Methodology in Sciences: Islamic Traditional Approach
Buraidah Farhana bt Burukhan Ali (1222726)
Nursyairah bt Kosing (1319396)
Ramiza bt Mohamed Rafi (1228264)
Shafidatul Ismi bt Ismail (1226544)
Definition of Methodology
a particular procedure for accomplishing or
approaching something, especially a systematic or
implies an orderly logical arrangement.
The theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to
a field study or to the body of methods and principles
particular to a branch of knowledge.
A body of practices, procedures, and rules used by
those who work in a discipline or engage in an inquiry
Kinds of Methodologies
Methodology in revealed knowledge (Islamic
Methodology in human knowledge (pure and social
Integrative methodology of revealed and human
To integrate knowledge by combining the revelation
and reasons in order to face the obstacles and
challenges of the modern world and the society.
Importance of Islamic Research
Methodology- Yousif (2004)
To refute directly or indirectly wrong philosophical ideas
that have the negative effect on the faith of Muslims
To affirm the truth of Islam and defend Islamic beliefs
To seek the reality, recognize Allah
To promote good humanity
Methodologies Used by
The Early Muslim Scholars
Collection of data
Chain of transformations
Consultation and consensus
Istihsan (jursitic preference)
Masalih mursalah/ maslahah (public interest)
‘Urf (a particular custom)
Evaluation of Sanad
First narrators must be eyewitness to the events
Chain must not be missing or broken
Narrators must be reliable of their intellectual & moral
Excellent religious integrity
Posses sound muru’ah
Ability to memorize
Evaluation of Matan
Wording is not of poor standards
Does not contain anything contradictory to
Common sense, knowledge & findings
General principles of Shari’ah, Qur’an &
Actual facts proven by human senses
Historical facts & realities
To determine, To agree about something
“Universal consensus of the scholars of the Muslim
Interest, advantage, benefit
benefit and repulsion of the harm to the public based
on the benefit or interest that will be enjoyed by the
to suit the varying conditions of life, culture, locations
which are constantly changing
Public interest that are not stated in the Qur’an &
No precise evidence about whether to reject or
accept a maslahah but indirectly it is intended to be
preserved by Islam
The compilation of Qur’an
Deem something preferable
Exercising personal opinion to avoid unfairness as a
result of practicing the existing law
Cutting the hands of thieves in cases famine
Method of making legal decisions by independent
interpretations of Qur’an & Sunnah
Demands a certain rank of knowledge
restricted to derivation of the legal rulings- meaning is
definite & fixed on the legal system (fiqh)
“teachings, ideas and judgments should not be
taken at face value, nor adhered to blindly, but
ought to be scrutinized and understood within a
“began to develop as a science in its own right,
offering a new methodology based on the
observation of the objective of the objective
Transformation of human intellect
Remove any obstacle or limitation which would affect
Recurring practices that are accepted by people
Principles approved by custom in determining the rules
regarding 'halal' & 'haram‘
Represent a recurrent & common practice
Practiced at the time
Must not violate the text of the Qur'an & Sunnah
Must not contradict with a clearly stipulated
The Traditional Islamic
In early Islamic period- to achieve the conclusion
which corresponded with reality.
- Example: the compilation and collection of Qur’an.
Strict and need lots of attention
– Collecting ‘hadith’ by Muslim scholars must be
precise and on the authority of Prophet.
Benefits During The Early
1) Applied reasoning.
3) Development of usul al-fiqh – Muslim scholars manage
to get the conclusions.
4) Flowering of Islamic intellectual civilization – second
until fourth centuries after hijrah.
5) Classical Greek and Persian works were translated and
analyzed from tawhidic perspective.
6) Muslim scholarship and research spread to
astronomy, math and medicines.
7) Produced greatest scholars and researches in Islamic
- Abu Hamid Al- Ghazali
- Abu Nasr Al- Farabi
- Abu Ali Ibn Sina
Merits of Traditional Islamic
o The sincerity, piety, enthusiasm, attachment,
dedication, devotion and taqwa of the early
o Contradicts to nowadays’ researchers;
economic & professional purpose
o NOT motivated by the monetary gains
o Looks for rewards in the Hereafter
o An act of ibadah- pursued with much vigor &
o Reflect the God- consciousness in their writings
o Holistic nature- no distinction between revealed knowledge
and empirically derived knowledge
o Knowledge perceived as a comprehensive whole
o Fully realization on khalifah responsibilities
o Ensure the works accuracy
o Early educational institutions ( madrasahs, kulliyahs, jami’ahs)
were autonomous and independent
o From any political, financial & other institutions
o Due to the waqf systems
o Enabled scholars to have tremendous liberty 21
o Traditional researches take great care and pains to
remain faithful to the original interpretation of Islamic
o Many hesitated to ijtihad
o Fear of betrayal towards Prophet
o Early scholars had greater familiarity with classical
Arabic language than contemporary scholars
o Facilitated their understanding
o Prevention of the wrong interpretation 22
o Limits to the use of rationalization.
o Time consuming due to the – limited means of
communication and transportation.
o Influenced by the ideologies, lifestyles and
cultures of foreign lands.
o Particular geographical region- affected.
o The development of Islamic thought.
o Research techniques
o Methodology utilized
o Inability to apply what they learned in the madrasah to the
current issues and new problems.
o Madrasah- ineffective to produce scholars – capable of
dealing with society’s problems in an Islamic manner.
o Limit the scholars in undertaking research.
o Limited access to original Islamic sources.
o Financial disability.
o Shortage of adequate facilities.
o Lack of human resources.
Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic
Anything that does not correspond with reality
must be rejected
Ultimate contradictions must be denied
Muslims must be open to new and/or contrary
New approaches to accommodate new
Overcoming the Deficiencies
of Traditional Islamic Approach
The rise in secularism
Muslim researchers should never underestimate the value of
their own Islamic legacy (AQ & S)
Must constantly seek for guidance & wisdom from the Divine
Must recognize that rev. knowledge is based on eternal Truth
The need for greater integration b/w rev. knowledge & empirical-
No superstitious beliefs
Check the method used
Reject the results even if they do no contradict the rev.
Vital to become exposed & familiar with technology
Begins with the young researchers
Especially in English & Arabic
Arabic = essential for gaining access to the original
English = medium of dissemination
Close cooperation b/w Muslim nations on areas of
research of mutual benefit & concern
Develop a wider perspective on what’s considered as “Islamic
Presentation of materials must be relevant
Encouraged students to actively seek knowledge
Lack of confidence
Develop a greater confidence despite the weak ummah
A need to regain the sincerity & taqwa like the early researchers
Western don’t monopolize the knowledge & researches
A need for Muslims to recognize that
May look as preliminary understanding, but it’s up to the Muslims
themselves to conclude