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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: 1
  2. 2. According to the Oxford Dictionary, hospitality means “the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers with liberality and good will”. The word hospitality is derived from hospice (nursing home), a medieval “house of rest” for travelers and pilgrims. Hospitality then includes hotels and restaurants. 2
  3. 3. Hospitality may be defined as meeting the needs of guests in a variety of establishments. The hospitality Industry offers employment to people of differing personalities, background and skills through a wide diversity of type of outlets serving food and beverages. Sunil kumar 3
  4. 4. Café: usually offer teas, coffees, soft drink, snack and often light meals.( bean, starbuck) Cafeterias: usually attached to institution such as museums or educational establishment sometimes recreational place. Usually offer light refreshment. Food halls/ Food courts: in the shopping mall, offer are light food to heavy food such as pastries, noodle, rice and drinks. 4
  5. 5. Public House: the meals available range from simple bar snacks or sometimes informal restaurant style offering three course meal. Casual dining restaurant (BISTROS): service provided usually casual dining and table service. Ethnic restaurant: offering culture experience offered to guests as well as the food. 5
  6. 6. Functions (receptions/banquet/conventions): the number of guests and the style of function can vary enormously so function demand extreme flexibility from both food management and service staff. Fine dining restaurant: offering comfortable or impressive ambience for the fine cuisine. Staff must be highly skilled. 6
  7. 7. 1.TRAVEL AND TOURISM SECTOR Travel Agencies Travel Wholesalers/Retailer Transportation Business, meeting & convention Recreation & sport Entertainment Trade & culture fairs, etc 7
  8. 8. 2. LODGING SECTOR Hotels Motels/budget hotels Motor homes Resorts/chalet Condotels Travel lodges Residential suite Rest houses,etc 8
  9. 9. 3. FOODSERVICE SECTOR Hotel F&B Commercial foodservice Institutional foodservices, etc 4. ALLIED INDUSTRY Educational and training institutions Supermarkets Vending machines 9
  10. 10. Defined as “the art of supplying food and beverage services away from home or to the home but prepared elsewhere”. The National Restaurant Association (USA) divides the foodservice industry into two categories: 1. Commercial 2. Noncommercial 10
  11. 11. However since 1993,Restaurants and Institutions (USA) no longer divided the industry into these categories because menu item and facility ambience choices between categories are almost nonexistent overseas. In Malaysia, there are still obvious differences between the two categories of foodservice. The term commercial and noncommercial are still used to indicate the degree of choice a customer has in selecting where to eat. 11
  12. 12.  The foodservice industry can be classified into 2 major groups: 1. COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICES INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE 2. 12
  13. 13. A. EATING PLACES Full-Service Restaurants Limited Service (fast-food) Restaurants Commercial Cafeterias Social Caterers Specialty Restaurants-ice cream, yogurt stands Ethnic Restaurants Food Courts 13
  14. 14. Manufacturing and Industrial Plants Commercial and Office Buildings Hospitals Colleges & Universities/Primary & Secondary Schools In-transit Foodservice (airlines/railways) Recreation and Sports Center 14
  15. 15. Hotel Food and Beverage Outlets Motel Restaurants Retail-Host Restaurant Recreation and Sport Mobile Caterers Vending and Nonstore Retailers 15
  16. 16. A. EMPLOYEE FOODSERVICE Staff canteens/cafeterias B. GOVERNMENT NURSERIES, ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS Subsidized foods for infants, toddlers, children, students in residential halls, boarding schools, hostels. 16
  17. 17.     D.  Government/semi-government higher institutions Student dining halls In-house foodservices Academic and non-academic staff cafeterias INDUSTRIAL FOODSERVICE In-house subsidized mass foodservice for employees 17
  18. 18. District hospitals/healthcare centers  City/general hospitals  Staffs/nurses/doctors’ canteen  REHABILITATION CENTERS  ‘Pusat Serenti/ Pusat Pemulihan Dadah’  Prison Foodservice  ‘Boys’/Girls’ rehabilitation centers F. 18
  19. 19. Rumah anak-anak yatim Rumah orang-orang tua Rumah orang-orang cacat “Taman Bahagia”, ‘Pusat Penyakit Kusta- Sg.Buluh, ‘Pusat TB’. 19
  20. 20. I. J.      COMMUNITY CENTERS MILITARY/ UNIFORMED FOODSERVICE Officers and Open Mess Airforce Army Navy Police Fire Brigades 20
  21. 21.  Three (3) basic commercial food service operations are: 1. Independents Chain Restaurants Franchises 2. 3. 21
  22. 22. Owned by an owner or owners who have one or more properties that have no chain relationship. Menus may not be identical among properties. Food purchase specifications may differ, operating procedures are varied, etc. 22
