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The rule of law entails government accountability, equal access to justice and the political
process, efficient judicial and political systems, clear laws, generally stable laws, and the
protection of fundamental human rights. This paper explores whether Islamic law
conforms to these principles in theory and in practice. Three conclusions are reached.
First, various early Islamic institutions were meant, in some respect, to serve one or more
of these principles. Second, the institutions in question lost effectiveness over time.
Finally, the relevant Islamic institutions are now generally out of date.