community based natural resource management


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community based natural resource management

  1. 1. 1
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  3. 3. Introduction NRM Meaning & Classification Resource Management/Development Extension Approaches for NRM Drives and Stages of CBNRM Major constraints in CBNRM Research studies Success Stories Conclusion 3 Scheme of Presentation
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 4 “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.” ― Mahatma Gandhi
  5. 5. Natural Resource Meaning Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. Any part of our natural materials that man can be utilized to promote the welfare, may be regarded as natural resources 5
  6. 6. Classification of natural resources 6
  7. 7. Natural Resource Management The management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations Natural resource management approaches can be categorised according to the kind and right of stakeholders 1. Private property regime :- Individual owned 2. Common property regime :- Government owned 3. Non-property regime :- Lake fishery 4. State property regime :- National forest, National park resource management 7
  8. 8. Relationship of Culture, Nature and Resource HUMAN NATURE NEUTRAL STUFF NEEDS WANTS ABILITIES Zimmerman, 1951 8 CULTURE RESOURCE
  9. 9. Casual factors of threat on NRM Development pressure on nature resource base Encroachment on natural resources Exploitation of natural resources Human induced disasters causing stress on natural resources Threats to NRM- wrong and faulty approaches Management of human resources Political and policy issues 9
  10. 10. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan (1983) suggested the following categories  Cultivated varieties in current use  Primitive cultivars or land races  Wild species of potential value to man In-situ conservation-conservation under natural condition  It includes conservation of plants and animals in their native ecosystems or even man made eco-systems  It appeals only to wild fauna and flora  It aims at preservation of land races with wild relatives Ex-situ conservation-conservation under controlled condition  It is done through establishment of gene banks  It is chief mode for preservation of genetic resources  Seeds, plant cells, tissues, organs are preserved under appropriate conditions 10Adhikary and Acharya
  11. 11. 11 Resource management/development Das Gupta
  12. 12. 12Das Gupta
  13. 13. Human dimensions in natural resource management What are “ Human Dimensions”…..???  Human dimensions are the peoples‟ values, beliefs, attitudes, social norms and motivations  They use social science concepts to formulate studies that capture and explain human values, beliefs, etc. as they apply to natural resources  Knowledge gained from these studies gives the public a voice in natural resource management decisions 13Basu et al.
  14. 14. Human Dimensions Importance......why?  Awareness and understanding our public values regarding natural resources  Improved communication with publics and education of the public regarding natural resource issues  Understanding and prediction of the social impacts of natural resource decisions  Strengthening of the natural resources profession through improved application of human dimensions information in natural resource decision making 14
  15. 15. Stakeholder participation in the assessment process Finding feasible spatial and temporal boundaries Linking research products to development impact Selecting the criteria of success 15Basu and Biswas
  16. 16. Share of NRM Research and approximate research expenditure on Rainfed Farming in total research expenditure in ICAR Year NRM Research Expenditure (Rs. Crore) Share of NRM Research Expenditure in total ICAR Research Expenditure (%) Approximate Research Expenditure on Rainfed Farming (Rs. Crore) Share of RF Research Expenditure in total ICAR Research Expenditure (%) 2000-01 9.00 0.68% 185.22 13.99% 2009-10 279.41 8.57% 419.07 12.85% 16 ICAR Annual Report, 2011
  17. 17. Agricultural Extension Approaches  General agriculture extension approach  Commodity specialized approach  Training and visiting approach  Participatory approach  Project approach  Farming system development approach  Cost sharing approach  Education institute approach 17Axinn, 1988
  18. 18. Creation of natural resources like forests, water bodies Preservation through social fencing Pollution control through policy formulation ITK appropriate use and application Watershed management to generate livelihood and conserve natural resources Monitoring: Benefit monitoring evaluation Elimination of negative factors operating in the eco-system Rejuvenation of degraded or age old resources base Peoples participation 18Adhikary and Acharya
  19. 19. 19 Community Based Organizations
  20. 20. Some of the methods followed for capacity building in Community Participation • Individual house visits • Informal group meeting • Village meetings • Grama sabhas • Jathas • Poster distribution • Wall painting • Conducting PRA exercises • Baseline data survey • Health camps 20
