade surfaces. The
pressure at the lower surface is greater and
thus acts to "lift" the blade.

•The lift force is translated into rotational
motion.

•Lift design generally has higher efficiency
and is used in most modern turbines.


 We focus our discussion on the Lift Design Horizontal Axis Turbine.
Main components of a Horizontal Axis
Wind Turbine




Blades and rotor:   Converts the wind power to a rotational mechanical power.

Generator: Converts the rotational mechanical power to electrical power.

Gear box: Wind turbines rotate typically between 40 rpm and 400 rpm.
Generators typically rotates at 1,200 to 1,800 rpm. Most wind turbines require
a step-up gear-box for efficient generator operation (electricity production).
Power Generated by HWind Turbine

               Power = ½ (ρ)(A)(V)3 (Cp)

   ρ = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3 at sea level, 20 oC and dry air

  A = swept area = π(radius)2, m2
  V = Wind Velocity, m/sec.                                         A
  Cp = Efficiency=0.35~0.45, typically


  The power in the wind is Pwind = ½ (ρ)(A)(V)3. The amount of
  power that can be captured by a turbine is only 35% to 45% of
  that amount (i.e., Cp = 0.35 ~ 0.45).
  The theoretical maximum for Cp is 0.593, i.e., the theoretical
  maximum efficiency of a turbine is 59.3%. This maximum
  efficiency is called Betz Limit.
Rotor Blade Variables

           Blade Length
          Blade Number
            Blade Pitch
           Blade Shape
          Blade Materials
           Blade Weight


What should be the blade profile?
What should be the angle of attack?

    How many blades to use?
Number of Blades – One
• Rotor must move more
  rapidly to capture same
  amount of wind
   – Gearbox ratio reduced
   – Added weight of
     counterbalance negates
     some benefits of lighter
     design
   – Higher speed means more
     noise, visual, and wildlife
     impacts
• Blades easier to install
  because entire rotor can
  be assembled on ground
• Captures 10% less energy
  than two blade design
• Ultimately provide no cost
  savings
Number of Blades - Two
• Advantages &
  disadvantages
  similar to one blade
• Need teetering hub
  and or shock
  absorbers because of
  gyroscopic
  imbalances
• Capture 5% less
  energy than three
  blade designs
Number of Blades - Three



•   Balance of gyroscopic forces
•   Slower rotation
    – increases gearbox &
      transmission costs
    – More aesthetic, less noise,
      fewer bird strikes
Wind Turbine – Blade Design
Blade Angle
The angle between the chord line of the blade and the wind
direction (called angle of attack) has a large effect on the lift
force (see figure below). Typically, maximum lift force is
achieved with 1.0 to 15.0 degrees angle of attack.
                                     ch
                                        or
                                          d
                        Angle of              lin
                                                    e
                        Attack                          Lift
                     Wind
Wind Turbine – Blade Design
Relative Wind direction
Wind direction relative to blade depends on wind speed
and rotor speed.
                     Angle of attack

      Blade                      wind
                             e
      motion              tiv n relative wind
      direction      e l a c ti o
                    R e              due to blade
                     d  ir
                                     speed
                     wind
                     direction
Wind Turbine – Blade Design (Shape)
             To see the wind moves relative to the rotor
             blades, red ribbons are attached to the tip of
             the rotor blades and yellow ribbons about 1/4
             of distance from the hub.

             If the tip of the rotor blade moves through the
             air with a tip speed = 64 m/s, the speed at the
             centre of the hub is zero. 1/4 out from the hub,
             the speed will then be ~16 m/s.

             The yellow ribbons close to the hub will be
             blown more towards the back of the turbine
             than the red ribbons at the tips of the blades.
Wind Turbine – Blade Design (Shape)

Recall that to reach the maximum lift, the angle of
attack must be at a specific value for a given blade
design.

Angle of attack depends on the relative wind speed
which varies along the blade (highest at the tip).

To achieve an optimal angle of attack throughout the
length of the blade, the blade must be “twisted” along
the blade length.