  23. 23. Part of a multi-unit organization Often share the same menu Purchase supplies and equipment cooperatively. Follow operating procedures that have been standardized for every restaurant in the chain May be owned by a parent company, a franchise company or by a private owner or owners Some chains are operated by a management company. 23
  24. 24. Large chains can readily acquire cash, credit and long- term leases on land and buildings Ability to experiment with different menus, themes, designs and operating procedures Can afford staff specialists who are experts in finance, construction, operations and recipe development Able to generate internal financial information that can be used as a basis of comparison among properties 24
  25. 25. Difficult to keep up with changing markets and economic conditions. Involve a large amount of paperwork, rules and procedures that can slow them down. Top management may lose motivation to keep up and what is best for the company might not always receive the highest priority. 25
  26. 26. A special category of chain operations  The franchisee (the owner of the franchise property) pay fees to: a) Use the name b) Building design c) Business methods of the franchiser (the franchise company)  The franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business and quality standards.  26
  27. 27.  To initial franchise fees, the franchisee may be required to pay: 1. Royalty fees assessed on the basis of a specified percentage of sales or other factors Advertising costs, sign rental fees and other costs such as stationary and food products. 2. 27
  28. 28.  Start-up assistance  Company-sponsored training programs for management staff and training resource materials for employees  National contributions toward local advertising campaigns 28
  29. 29. Higher sales because: a) more extensive advertising. b) greater name recognition of the franchise chain. c) the consistency of product and services among chain properties (guest know what to expect). Lower food costs due to volume purchasing by the chain Tested operating procedures which specify how things should be done. 29
  30. 30. The contract is generally very restrictive  The franchisee has little choice about: a) The style of operation b) The product served c) Services offered d) Methods of operation  The menu might be set along with the décor, required furnishings and production equipment.  30
  31. 31. Since the franchise agreement is drawn up by the franchiser, the document generally favors the franchiser The agreement may leave little to negotiate This causes problems if there are disagreements between the two parties. 31
  32. 32. Traditionally, a large percentage of institutional food service operations have focused on nutrition and other non-economic factors. Today, as pressures for cost containment accompany reduced income, there is a need to manage institutional food service operations as professional businesses. Sometimes this is done by the institutions themselves. Other institutions choose management companies to help them minimize costs. 32
  33. 33. ADVANTAGES: Large nationwide management companies have greater resources to solves specific problems. Can save money for institutions through effective negotiations with suppliers. Can often operate institutional food service programs at a lower cost than the institutions can. Institution administrators, trained in areas other than food service operations, can delegate food service responsibilities to professional food service managers. 33
  34. 34. Too much control in matters that affect the public image of the institution, long range operating plans and other important issues. Some people may dislike having a profit-making business involved in the operation of a health care, educational or other institutional food service program There may be concerns that a management company will decrease food and beverage quality. 34
  35. 35. The institutional operation may depend too much on the management company. What happens if the management company discontinues the contract? How long will it take discontinues the contract? How long will it take to implement a self-oriented program or find another management company? Although management companies are usually hired to reduce operating costs, higher operating costs are also possible when management companies are used. 35
  36. 36. ASPECT COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONAL Operations Independent Part of a large organization Market Unpredictable Captive market Consumer Satisfaction first Institutional requirement first Relationship Sensitive to (wants) of guests Meeting requirements (needs) Goals Temporary satisfaction Permanent nutritional goals 36
  37. 37. Forecasting Difficult of forecast No. of guests are more predictable Seat turn over Faster, seasonal Slower, staggered Managing Stressful Less stressful Menu Relatively easier Complex, some guests Profit Profit oriented Profit not major motivation Budget Unlimited Limited budget Working hours Long hours Fixed hours 37
  38. 38. PEOPLE IN FOOD SERVICE  Can be grouped into three (3) general categories: 1. Managers 2. Production personnel 3. Service personnel 38