  21. 21. Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) 21 Basic concept  To address the goals of environmental, economic and social justice  Integrates wildlife conservation and rural development objective in a single program package  Emphasizes benefits to natural resource dependent communities and pursuers of subsistence livelihoods
  22. 22. 22 Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is a systemic approach to conservation, that allows those closest to the resource, and who bear the costs of conservation, to manage the resource and benefit from its management and use. Cont…
  23. 23. CBNRM…. The key assumptions being that:  Locals are better placed to conserve natural resources  People will conserve a resource only if benefits exceed the costs of conservation, and  People will conserve a resource that is linked directly to their quality of life (Thakadu, O. T. 2005) 23
  24. 24.  To manage natural resources in a sustainable way to achieve conservation and community development objectives Objective of CBNRM: Tools of CBNRM  The PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) with its tool for planning, awareness raising, and capacity building  The simplified land use plan as a natural resource management tool integrated with development  The gender approach insuring the participation of disadvantaged groups 24
  25. 25. Community Participation in Development  Facilitates the use of local knowledge and opinions in designing plans, programmes and projects  Enhances local ownership and empowers marginalized people by providing opportunities to acquire skills, knowledge and experience  Helps to facilitate the integration of marginalized people into wider society, and encourages good governance and economic growth  Facilitates co-operation and programme efficiency  Helps to ensure sustainability, make development activities more effective, and builds local capacity 25Bond et al. 2006
  26. 26. Expected results  Sustainable Natural Resource Management  Ownership  Equity  Improved biodiversity  Living together with harmony 26
  27. 27. 27 “Homogeneous” communities – common objectives, recognised common interests, social cohesion  Benefits exceed costs  Clearly defined boundaries to resources to be managed  Limited uses and users  Decentralised decision-making  “Simple” administrative structures  Long-term engagement  Leadership -“champions” to lead the process IFAD Workshop, Rome, 2004
  28. 28. Benefits from CBNRM 28 Direct benefits Investment in rural infrastructure through CBO projects Direct cash dividends earned from partnerships Employment opportunities with private sector Employment opportunities with community based organizations Indirect benefits Maintenance or growth of stocks of natural resources Capacity – building Opportunities to diversify local economy, and integration into the market place Bond et al., 2006
  29. 29. DRIVES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Individual drives 1. Rajendra Singh- Rajasthan 2. Anna Hazare- Ralegan Siddhi 3. Pani Panchayat- Maharashtra 4. Salu marada Timmakka Project (Govt) mode 1. Sujala Watershed Project 2. Integrated Wasteland Development Project 3. NWDPRA 4. NABARD Watershed projects NGO - Govt Drives 1. Agriculture Science Foundation, Hulakoti -NABARD Watershed Project 2. Grameen Gyan Abhiyan (GGA)- MSSRF 3. MYRADA 4. Agha Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) 29
  30. 30. Rajendra Singh – “Waterman of Rajasthan” • Rajendra Singh, popularly known as „Jal Purush‟ or Waterman of Rajasthan is an inspirational figure who has transformed the life of people in >1,000 villages in Aravalli Hills. In 1985, Rajendra Singh heads an NGO „Tarun Bharat Sangh‟ (TBS) In 1986, he initiated a Ped Bachao-Ped Lagao padyatra, for Forest Protection Committees In 2002 National Water March (Rashtriya Jal Yatra) Jungle-Jeevan Bachao Yatra , it covers 21 forest sanctuaries He also organised an ultimately successful Aravali Bachao Yatra ,the Rajasthan Govt. closed nearly 1000 mines in the whole of Rajasthan, 470 of which were in and around Sariska National Park 30 Achievements
  31. 31. 31  Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (1994) by the Govt. of India  International River Prize (1995)  Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership (2001)  Jamnalal Bajaj Award (2008) for water harvesting by building check dams across Rajasthan. Awards
  32. 32. SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT (2001) • Sujala a community driven watershed development project with a total budget of Rs.557 crores, is being implemented in seven districts • World Bank Assisted Project of Government of Karnataka • Covering areas- Kolar, Chikkabalapur, Tumkur, Madhugiri, Chitradurga, Haveri and Dharwad of Karnataka covering 4.29 lakhs ha. • Spread over in 77 sub-watersheds and 1270 villages benefiting nearly 4.0 lakhs households including landless 32
  33. 33.  Strengthen community and institutional arrangements for natural resource management  Strengthen the capacity of communities in the project districts for participatory involvement in planning, implementation, social and environmental management and maintenance 33 sujala water.FLV Objectives