To maintain a uniform stress on the blade, the chord
length (blade width) is narrower near the tip.
Wind Turbine – Blade Design
Blade size and shape
                                          Last profile next
  5-station design as seen from the tip   to the hub




              First profile at
              the tip
Typical Wind Turbine Operation

0 ~ 5 m/s   ---   Wind speed is too low for generating power. Turbine is not
                  operational. Rotor is locked.

5 ~ 15 m/s ---- 5 m/s is the minimum operational speed. It is called “Cut-in
                 speed”. In 10 ~ 25 mph wind, generated power increases
                 with the wind speed.

15 ~ 25 m/s ---- Typical wind turbines reach the rated power (maximum
                 operating power) at wind speed of 15 m/s (called Rated wind
                 speed). Further increase in wind speed will not result in
                 substantially higher generated power by design. This is
                 accomplished by, for example, pitching the blade angle to
                 reduce the turbine efficiency.

> 25 m/s    ---- Turbine is shut down when wind speed is higher than 50mph
                  (called “Cut-out” speed) to prevent structure failure.
Worldwide Energy Sources
85%




1.24%




        Engineering 10, SJSU
Questions?
Questions?
Acknowledgement
 Special thanks to :
 -Ken Youssefi / Hsu (San Jose State University)
 -Jaime Carbonell (Carnegie Mellon University)
 -Joseph Rand (The Kidwind Project)

 For their powerpoints about wind power.