  39. 39.  a) b) c) A.    There are three (3) levels of managers Top managers Middle managers Supervisor TOP MANAGER Concerned with long-term plans and goals Focus more than other managers on the business environment. Watch for environmental opportunities and threats such as changes in strategy by competitors, a sluggish economy and so on. 39
  40. 40. Are in the middle of the chain of command Key positions through which communication flows up and down the organization. Concerned with shorter-term goals and less concerned with large environmental issues Supervise lower-level middle managers or supervisors. 40
  41. 41.  Concerned primarily with food production  Usually have little contact with the guests.  Typical production personnel include: a) Chefs b) Cooks c) Assistant cooks d) Pantry-service assistants e) Stewards Storeroom g) Receiving employees h) Bakers f) 41
  42. 42.  Have a great deal of contact with guest  Perform a wide variety of functions and  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) activities. Service personnel include: Dining room managers Host/Captains/Maitre d’s Food servers Buspersons Bartenders Beverage servers Cashiers/Checkers Other service personnel 42
  43. 43.  At large properties, the dining room manager directly supervises an assistant (host)  Helps his or her assistant greet and supervise other service employees. HOSTS/CAPTAINS/MAITRE D’S  Directly supervise service employees.  Check all phases of dining room preparation.  Complete mise en place (‘to put everything in place’)  Discuss menu specials  Expected regular guests  Anticipated total number of guests with servers and other service employees  May greet and help seat guests, present menus and take guest orders. 43
  44. 44. Serve food and beverages to guests. Skills food servers need depend on the operation. Guest service at table service restaurant is different from guest service at coffee shop. BUSPERSONS Setting up tables with proper appointments. Removing dirty dishes, linens and so on from tables. Also perform mise en place before the meal period begins and clean up afterwards. 44
  45. 45. Prepare mixed drinks and other alcoholic beverages Serve them directly to guests or to their servers BEVERAGE SERVERS Provide food and beverage items to guests in lounge areas. CASHIERS/CHECKERS May take reservations Total the price of food and beverages on guest checks and collect guest payments. 45
  46. 46. A. EXPEDITER  During busy periods to help production and      service personnel communicate This person often a manager Controls the process of turning in order and picking up food items Can monitor production times Resolve disputes about when an order came in Coordinate the interaction among cooks and servers. 46
  47. 47. May assist in the transfer of food from production employees to food servers. Help to control product quality and costs by examining each tray before it goes into the dining area. Checking food for appearance and portion size. 47
  49. 49.  As a waiter you must have a good knowledge of  a) b) c) d) e) the product served, what they consist of and how they are presented. Among the basic duties of a waiter are: Preparation and maintenance of the work area. Maintaining good customer and staff relation. Making recommendation and assisting guests making selection. Order taking and recording. Service and clearing of food and beverage. 49
  50. 50. Classification Definition of Duties Typical job title ASSISTANT WAITER Responsible in serving vegetable, placing plates, serving from trolley hors d’oeuvres or sweets. COMMIS DE RANG JUNIOR STATION WAITER In charge of number of table, taking orders and serving in the correct sequence. DEMI CHEF DE RANG STATION WAITER In charge of number of table, taking orders and serving in the correct sequence. CHEF DE RANG STATION HEAD WAITER In charge of restaurant and service. May take orders and pass them to the station. Maitre d hotel de carre 50
  51. 51. HEAD WAITER In charge of restaurant and service. May take orders and pass them to the station. Maitre d hotel RESTAURANT MANAGER Responsible for restaurant personnel and service DIRECTEUR DU RESTAURANT LOUNGE WAITER Responsible for service of food and beverage in the lounge. Chef de salle WINE BUTLER Responsible for the service of all drinks during the meal SOMMELIER 51
  53. 53.  a) b) Food and Beverage service has traditionally been seen as delivery system. The food service process actually consists of two processes, which are being managed albeit at the same time. There are: The operational sequence – Delivery The customer process – Managing the customer experience 53
  54. 54. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preparation for service Taking orders The service of food and drink Billing Clearing Dishwashing Clearing following service 54
  55. 55. Taking order  Table setting  Mise en place 2. Taking order: a) Duplicate  order taken and copied to supply point.  second copy retained for service. b) Triplicate  copied to supply point, cashier for billing and retained for service.  55