  34. 34. Integrated Wasteland Development Project (2001)  Launched by the Ministry of Rural Development for re-generation of degraded non-forest land through people‟s participation  Objective of the scheme is aimed at an integrated wasteland based on Village/Micro Watershed Plans  Major activities can be taken up under this scheme:- i. Soil & moisture conservation measures ii. Planting and sowing of multi-purpose trees iii. Encouraging natural regeneration iv. Promotion of agro-forestry and horticulture v. Encouraging people‟s participation 34
  35. 35. National Watershed Development Projects for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) • Introduced during 1990-91 in Andhra Pradesh and continued up to 1996-97 during VIII plan period • Implemented in 94 watersheds covering 19 districts of Andhra Pradesh Impact of the implication of the scheme  Watershed workers were planned for treatment and development of drainage lines both in arable and non-arable lands in watershed areas with active participation and users group  SHGs formed from watershed village community to achieve their income generating activity and self sustainability 35
  36. 36. Objectives i. Conservation, development and sustainable management of natural resources including their use ii. Enhancement of agricultural productivity and production in sustainable manner iii. Restoration of ecological balance in the degraded and fragile eco-system by trees and grasses iv. Reduction in regional disparity between irrigated and rainfed areas v. Creation of sustained employment opportunities for the rural community including the landless 36
  37. 37. NABARD PROJECTS Watershed Development Projects implemented by NABARD has resulted in creation replicable models of participatory watershed development has helped in augmentation of natural resources and improvement in livelihood of watershed communities Importance of Participatory Approach Focused on the regeneration and equitable use of the resources in the particular environment on which the village depends for its needs The people voluntarily must come together and accept full responsibility for regenerating their environment from concept to planning, implementation, supervision, maintenance of project measures and associated practices To make the project sustainable, it is necessary for all the key actors, like the Watershed Community, NGOs, Banks, Government Institutions and Technical Service Organizations, to participate actively and in close coordination with each other 37
  38. 38. MSSRF (Grameen Gyan Abhiyan) (M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation -1988) • Six major thematic areas: 1) Coastal Systems Research- To achieve sustainable management of coastal resources, such as cyclone, storm surges and tsunami in coastal zones 2) Biodiversity- To optimize conservation and livelihood benefits of the poor who live in the „biodiversity hotspots‟ 3) Biotechnology- Genome Clubs in schools and conduct genetic literacy programmes in rural areas for young men and women with a functional knowledge of genetics 38
  39. 39. 4) Ecotechnology- To extend the techniques of sustainable management of natural resources, managed by the local community of farm women and men 5) Food Security- The Community Food grain Banks, Kitchen gardens, capacity building of women farmers, to awareness creation on households' entitlements relating to government schemes on food and nutrition 6) Information, Education and Communication- Village Resource Centres (VRCs) and Village Knowledge Centres (VKCs), mainly provide need-based locale-specific, demand driven information content 39 Contd…
  40. 40. MYRADA • Established in 1968, MYRADA is a non-governmental organization working for micro-credit initiatives and sustainable development in Southern India • Areas of Work 1. Rural credit systems 2. Organizations of women 3. Management of micro watersheds 4. Forestry 5. Resettlement 40
  41. 41. Hanumantrao Committee Recommendations Based on report of DPAP and DDP project, following recommendations are made: 1. People's participation is must. 2. There must be coordination between line Departments. 3. Local people must involve in planning and implementation. Report of the Technical Committee on Drought prone Areas Programme and Desert Development Programme, April 1994. 41
  42. 42. Districts with Environmental Degradation in an extreme form Sl. No Districts Agricultural Practices 1 Shimoga, Mandya, Belgaum and Raichur Excessive use of chemicals 2 Gulbarga, Raichur and Bijapur Excessive use of pesticides 3 All districts in the north eastern plain region Soil Erosion 4 Districts in Central and Western Ghat Region Water Erosion 42Department of Water Resources, GoK.
  43. 43.  Community level conflicts  Evaluation of action impacts  Difficulties to access the sites  Lacking GIS expertise  Locals may be reluctant to challenge government recommendations for fear of losing promised benefits  Partners are expecting too much from the activities taken up 43
  44. 44. Research studies 44
  45. 45. Research Study 1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND NATURAL RESOURCES IMPACT OF SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT IN KARNATAKA Govinda Gowda, V. and Sathish, A. (2011) I. Land and Water Study area Kolar, Tumkur, Chitradurga, Haveri & Dharwad Sample size 10% of the beneficiaries Study objectives  To study the unique approaches & interventions of SUJALA watershed project.  To study the resultant impact on the natural resource as well as on the socio-economic life of the beneficiary farmers. 45
