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Methodology in Sciences: Islamic Traditional Approach

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This is for our UNGS 2040 presentation

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Methodology in Sciences: Islamic Traditional Approach

  1. 1. Methodology in Sciences Buraidah Farhana bt Burukhan Ali (1222726) Nursyairah bt Kosing (1319396) Ramiza bt Mohamed Rafi (1228264) Shafidatul Ismi bt Ismail (1226544)
  2. 2. Definition of Methodology  Method:  a particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something, especially a systematic or established one.  implies an orderly logical arrangement.  Methodology:  The theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to a field study or to the body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge.  A body of practices, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline or engage in an inquiry
  3. 3. Kinds of Methodologies  Methodology in revealed knowledge (Islamic Methodology)  Methodology in human knowledge (pure and social sciences)  Integrative methodology of revealed and human knowledge
  4. 4. Islamic Methodology  To integrate knowledge by combining the revelation and reasons in order to face the obstacles and challenges of the modern world and the society.
  5. 5. Importance of Islamic Research Methodology- Yousif (2004)  To refute directly or indirectly wrong philosophical ideas that have the negative effect on the faith of Muslims  To affirm the truth of Islam and defend Islamic beliefs  To seek the reality, recognize Allah  To promote good humanity
  6. 6. Methodologies Used by The Early Muslim Scholars  Collection of data  Verifications  Reliable narrators  Chain of transformations  Consultation and consensus  Ijtihad  Istihsan (jursitic preference)  Masalih mursalah/ maslahah (public interest)  ‘Urf (a particular custom)
  7. 7. Evaluation of Sanad  First narrators must be eyewitness to the events  Chain must not be missing or broken  Narrators must be reliable of their intellectual & moral credentials  Muslim  Excellent religious integrity  Posses sound muru’ah  Ability to memorize  Well-known  knowledgeable
  8. 8. Evaluation of Matan  Wording is not of poor standards  Does not contain anything contradictory to  Common sense, knowledge & findings  General principles of Shari’ah, Qur’an & Sunnah  Actual facts proven by human senses  Human reason  Sunnatullah  Historical facts & realities
  9. 9. Ijma’  To determine, To agree about something  “Universal consensus of the scholars of the Muslim community”
  10. 10. Masalih Mursalah/Maslahah  Interest, advantage, benefit  benefit and repulsion of the harm to the public based on the benefit or interest that will be enjoyed by the public  to suit the varying conditions of life, culture, locations which are constantly changing
  11. 11.  Public interest that are not stated in the Qur’an & Sunnah  No precise evidence about whether to reject or accept a maslahah but indirectly it is intended to be preserved by Islam  The compilation of Qur’an
  12. 12. Istihsan  Deem something preferable  Exercising personal opinion to avoid unfairness as a result of practicing the existing law  Cutting the hands of thieves in cases famine
  13. 13. Ijtihad  Method of making legal decisions by independent interpretations of Qur’an & Sunnah  Mujtahid  Demands a certain rank of knowledge  restricted to derivation of the legal rulings- meaning is definite & fixed on the legal system (fiqh)
  14. 14. Jabir, 1993  “teachings, ideas and judgments should not be taken at face value, nor adhered to blindly, but ought to be scrutinized and understood within a proper perspective.”  “began to develop as a science in its own right, offering a new methodology based on the observation of the objective of the objective world.”
  15. 15. Importance  Systematic thinking  Transformation of human intellect  Remove any obstacle or limitation which would affect its development
  16. 16. ‘Urf  Recurring practices that are accepted by people  Principles approved by custom in determining the rules regarding 'halal' & 'haram‘  Represent a recurrent & common practice  Practiced at the time  Must not violate the text of the Qur'an & Sunnah  Must not contradict with a clearly stipulated agreement
  17. 17. The Traditional Islamic Approach  In early Islamic period- to achieve the conclusion which corresponded with reality. - Example: the compilation and collection of Qur’an.  Strict and need lots of attention – Collecting ‘hadith’ by Muslim scholars must be precise and on the authority of Prophet. 17
