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ICCAs and Aichi: Contribution of indigenous peoples & local communities to Strategic Plan for Biodiversity


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Customary practices and world views of indigenous peoples and local communities, including their conserved areas and territories (ICCAs) are contributing significantly to meeting the Strategic Plan of the Biodiversity Convention (including the Aichi Targets), and can contribute more if appropriately recognised and supported

Published in: Environment

ICCAs and Aichi: Contribution of indigenous peoples & local communities to Strategic Plan for Biodiversity

  1. 1. ICCAs & Aichi Targets: Contribution of Indigenous Peoples’ and Community Conserved Territories and Areas to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 Ashish Kothari Kalpavriksh and ICCA Consortium
  2. 2. Indigenous peoples’ and local community conserved territories and areas (ICCAs): Natural and modified ecosystems with significant biodiversity, ecological functions and cultural values… voluntarily conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities through customary laws or other effective means
  3. 3. The global diversity of ICCAs includes ... sacred natural sites … Sacred lake, Indian Himalaya © Pankaj Sekhsaria Chizire sacred forest, Zimbabwe Sacred bolon in Kawawana, Senegal © Christian Chatelain Sacred hill tops, Tibet, China © Grazia Borrini- Feyerabend
  4. 4. Traditional heronry, Kokare Bellure, India © Ashish Kothari Demoiselle cranes, Kheechan village, India © Asad Rahmani Wildlife habitats (nesting, roosting, feeding) Indigenous ranger at Mapoon rescuing sea turtle, Australia © Craig Wheeler Community-protected Markhor at Torgarh, Pakistan © Tahir Rasheed Slender loris, Nagavali villages, India © Ashish Kothari
  5. 5. Indigenous territories and biocultural landscapes/seascapes … Skeena River in Gixtsan territory, Canada © Francois Depey Mandingalbay Yidinji Indigenous Protected Area, Australia © Cairns Post TCO Isoso, Bolivia © Carmen E. Miranda L.
  6. 6. territories and migration routes of nomadic herders and mobile Indigenous peoples … Shahsavan peoples’ territory, Iran (Courtesy CENESTA)
  7. 7. sustainably used wetlands, coastal and marine areas … Lubuk Larangan river, Mandailing, Sumatra Kawawana ICCA, Senegal Coron Island, Tagbanwa Ancestral Domain, Philippines © Ashish Kothari Waya Island, Fiji (Locally Managed Marine Area) © Stacy Jupiter
  8. 8. sustainably used terrestrial ecosystems … (biomass, medicinal plants, timber and non-timber forest products) Himalayan forest, Jardhargaon, India © Ashish Kothari Community forests and lake, Rupataal, Nepal © Ashish Kothari Parc Jurassien Vaudois, Switzerland Qanats, Central Asia
  9. 9. Hundreds of thousands of ICCAs (most undocumented and unrecognised) No overall figure of extent, but could be as large as official protected areas (10-15% of earth)
  10. 10. ICCAs are the world’s best bet to meet several Aichi Targets
  11. 11. STRATEGIC GOAL A Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society Target 1: Awareness, values Target 2: Integration with poverty, livelihood, development programmes Target 3: Incentives Target 4: Sustainable production and consumption ICCAs involve processs in which Indigenous peoples and local communities integrate biodiversity, culture, adaptive knowledge systems, livelihoods, and governance…
  12. 12. STRATEGIC GOAL B Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use Target 5: Reduce loss of habitats Targets 6,7: Sustainable fisheries, agriculture, aquaculture, forestry Target 8, 9: Tackle pollution and invasive species Target 10: Coral reefs and vulnerable ecosystems ICCAs reduce or eliminate direct internal and external pressures on biodiversity…
  13. 13. STRATEGIC GOAL C To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity Target 11: Protected areas & other effective conservation measures Target 12: Preventing extinctions Target 13: Genetic diversity (domesticated, wild relatives) ICCAs contribute tremendously to conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, even when the primary objectives are different…
  14. 14. STRATEGIC GOAL D Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services Target 14: Ecosystem services Target 15: Climate resilience Target 16: Access and benefit-sharing Communities have a vested interest in maintaining, reviving and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem functions…
  15. 15. STRATEGIC GOAL E Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building Target 17: NBSAPS Targets 18,19: Knowledge, science and technology (including traditional) Target 20: Resources Localised institutions for natural resource stewardship, governance and management rely on sophisticated knowledge systems…
  16. 16. ICCAs already contribute much to the achievement of the Aichi Targets, and could contribute even more with appropriate recognition and support
  17. 17. Threats and challenges • Lack recognition in law and policy • Threats by extractive industry, monocultures, militarisation, commodification, climate change • Top-down, exclusionary conservation policies • Cultural and demographic change • Social, economic, political inequities
  18. 18. territorial / tenurial rights customary governance knowledge, practices documentation, assessments resisting threats Social, economic, livelihood
  19. 19. Good News: Progress in Legal Recognition  Multiple references to ICCAs in CBD Decisions and IUCN Resolutions  RRI (2012): Forests under community ownership/management, up from 10 to 15% in last decade  Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Australia: Indigenous territories designated  Philippines: Ancestral Domain titles to many Indigenous territories  India: Community Forest Rights (including use/management)  Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania: community forests and/or conservancies, with full management and use control  Fiji: recognition of Locally Managed Marine Areas (100% of country’s marine protected area system)
  20. 20. Key Resources
  21. 21. for more information: Thanks to Gino Cocchiaro