Challenges before the Islamic Movement in Madina. Islamic state in Madina emerged needing:Administrative structure,laws,justice,family laws. Aggressive efforts at Dawah and attack on the false ideologies. Settlement of the migrants in Madina with their financial support but also their Islamic education and moral training. Prepare for Jihad and armed resistance against the enemies of Islam.
Initial StepsTreaties with Jews.Hypocrites in Madina.Change of Qibla.Warning for pagans that their trade route to Syriacould be blocked.Abdullah bin Hajash led an ambush upon aPagan’s caravan.Omar bin Hadarmi died.Thishappened without the Prophet’s approval.
Battle of BadarA big trade caravan of pagans was en routefrom Syria to Mecca.Abu Sufyan sent a man to Mecca to get helpHe announced in Mecca that Muslimsattacked the caravan.Most of the pagan leaders prepared for fight1000 men strong army prepared to marchto Madina.
Battle of Badar Prophet’s(SAW) concernsDecisive battle with impact on futureMuhajiroon came with no assetsAnsaars had no experience of battle.Tribes of Jews had hidden animosityHypocrites and some pagans in MadinaMuslims resources and numbers weredisproportionately less than pagans.
Battle of BadarProphet’s (SAW) consultationHe presented the situation before SahabaHe asked whether we should go after thetrade caravan or face pagan’s armyMany opined to go after the caravanProphet asked the question againMiqdad bin Amar ® from muhjiroon saidwe shall go with you where Allah’s order isSaad bin Muaaz from ansaar supported
Battle of Badar Comparison of forces Muslims Pagans.313 men . 1000 men including.3 horses 100 leaders.70 camels .Several horses, camels,.60 shields swords and shields..
Battle of Badar Glimpses of fightingProphet’s dua before the battle.Difficult test for muhajiroon, stood againsttheir family members.Pagans were defeated.70 of their men killedincluding leaders.70 became POW’s.Pagan’s left lot of valuables behind.
Comments on the Battle of Badar Sura Anfaal -8 Purpose of Qital is not bounties but making Islam prevalent and to please Allah. Obedience of ameer is pivotal in Jamaah. Victory in Badar was due to Allah’s Help. Jihad is the ultimate test for a believer. Your money and families are a test. Sabar is the essence of any movement Desire to achieve the objectives should never allow you to compromise the Islamic guidelines.
Battle of Uhad Reasons1-Defeat of pagans in Badar alarmed tribes2-Pagans of Meccah wanted revenge.3- Jews of Madina encouraged pagans to fight Pagans advance to Madina in Shawwal,3 Hijra with 3000 men. Prophet consulted the sahaba. Prophet gathered army of 1000 people.Hypocrites withdrew 300 men. Enthusiasm of youth. Story of Rafe and Samra.
Battle of UhadProphet placed his army in front of uhadmountain.He appointed 50 archers led by Abdullah binJubair to guard corridor in the mountain.Women in the pagan army sang and beat thedrums to encourage their fighters.In the beginning, Muslims defeated the paganarmy. Then they started gathering bounties.
Battle of UhadMost of the archers at the Uhad coridoor left to getbounties except few.Khalid bin Walid, leader of one of pagan’sfighting group attacked from the poorly guardedUhad coridoor.Muslims were now attacked from back and front.Muslim army was dispersed and many were on therun.Rumor was spread that the Prophet was killed.Many lost their will to fight when got the rumor.
Battle of UhadProphet was guarded by few sahaba.He was moved up to the mountain.When Muslims heard about Prophet’ssafety, they gathered again and fought.Pagans at that time left the battlefield.Latter, they thought of returning but did not.Prophet even chased them till Hamra ulAsad.
Battle of UhadComments in Ale Imran:122-144 Dependence on the Help of Allah. Love of material wealth was one reason for initial defeat. Allah forbade Riba. Guaranty of success if you are believers. Islamic movement does not depend on personalities. Fear of death is the root cause of cowardice.There is appointed time of death.
Tribal RevoltsUhad’s setback encouraged hostile tribes to standup against Muslims and fight.Jofeed tribe tried to attack in Muharram,4H.Lahyan tribe attacked same month.Safar,4H.70 learned sahaba were sent to theKallab tribe for teaching Islam & got killed.Two other tribes took 10 sahaba for teaching.7were killed and 3 were imprisoned.Khabbab andZaid were sold in Mecca and latter killed.
Jewish Enmity Reasons1-Jewish leaders felt threat to their business.2-Quran was openly criticizing Jews behavior3-Fear of living under Islamic rule. Banu Qanqa- exiled Shawwal, 2H for declaring war against Muslims. Kaab bin Ashraf executed Rabil Awwal,3H by Mohammd bin Muslima. Banu Nazeer.Broke treaties and conspired to kill the Prophet. Exiled to Kheyber.
Battle of AhzabJews in Kheyber conspired and incitedpagans to bring a 10.000 army to Madina.Prophet consulted sahaba.Salman Farsisuggested to dig a ditch on open part ofcity.8 Ziqad,5H digging started.10 yards ofditch was assigned to 10 people.It was 5yard deep.3000 people dug it in 20 days.
