Tiger conservation and social equity


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Tiger conservation and social equity

  1. 1. Introduction   Historically, many protected areas were created as recreational areas for urban elites.  Protected areas now are also portrayed inter-alia as a means of poverty alleviation and sustaining livelihoods of resource dependent community.  Effective protected area management requires active participation of local communities.  Wildlife conservation is invariably in „conflict‟ with economic development  Establishment of protected areas/ conservation areas often leads to dis-enfranchisement of local communities from land and resources.  Unfortunately, many of the above assumptions are not backed with scientific facts/ evidence and most of the discussion is largely „emotive‟.
  2. 2. Conservation Goals Vs Societal Goals  Conservation Goals  Protect wild species & habitats  Maintain ecosystem services Societal Goals  Alleviate poverty  Eradicate disease  Maintain social equity  Enhance economic growth HUMAN WELL BEING
  3. 3. What is Conservationinduced displacement?   Conservation-induced displacement is the involuntary restriction of access to legally designated parks and protected areas, resulting in adverse impacts on the livelihoods of the displaced persons (Cernea, 2006, World Bank, 2002).  “Displacement that includes individuals or communities who, through park creation or management, may lose land, means of livelihood, social support system or ways of life (ADB, 2002)‟.
  4. 4. Tiger Reserve Network & Social Equity   India has set-up a network of 39 tiger reserves covering 455580 sq.km  India‟s tiger population is 1411 (range 1165 to 1657), WII, 2006  CRITICAL TIGER HABITAT : “Critical tiger habitat” means such areas where it has been specifically and clearly established case by case, on the basis of scientific and objective criteria, that such areas are required to be kept “inviolate” for the purpose of wildlife conservation as may be determined and notified by the Central Government after open process of consultation.
  5. 5. Government Measures   Creation of „inviolate spaces‟ for the conservation of key wildlife species is mandatory as per the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dweller (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.  The Forest Rtight Act, 2006; An Act to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers who have been residing in such forests for generation but whose rights could not be recorded
  6. 6. (contd.)   The Resettlement Agenda/Process; This necessitates relocating people living within such critical areas after payment of compensation for right settlement and relocation package.  The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has formulated relocation / rehabilitation packages for people living inside core / critical areas of Tiger Reserves in the country, in consonance with the “National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007”.
  7. 7. (contd.)  (District-Level Implementing Committee for ensuring convergence of other sectors) 1. District Collector - Chairman 2. CEO – Member 3. Representative officials from - Members PWD, Social Welfare, Tribal Department, Health Department, Agriculture Department, Education Department, Power and Irrigation Departments 4. Deputy Director of the Tiger Reserve/PA - Member Secretary
  8. 8. Bori village before relocation Fertile agricultural lands given to the villagers House construction work is completed in New Bori village Sprinkler provided for irrigation
  9. 9. Aanganwadi Center School Building Community Hall Teaching in progress in the school
  10. 10. Conclusion   Resettlement process should ensure human dignity, aspirations and culture of local communities.  Good faith negotiations and prior-informed consent and effective implementation are essential ingredients to ensure a ‘win-win’ outcome of the resettlement process  ‘Hand-holding’ for extended period(s) and engagement of credible civil society organizations in the resettlement process has beneficial outcomes.
  11. 11. (contd.)   Abundant caution, adequate oversight, constant independent monitoring and evaluation of resettlement process is critically needed for achieving success.  Relocating 762 villages and 48549 families from ‘core critical tiger habitats’ in 39 tiger reserves in India is undoubtedly a tall order. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and the Government of India are committed to provide upto Rs. 4000 crores or US $ 800 million to ensure the continued existence of wild tiger populations and well-being of local communities.
  12. 12. THANK YOU  