A particular way of doing something,
esp. a systematic one; implies an
orderly logical arrangement.
1.The theoretical analysis of the methods
appropriate to a field of study or to the
body of methods and principles
particular to a branch of knowledge.
• Kinds of Methodologies
• i. Methodology in revealed knowledge
• ii. Methodology in human knowledge (pure and
• iii. Integrative methodology of revealed
knowledge and human knowledge.
What is Islamic Methodology?
• Methodology means a technique or method.
• It is the field of inquiry concerned with the
examination of methods used in the study of natural
sciences, human and social sciences and religious
sciences in order to understand the subjects.
• A comprehensive Islamic methodology means to
Islamize and integrate knowledge on the basis of the
combination between the revelation and reason in
order to overhaul the obstacles and challenges facing
a modern man and the society.
Methodologies used by the early Muslim scholars
(wahy, `aql and
1. Collection of data of the Qur’an and Sunnah
2. Verified techniques used by the narrators in order
to ensure the authenticity of narrations.
3. Compilation of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
4. Considering the reliable narrators with specific
5. Chain of transformation, no gap between two
generations and not less than 40 forty narrators.
6. Memorizations of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
7. Consultation among the scholars and consensus
based on majority opinions.
8. Ijtihad (rational arguments, explanation,
interpretation and adjustment with the local culture
9. Istihsan (juristic preference), supplementary
methods in order to make up for the growing
number of new situations that were difficult with the
textual and the analogical arguments.
10. Maslahah or Masalih Mursalah (public interest),
supplementary methods, if the texts of the Qur’an
and Hadith or consensus or analogy were not
11. `Urf (custom of a particular society or a nation),
supporting for adjustment from avoiding the
contradictions and social division and disunity for the
• Merits of the Traditional Approach
• Merits of the traditional approach were the
sincerity, piety, enthusiasm, commitment, and
dedication of the early Muslim researchers,
many of whom looked for their rewards in the
• Islamic research, experimentation and
empirical investigation were considered acts
• The God-consciousness of the traditional
scholars was reflected in their writings and
research, which they would commence with
bismillah (in the name of Allah), seek His
blessings and conclude by dedicating their
results to Him.
• The holistic nature of the traditional Islamic
educational system made no distinction
between revealed knowledge and empirically
• Knowledge was perceived as a comprehensive
whole, with empirically derived knowledge
subject to the verification of revealed
Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic
Three main tawhidic criteria for Islamic methodology
are as follows:
1. Anything which does not correspond with the
reality must be rejected.
2. Ultimate contradictions must be denied and
3. Approaches must be open in order to adjust and
accommodate new situations facing the society
Wahy & Aql