21

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Wind turbine

  • 1. Wind Turbine Mostafa Ghadamyari Ferdowsi university 1 of Mashhad Ken Youssefi / Hsu Winter 2012
  • 2. Wind Turbine How wind is created ? Sun -> Different absorption -> dT -> density difference -> WIND Wind energy is created when the atmosphere is heated unevenly by the Sun, some patches of air become warmer than others. These warm patches of air rise, other air rushes in to replace them – thus, wind blows : A wind turbine extracts energy from moving air by slowing the wind down, and transferring this energy into a spinning shaft, which usually turns a generator to produce electricity. The power in the wind that’s available for harvest depends on both the wind speed and the area that’s swept by the turbine blades.
  • 3. Wind Turbine Design Two types of turbine design: Horizontal axis and Vertical axis. Horizontal axis turbines: Can reach higher altitude wind but requires a substantial tower structure. Used in most modern wind turbine designs. Vertical axis turbines: No need to turn into wind (yaw), easier construction and maintenance (generator and gear box are on the ground) level, lower efficiency. Vertical Horizontal axis axis Turbine Turbine
  • 4. Drag or Lift Design Wind turbines are designed based on either aerodynamic Drag or Lift force. Drag Design The wind literally pushes the blades out of the way. Slower rotational speeds and high torque capabilities. Useful for providing mechanical work (water pumping e.g.). 4 Engineering 10, SJSU Ken Youssefi / Hsu
  • 5. Lift Design •Blade is essentially an airfoil (like wings of airplanes). •When air flows past the blade, a wind speed and pressure differential is created between Lift the upper and lower blade surfaces. The pressure at the lower surface is greater and thus acts to "lift" the blade. •The lift force is translated into rotational motion. •Lift design generally has higher efficiency and is used in most modern turbines. We focus our discussion on the Lift Design Horizontal Axis Turbine.
  • 6. Main components of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blades and rotor: Converts the wind power to a rotational mechanical power. Generator: Converts the rotational mechanical power to electrical power. Gear box: Wind turbines rotate typically between 40 rpm and 400 rpm. Generators typically rotates at 1,200 to 1,800 rpm. Most wind turbines require a step-up gear-box for efficient generator operation (electricity production).
  • 7. Power Generated by HWind Turbine Power = ½ (ρ)(A)(V)3 (Cp) ρ = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3 at sea level, 20 oC and dry air A = swept area = π(radius)2, m2 V = Wind Velocity, m/sec. A Cp = Efficiency=0.35~0.45, typically The power in the wind is Pwind = ½ (ρ)(A)(V)3. The amount of power that can be captured by a turbine is only 35% to 45% of that amount (i.e., Cp = 0.35 ~ 0.45). The theoretical maximum for Cp is 0.593, i.e., the theoretical maximum efficiency of a turbine is 59.3%. This maximum efficiency is called Betz Limit.
  • 8.
  • 9. Rotor Blade Variables Blade Length Blade Number Blade Pitch Blade Shape Blade Materials Blade Weight What should be the blade profile? What should be the angle of attack? How many blades to use?
  • 10. Number of Blades – One • Rotor must move more rapidly to capture same amount of wind – Gearbox ratio reduced – Added weight of counterbalance negates some benefits of lighter design – Higher speed means more noise, visual, and wildlife impacts • Blades easier to install because entire rotor can be assembled on ground • Captures 10% less energy than two blade design • Ultimately provide no cost savings
  • 11. Number of Blades - Two • Advantages & disadvantages similar to one blade • Need teetering hub and or shock absorbers because of gyroscopic imbalances • Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs
  • 12. Number of Blades - Three • Balance of gyroscopic forces • Slower rotation – increases gearbox & transmission costs – More aesthetic, less noise, fewer bird strikes
  • 13. Wind Turbine – Blade Design Blade Angle The angle between the chord line of the blade and the wind direction (called angle of attack) has a large effect on the lift force (see figure below). Typically, maximum lift force is achieved with 1.0 to 15.0 degrees angle of attack. ch or d Angle of lin e Attack Lift Wind
  • 14. Wind Turbine – Blade Design Relative Wind direction Wind direction relative to blade depends on wind speed and rotor speed. Angle of attack Blade wind e motion tiv n relative wind direction e l a c ti o R e due to blade d ir speed wind direction
  • 15. Wind Turbine – Blade Design (Shape) To see the wind moves relative to the rotor blades, red ribbons are attached to the tip of the rotor blades and yellow ribbons about 1/4 of distance from the hub. If the tip of the rotor blade moves through the air with a tip speed = 64 m/s, the speed at the centre of the hub is zero. 1/4 out from the hub, the speed will then be ~16 m/s. The yellow ribbons close to the hub will be blown more towards the back of the turbine than the red ribbons at the tips of the blades.
  • 16. Wind Turbine – Blade Design (Shape) Recall that to reach the maximum lift, the angle of attack must be at a specific value for a given blade design. Angle of attack depends on the relative wind speed which varies along the blade (highest at the tip). To achieve an optimal angle of attack throughout the length of the blade, the blade must be “twisted” along the blade length. To maintain a uniform stress on the blade, the chord length (blade width) is narrower near the tip.
  • 17. Wind Turbine – Blade Design Blade size and shape Last profile next 5-station design as seen from the tip to the hub First profile at the tip
  • 18. Typical Wind Turbine Operation 0 ~ 5 m/s --- Wind speed is too low for generating power. Turbine is not operational. Rotor is locked. 5 ~ 15 m/s ---- 5 m/s is the minimum operational speed. It is called “Cut-in speed”. In 10 ~ 25 mph wind, generated power increases with the wind speed. 15 ~ 25 m/s ---- Typical wind turbines reach the rated power (maximum operating power) at wind speed of 15 m/s (called Rated wind speed). Further increase in wind speed will not result in substantially higher generated power by design. This is accomplished by, for example, pitching the blade angle to reduce the turbine efficiency. > 25 m/s ---- Turbine is shut down when wind speed is higher than 50mph (called “Cut-out” speed) to prevent structure failure.
  • 19. Worldwide Energy Sources 85% 1.24% Engineering 10, SJSU
  • 21. Acknowledgement Special thanks to : -Ken Youssefi / Hsu (San Jose State University) -Jaime Carbonell (Carnegie Mellon University) -Joseph Rand (The Kidwind Project) For their powerpoints about wind power. 21

Editor's Notes

  1. Fossil fuels dominate energy sources – oil, coal, gas