  56. 56. technical skill and product knowledge should well developed. 4. Billing:  Bill as check- cash  Prepaid- customer has credit issued by third party.  No charge- customer not paying.  Credit card  56
  57. 57. Semi self clear- customers place the soiled ware on strategic place trolley within the dining for removal by operators. b) Self clear- on a conveyor or conveyorized tray, collecting system for mechanical transportation to the dish wash area. c) Self-clear and strip- into conveyorized dishwash baskets for direct entry of the basket through dishwash. a) 57
  58. 58. 7. Clearing following sequence collecting linen, check quantities, equipment, empty coffee pot and milk jug and so on. 58
  59. 59.  A. B. C. D.  Four basic processes can be identified based on what the customer has to be involved in. Service at a laid cover Part service at a laid cover and part self service Self service Service at a single point (ordering, receipt of order and payment) All these processes, the customer comes to where the food and beverage service is offered and the service is provided in area primarily designed for the purpose. 59
  60. 60. E. Specialized service or service in situ Process where the customer receives the service in another location and where the area is not primarily designed for the purpose. 60
  61. 61. Service to customer at a laid cover: 1. Waiter:  English service  Family service  American service  French service  Russian service  Gueridon service 2. Bar counter- service to customer seated at bar counter 61
  62. 62. Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on platters to be passed around the table.  The food is brought to the table by servers and guests then pass the food around the table, helping themselves to the amounts they desire.  Some operations use family service when featuring family-oriented themes.  62
  63. 63. Serving dishes are placed on the dining table, allowing the guests to select and serve themselves. Enables the guests to select only what they require. Often offered in addition to plate service for example main item may be plate-served and the guests left to help themselves to vegetables or salad. 63
  64. 64. c) American service Food is prepared and dishes onto individual plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining room and serve to guests. d) Russian Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a serving dish and beautifully garnished. The dish then is presented to the guests and served individually by lifting the food onto guest’s plate with serving spoon and fork. 64
  65. 65. e) French service Many food items are partly or completely prepared at tableside, which the preparation of the food is completed on a gueridon table beside the guest’s seats. f) Gueridon service “Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table) used for the service or preparation of foods in the dining environments. 65
  66. 66. GROUP B Combination of table service and self-service GROUP C: SELF-SERVICE Self-service of customers: 4. Cafeteria 66
  67. 67. Service of customers at a single point-consumed on premises or taken away. 5. Take away  Customer orders and is served from single point at counter, customer consumes off the premises.  Drive-thru: form of take away where customer drives vehicles past order, payment and collection points.  Fast food: customer receives a complete meal, offering limited range menu, fast service with take away facility. 67
  68. 68. 6. Vending – provision of food service and beverage service by means of automatic retailing. 7. Kiosks – outstation to provide service for peak demand or in specific location. 8. Food court – series of autonomous counters where customer may either order and eat or buy from a number of counters or eat in separate eating area or take away. 9. Bar – describe selling point and consumption area in licensed premises. 68
  69. 69. Service to customer in area not primarily designed for service. 1. Tray – whole or part of meal on tray to customer in situ. (Hospitals, aircraft). 2. Trolley – service of food and beverage from trolley away from dining areas (aircraft or on train) 3. Home delivery – food delivered to customer’s home or place of work. 69
  70. 70. 4. 5. 6. Lounge – variety of food and beverage in lounge area. Room – variety of food and beverage in guest apartments or meeting room. Drive-in – customers park motor vehicle and are served at the vehicles. 70
  71. 71. The effects of variation in the five customer service characteristic and the resource utilization can be considered as follows.  Service Types Availability- whether the food that they order available or not. Level of service – method of service, speed of service, accept credit card or not. Reliability – serve the customer properly or not. Flexibility of the service. 71
  72. 72. SIMPLE CATEGORIZATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE PROCESS F&B SERVICE ORDERING/ AREA SELECTION Customer enters From menu SERVICE DINING/ CLEARING CONSUMPTION By staff to At laid cover By staff By staff area and is seated customer Customer enters From menu, Combination of Usually at area and is buffet or passed trays both staff laid cover usually seated Customer enters and customer Dining area carriers or take away Ordered at Customer Dining area single point In situ Customer own tray Customer enters Customer selects carriers or take away From menu Brought to Where served or predetermined customer Various Various By staff or customer clearing 72