  18. 18. Benefits During The Early Islamic Period 1) Applied reasoning. 2) Reliable. 3) Development of usul al-fiqh – Muslim scholars manage to get the conclusions. 4) Flowering of Islamic intellectual civilization – second until fourth centuries after hijrah. 5) Classical Greek and Persian works were translated and analyzed from tawhidic perspective. 18
  19. 19. 6) Muslim scholarship and research spread to astronomy, math and medicines. 7) Produced greatest scholars and researches in Islamic history - Abu Hamid Al- Ghazali - Abu Nasr Al- Farabi - Abu Ali Ibn Sina 19
  20. 20. Merits of Traditional Islamic Approach o The sincerity, piety, enthusiasm, attachment, dedication, devotion and taqwa of the early Muslim researchers o Contradicts to nowadays’ researchers; economic & professional purpose o NOT motivated by the monetary gains o Looks for rewards in the Hereafter o An act of ibadah- pursued with much vigor & enthusiasm o Reflect the God- consciousness in their writings 20
  21. 21. o Holistic nature- no distinction between revealed knowledge and empirically derived knowledge o Knowledge perceived as a comprehensive whole o Fully realization on khalifah responsibilities o Ensure the works accuracy o Early educational institutions ( madrasahs, kulliyahs, jami’ahs) were autonomous and independent o From any political, financial & other institutions o Due to the waqf systems o Enabled scholars to have tremendous liberty 21
  22. 22. o Traditional researches take great care and pains to remain faithful to the original interpretation of Islamic texts o Many hesitated to ijtihad o Fear of betrayal towards Prophet o Early scholars had greater familiarity with classical Arabic language than contemporary scholars o Facilitated their understanding o Prevention of the wrong interpretation 22
  23. 23. Shortcomings o Limits to the use of rationalization. o Time consuming due to the – limited means of communication and transportation. o Influenced by the ideologies, lifestyles and cultures of foreign lands. o Particular geographical region- affected. o The development of Islamic thought. o Research techniques o Methodology utilized 23
  24. 24. o Inability to apply what they learned in the madrasah to the current issues and new problems. o Madrasah- ineffective to produce scholars – capable of dealing with society’s problems in an Islamic manner. o Limit the scholars in undertaking research. o Limited access to original Islamic sources. o Financial disability. o Shortage of adequate facilities. o Lack of human resources. 24
  25. 25. Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic Methodology  Anything that does not correspond with reality must be rejected  Ultimate contradictions must be denied  Muslims must be open to new and/or contrary evidence  New approaches to accommodate new situations
  26. 26. Overcoming the Deficiencies of Traditional Islamic Approach  The rise in secularism  Muslim researchers should never underestimate the value of their own Islamic legacy (AQ & S)  Must constantly seek for guidance & wisdom from the Divine  Must recognize that rev. knowledge is based on eternal Truth  The need for greater integration b/w rev. knowledge & empirical- derived knowledge  No superstitious beliefs  Check the method used  Reject the results even if they do no contradict the rev. knowledge
  27. 27.  Technology illiteracy  Vital to become exposed & familiar with technology  Begins with the young researchers  Linguistic incompetence  Especially in English & Arabic  Arabic = essential for gaining access to the original source  English = medium of dissemination  Financial difficulties  Close cooperation b/w Muslim nations on areas of research of mutual benefit & concern
  28. 28.  Contemporary madrasahs  Develop a wider perspective on what’s considered as “Islamic Knowledge”  Presentation of materials must be relevant  Encouraged students to actively seek knowledge  Lack of confidence  Develop a greater confidence despite the weak ummah  A need to regain the sincerity & taqwa like the early researchers  Western don’t monopolize the knowledge & researches  A need for Muslims to recognize that  May look as preliminary understanding, but it’s up to the Muslims themselves to conclude
  29. 29. References  http://www.virtualmosque.com/islam-studies/islamic- law/towards-understanding-ijtihad-and-taqleed-a-brief- introduction/  http://www.wisdom.edu.ph/Shariah-fiq-usul/urf_and_istishab.htm  http://www.slideshare.net/nelfiamiera/urf-custom  http://www.academia.edu/7858172/Aplication_Maslahah_Mursa lah  http://www.slideshare.net/HabibJoelAlMukhlis/istihsan-34370061  http://www.wisdom.edu.ph/Shariah-fiq-usul/ijma.htm

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