  46. 46. Impact indicators Baseline Mid-term impacts 1. Household income Avg household income- Rs 10,036 Avg household income- Rs 16,790 2. Crop yields ------ Yield increased upto 6-15% 3. Ground water recharge Bore well – 400ft (drill depth) Dug well - 45 ft Bore well increase in level by 4-5 ft Dug well increase in level by 1.2- 2 ft Period of availability increased by 2- 3 months 4. Milk, Fodder production Fodder 50-80% dependent on others Milk yield increased by 15-20% Fodder dependence decreased by 5-10% 5. Productivity of non-arable land Percentage of land in low productivity (10-20%) Productivity in non-arable lands increased by 5-10% Mid-term Impact of 1st phase watershed interventions on Natural resource base and livelihoods 47
  47. 47. Impact on water Resources due to Project Interventions in Phase-1 District % Nalas rejuvenated % Bore wells rejuvenated % Open wells rejuvenated Dharwad 44 52 25 Kolar 38 93 5 Chitradurga 81 75 79 Tumkur 51 76 39 Haveri 25 70 39 Average 48 73 37 48
  48. 48. Research Study 2. IMPACT OF COMMUNITY BASED TANK MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF BENEFICIERY FARMERS IN BIDAR DISTRICT Savita (2008) Study area Bidar district, Karnataka. Sample size N=150 Objectives of the study:  To study the personal, socio-economic and psychological characteristics of beneficiary farmers.  Impact of community based tank management project on socio-economic status of beneficiary farmers. 49
  49. 49. Impact of community based tank management project on socio- economic status of beneficiary farmers Sl. No Variables Classification Before (%) After (%) Difference (%) 1 Occupation 1. Primary 2. Secondary a. Agriculture b. Agril. labour a. Business b. Service 90.66 09.34 14.00 04.00 97.34 02.66 26.00 04.00 06.66 -06.66 12.00 0 2 No of house owned a. One house b. Two house 100.00 0 100.00 10.60 --- 10.66 3 Land holding a. Marginal farmers b. Small farmers c. Medium farmers d. Large farmers 10.66 36.66 33.34 19.34 08.00 30.67 40.67 20.66 -02.66 -06.00 07.34 01.34 4 Source of irrigation a. Well b. Bore well c. Tank 23.34 12.00 --- 42.00 19.34 04.00 18.66 07.34 04.00 5 Organizational participation Low Medium High 64.00 16.00 20.00 22.00 47.34 30.66 -42.00 31.34 10.66 Contd… 50
  50. 50. Sl . No Variables Classification Before (%) After (%) Difference(%) 6. Farm power 1. Bullocks 2. Power tiller 3. Tractor 4. Sprayer 5. Duster a. One pair b. Two pair 25.33 --- --- 01.34 30.00 06.00 4134 05.34 01.34 01.34 41.34 11.34 16.00 05.34 01.34 --- 11.34 05.34 7. Material possession 1. Bullock cart 2. Radio 3. Television 4. Improved agril. implements a. One cart b. Two cart a. 1-2 b. 3-4 c. 5-6 16.00 --- 22.66 12.66 23.34 08.66 02.00 28.00 --- 61.33 25.34 36.00 13.34 03.34 12.00 --- 38.66 12.66 12.66 04.67 01.34 51
  51. 51. Impact of community based tank management project on land productivity of beneficiary farmers Crops Before (avg yield/acre) After (avg yield/acre) Difference (avg yield/acre) Sugarcane 35 t/acre 40 t/acre 5 t/acre Redgram 3.5 qt/acre 6 qt/acre 2.5qt/acre Jowar 8 t/acre 13 qt/acre 5 qt/acre Impact of community based tank management project on annual income of beneficiary farmers Farmer category Avg annual income before (Rs) Avg annual income after (Rs) Difference (Rs) Marginal farmers 8,000 17,000 9,000 Small farmers 13,000 26,000 13,000 Medium farmers 19,000 37,000 18,000 Large farmers 29,000 54,000 25,000 52
  52. 52. SUCCESS STORIES The five principles of Anna Hazare are 1. Nasbandi (restriction of family size) 2. Nashabandi (ban on alcohol) 3. Charaibandi (ban on free grazing) 4. Kurhabandi (ban on tree felling) and 5. Shramdan (donation of voluntary labour for community welfare). 1. Model village- Ralegan Siddhi 53
  53. 53. Impact of water conservation activities in Ralegan Siddhi Sl no Particulars Village scenario before Village scenario after 1 Sowing area Only one crop (300-350 acres) Two crops (1300 acres) 2 Migration All most half the villagers Completely stopped 3 Employment Go to near by villages in search of employment Hiring near by village labours 4 Milk production 300 lts/month 4,000 lts/month 5 Per capita income 250 Rs 2,500 Rs 54VIDEO
  54. 54. 2. Pani Panchayat  "Pani Panchayat" is associate organisation of Gram Gaurav Prathisthan..  Pani Panchayat are committed to Sustainable Development of the Villages through equable distribution of water to all of its people in the village Objectives :  To achieve sustainable rural development.  To identity local needs, local resources, local talents, local strength and to integrate them.  To carry out experiments for optimum use of natural resources like water, land and solar energy.  To develop cropping patterns agriculture cultivation methods and living habits to suit available resources. Services 1. Community lift Irrigation schemes 2. Assessment of water resources 3. Organic Farming 55
  55. 55. Community lift Irrigation schemes Sr. No. Particular 2003-04 2004-05 1 No. of Schemes 4 23 2 No. of Villages 4 19 3 No. of Beneficiaries 20 148 4 Irrigated Area ( in Acre) 77.5 475 5 Total installed HP 21 166 6 Total Cost 286720 1033560 56
  56. 56. CONCLUSION 57
  57. 57. 58