  73. 73. THE MENU 73
  74. 74.  a) b) c) The menu dictates: How your operation will be organized and managed. The extent to which it will meets goals. How the building itself (interior) should be designed and constructed. 74
  75. 75. The menu is much more than just a list of available foods. Communicates the operation’s image by helping to set a mood and build interest and excitement. For production employees: Dictates what foods must be prepared. The tasks of service employees are also influenced by what items are offered on the menu. 75
  76. 76. For managers: Menu is the chief in-house marketing and sales tool. Tells them what food and beverages must be purchased. Types of equipment they have to have. The number of workers they must hire The skill level of those workers. 76
  77. 77. A) Fixed menu: Single menu is used daily. Work best at restaurants and other food service establishment. Where there are enough items listed on the menu to offer. 77
  78. 78. B) Cycle menu One that changes every day for a certain period of days, then the cycle is repeated. Provide variety for guests who eat at an operation frequently or even daily (Institutional operations such as schools and hospitals). Cycles range from a week to four weeks. If cycle is too short, the menus repeat too often and guests may become dissatisfied. If cycle is too long, production and labor costs involved in purchasing, storing and preparing the greater variety of foods may be excessive. 78
  79. 79.   a) b) c)   a) b) Menus can also be categorized by type. Three basic types of menus are: Breakfast Lunch Dinner There are also a large number of specialty menus designed to appeal to a specific guest group or meet a specific marketing need. The types of menus will depend on the : Number of meals it serves The type of operation it is 79
  80. 80. Breakfast menu items are “simple, fast and inexpensive”. To keep prices down and make quick service possible, the most breakfast menus are relatively limited, offering only the essential breakfast menu items. 80
  81. 81. Guests are usually in a hurry. Therefore, lunch menus also easy and quick to make. Sandwiches, soups and salads are important in many lunch menus. Most lunch menus offer specials everyday and printed on a separate piece of paper and clipped onto the lunch menu. Usually lighter than dinner because most guests do not want to feel filled up and sleepy during the afternoon. 81
  82. 82. The menu items offered at dinner are heavier and more elaborate than those offered at breakfast or lunch  Guest are willing to pay more for dinner.  They also expect: a) A greater selection of menu items b) Place a greater premium on service, atmosphere and décor.  82
  83. 83.  From poolside menus to menus for afternoon  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) teas. Example: Children’s Senior citizen’s Alcoholic beverage Dessert Room service Take out Banquet Ethnic 83
  84. 84. When the menu has been properly planned: Work will flow more smoothly Guests will be served more effectively Profits will be greater Menu planning consists selecting new menu items for an existing menu. 84
  85. 85. Know your guests What kind of guests?  Are they willing to pay for a meal?  What do your guests want to eat and drink? When menu items are selected, the preferences of guests must be considered. A.  85
  86. 86. By interviewing guests Reading surveys Comment cards Trade journals Studying production and sales records 86
  87. 87. B.      Knowing your operation Type of operation helps determine what kinds of menu items are appropriate. Five(5) components of your operation have a direct impact on what kinds of menu items can be offered: Theme or cuisine Equipment Personnel Quality standards Budget 87
  88. 88. Three basic categories of menu are: Table d’hote A la carte Combination table d’hote/ a la carte 88
  89. 89. Pronounced as “tobble dote” Offers a complete meal for one price Sometimes called prix fixe (“pree feeks”) Prix fixe is French for “fixed price”. Example: Set menu 89
  90. 90. Offer choices in each course Item is individually priced and charged Item are cooked to order The prices of the menu items they select are added together to determine the cost of the meal. 90
  91. 91. COMBINATION  Many operations have menus that are a combination of the table d’hote and a la carte pricing styles  Example: Chinese and other ethnic-food restaurants C. 91
  92. 92. Can be categorized as: Appetizers Salads Entrees Starch item (potatoes,rice,pasta) Vegetables Desserts Beverages 92
  93. 93. APPETIZERS Include fruit or tomato juice, cheese, fruit and seafood items such as shrimp cocktail To enliven the appetite before dinner Generally small in size and spicy or pleasantly biting or tart. 93