Battle of AhzabPagans attacked Madina from 3 sides.33:10Hard test of Iman.Hypocrites exposed.33:12Enemy kept blockade for one month.They threw stones and arrows.They tried to cross the ditch.With Allah’s sent windstorm, enemies fled.
Battle of Ahzab Commentary in Sura AhzabTrust in Allah’s Help.Test of Iman.Root cause of weakness- fear of loosing lifeand property.Excellent example in the Prophet’s conduct.Banu Qureza’s punishment for breaking the treaty.Blockade.Decision according to theirbook. 400 people killed, rest made POW.
Hudabeya Treaty- 6 HijraZeqad, 6 H, Prophet announced intention tovisit Kaaba.1400 Muslims joined him.Prophet sent someone to find pagan’s plan.Pagans started gathering forces.Prophet continued travel and stopped atHudabeya.Prophet sent Osman to negotiate.
Hudabeya TreatyNews came that Osman has been killed.Bait Ridwan.Prophet gathered Muslimsunder a tree and took a pledge that we shallfight till we die or win.Peace Treaty. Pagan released Osman andsent Suhail bin Amar for peace talks.A peace treaty was concluded and written.
Hudabeya Treaty TermsMuslims shall go back this year.They shall return next year and stay for 3daysThey shall not have any weapons except onesword in the shield.They can’t take Muslims left in Mecca and shallnot stop any Muslim from coming back toMeccah.If someone goes to Madina, he shall be returnedbut if someone returns to Mecca, shall not bereturned.
Hudabeya Tribes shall have the choice to enter into treaty with Muslims or pagans. This treaty shall be in effect for 10 years------------------------------------------------------- -Abu Jandal’s matter.Effects of Hudabeya.
Letters to Kings and Emperors 6-7 HijraRoman Emperor. Wahya KalbiPersian Emperor. Abdullah bin HuzafaSahmi.Aziz Misr.(Egyptian Emperor) Hatib binAbi BaltahNajjashi, King of Abysenia. Omar binUmayyah.
Strengthening of Islamic State and Society Attack on Khyber. Muharram, 7 Hijra. Laws and regulations for Society.Suras Nisaa and Maida.Family laws,rights of men and women,inheritance law,prohibition of alcohol and gambling, law of testimony,general moral instructions.Prophet performed Umra in 7 Hijra.
Victory of MeccaViolation of Hudabeya Treaty by pagans.Preparation to invade Mecca.10 Ramadan,8H.Abu Sufyan is arrested and released.Entry in Mecca.(Minimal fighting.)Peace declaration in Mecca.Entry in Kaaba.Removal of idols and pictures.Victory address by the Prophet.General amnesty.
Battle of Hunain 10 Shawwal, 8 HijraHawazan and Saqeef tribes prepared forwarProphet took 12000 men and weapons tofight in Hunain (between Mecca and Taif)Some Muslims said who could defeat us.Initially, Muslims faced severe arrow attackLatter, they gathered around the Prophetand fought well defeating the enemy.Surah Tauba, 9:25,26.
Battle of Tabook Rajab, 9 Hijra.Conflict with Roman empire already started inbattle of Mota (Jamadi ula, 8 H).Sharjeel the rulerof Basra brought army of 100,000 which foughtagainst 3000 Muslims.Farwa bin Amar Jizami, a Roman commanderbecame Muslim.Latter, he was killed by theemperor.Many tribes under Roman rule accepted Islam.
Battle of TabukCesar prepared to gather his forces onSyrian border to punish Muslims.Prophet decided to go forward and stop thisbuild up.Sacrifices of Muslims and excuses byhypocrites.Prophet left Madina with 30,000 armyCesar ordered his forces to retreat.
Steps taken after Tabuk. Dealings with hypocrites.Demolition of Masjid ZirarNot to accept their donationsNo family or friendly relations with them.Prophet should not attend their funeral. Disciplinary action against 3 sahabas. Clear political policy of the State.(Haj,9 H)
Last Haj 10 Hijra KhutbahAll methods of Jahileya are under my feet.No Arab has superiority over non Arab.Youare children of Adam and he was createdfrom clay.All muslims are brothers.Feed and clothe your slaves same what youeat or wear.Killings and Riba of Jahileya are cancelled.
Khutbah Last HajFear Allah in the matter of women.Your blood and your money is forbidden for eachother.If you hold fast to the book of Allah, you will notbe misguided.He asked,”Have I passed to you Allah’smessage?” Everyone answered,”Yes”.He said,”Now, you must pass on this message tothose who are not here.”
Death of the ProphetSafar,18, 11 H, he became sick.He appointed Abu Bakr to lead the salaat.When he was feeling a little better,he cameto the masjid and gave last Khutbah.Rabiul Awwal, 12, 11 H, he passed to RafiqAla.May Allah’s blessings be upon him.