  94. 94. Sometimes a “soup du jour” is listed (du jour means “of the day”)  Soup offered are determined by type of operation  Seafood restaurant usually offer soups like: a. Clam chowder b. Shrimp c. Lobster bisque  Italian restaurants often have minestrone soup ENTREES  What kinds of entrees to offer: beef, pork, fish, entrée salads, etc.  Must consider methods of preparation  94
  95. 95. Sometime is part of the entrée-sirloin tips in gravy served over rice. Sometime is separate-a baked potato or side dish of pasta. In many restaurant, vegetables is served with entrée but can also be offered as side dishes. 95
  96. 96. The first decision a planner must make about salads is whether they will be strictly side dishes or offered as entrees Salad entrees: chicken salad, shrimp salad or chef’s salad. Side-dish salads: tossed salad, coleslaw, potato salad, fruit salad and cottage cheese salad. DESSERTS Typically high-profit items. Low-calorie can be offered for the health- conscious. 96
  97. 97. Non alcoholic beverages are often listed at the end of the menu If an operation offers alcoholic beverages, how many beverages will be included. Based on guest preferences, the restaurant’s image, beverage inventory cost, space and other factors. 97
  98. 98. Menu is too small Type is too small No descriptive copy Every item treated the same Some of the operation’s food and beverages are not listed Clip-on problems Basic information about the property and its policies are not included Blank pages 98
  99. 99. To determine how well menu items are selling: Production records Sales history records 99
  100. 100. Once all the menu items have been selected for the menu, the menu should be reviewed for business, aesthetic and nutritional balance. Business balance: the balance between food costs, menu prices, the popularity of items and other financial and marketing considerations. Aesthetic balance: the degree to which meals have been constructed with an eye to the colors, textures, and flavors of foods. Nutritional balance: more important for institutional food service operations than for commercial properties. 100
  101. 101. A well-designed menu complements: a) A restaurant’s overall theme b) Blends in with the interior décor c) Communicates with guests d) Helps sell the operation and its menu items  Menu design depends on the type of operation.  101
  102. 102. After selected the menu items, copy must be written.  The appropriateness of menu copy depends on: a) The operation b) Its guests c) The meal period  102
  103. 103.     a) b) c) Copy of children’s menus should be entertaining. Copy on lunch menus should be brief and to the point. Copy on dinner menus can be more descriptive. Menu copy can be divided into 3 elements: Headings Descriptive copy for menu items Supplemental merchandising copy 103
  104. 104. Major heads, subheads and names of menu items. Major heads: Appetizers, Soups, Entrees, etc. Subheads: under the main heading ENTRÉE could be “Steak”, “Seafood” and “Today’s Special”. Keep menu items names simple so that guests are not confused. Rules of grammar should be followed for the language that is used, 104
  105. 105.   a) b) c)    Informs guests about menu items and helps increase sales. Descriptive copy included: Menu item’s main ingredient Important secondary ingredients Method of preparation The description should not be a recipe. Most entrées are high-profit items and they usually get the most copy. Specialties of the house deserve extra copy, since they help define an operation’s character and appeal. 105
  106. 106.   a) b) c) d) e)  Copy on the menu that is devoted to subjects other than the menu items. Includes basic information of: Address Telephone number Days and hours of operation Meals served Reservations and payment policies, etc. Can be also entertaining: a history of the restaurant, a statement about management’s commitment to guest service or even poetry. 106
  107. 107.  The menu must be organized into a layout-a  a) b) c) d) e) rough sketch of how the finished menu will look. Layout includes: Listing menu items in the right sequence Placing the menu item’s names and descriptive copy on the page Determining the menu’s format Choosing the right typeface and the right paper Integrating artwork into the menu. 107
  108. 108. A meal has beginning, middle and an end. Appetizers and soups listed first, entrees next and desserts last Those items that are most popular or are most profitable are typically listed first so guest can find them easily. 108
  109. 109. Draw a rough sketch of the menu with boxes or series of horizontal lines to represent the approximate space the descriptive copy for each menu items will take up. Should be careful not to make the menu too crowded. FORMAT Refers to menu’s size, shape and general makeup. 109
  110. 110. Refers to the style of the menu’s printed letters. Never set menu copy in type that is smaller than 12- point. In general, type should be dark color printed on lightcolored paper for easy reading. Should be reflect the operation’s personality. 110
  111. 111. Includes drawings, photographs, decorative patterns and borders. Used to attract interest, highlight menu copy or reinforce the operation’s image Should fit in with the interior design or overall decorative scheme of the restaurant. PAPER Differs in strength, opacity (the amount of transparency) and ink receptivity The right paper for the menu depends in part on how often the menu will be used. 111
  112. 112. A well-designed cover communicates the images, style, cuisine, even the price range of the operation The name of the restaurant is all the copy the cover needs. Colors on the cover should either blend in or contrast pleasantly with the color scheme of the restaurant. Colors must be chosen with care because colors produce many conscious and subconscious effects. 112
  113. 113. THE MEAL EXPERIENCE 113
  114. 114. The ‘meal experience’ may defined as a series of events- both tangible and intangible. The main part of the experience begins when customers enter a restaurant and ends when they leave. Those tangible: FOOD AND DRINK Those intangible: SERVICE,ATMOSPHERE, MOOD, ETC. 114
  115. 115. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. SOCIAL: A social occasion BUSINESS: The more important and valued the business, the more expensive and up-market will be the restaurant. CONVENIENCE and TIME: Convenient because of its location or because of its speed of service. ATMOSPHERE and SERVICE: The atmosphere, cleanliness and hygiene of certain types of catering facilities and the social skills of the service staff. PRICE: The price level of an operation. THE MENU: May appear interesting or adventurous or have been recommended, enabling customers to enjoy a different type of meal from 115 that cooked at home.
  116. 116.  a) b) c) Valuable data for all caterers: An analysis of who eats out and frequency that they do. The actual reason given by customers for eating out. Types of catering establishments that the public choose to eat out. 116
  117. 117. Sufficient data to aid decision-making. 2. Accurate and up-to-date consumers profiles, so that able to meet the requirements of the consumer. 3. Competitive analysis, so that an organization can in part measure its own performance  Research should always be ongoing and not just of an occasional nature. 1. 117
  118. 118.  1. 2. 3. The type of food and drink that people choose to consume away from home depends on a number of factors which are of particular concern to customers. They include: The choice of food and drink available: whether the menu is limited or extensive, the operation revolves around one particular product or varied choice. The quality of the product offered: fresh or convenience foods. The quantity of the product offered: portion sizes. 118
  119. 119. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The consistent standards of the product. The range of tastes, textures, aromas and colors offered by a food dish or drink. The food and drink are served at correct temperatures. The presentation of the food and drink enhances the product offered. The price and perceived value for money The quality of the total meal experience matches or even enhances the expectations of the guests. 119
  120. 120.  1. 2. 3. 4. The menu choice offered by a restaurant is dependent on: The price the customer is willing to pay. The amount of time available for meal experience. The level of the market in which the restaurant is situated and consequently. The types of customer likely to frequent that type of operation. 120
  121. 121. 1. 2. 3. 4. The production and service facilities available. The skills of the staff. Availability of commodities. Potential profitability of the menu. 121
  122. 122. The higher the cost of the meal to the customer, the more service the customer expects to receive. The actual service of the food and beverages to the customer may be described as the ‘direct’ service. Part of the restaurant’s total service is also composed of ‘indirect’ services for example provision of cloakroom facilities, availability of a telephone for customer use and so on. 122
  123. 123.  Customers will frequent a restaurant not only because of its food and service but also because they feel the price they are paying represents value for money. ATMOSPHERE AND MOOD 1. Often described as an intangible ‘feel’ inside a restaurant. 2. Include the décor and interior design of the restaurant 3. The table and seating arrangements 123
  124. 124. The service accompaniments 5. The dress and attitude of the staff 6. The tempo of service 7. The age, the dress and sex of the other customers 8. The sound levels in the restaurant 9. The temperature of the restaurant, bars and cloakrooms 10. Overall cleanliness of the environment 11. The professionalism of the staff. 4. 124
  125. 125. The first impression of the restaurant is very important.  Composed of many different aspects: 1. The size and shape of the room 2. The furniture and fittings 3. The color scheme 4. Lighting 5. Air conditioning and so on  The color scheme should blend and balance and be enhanced by lighting arrangement, table and chairs.  125
  126. 126. Arriving at a restaurant for a meal bring a series of expectations regarding that restaurant: 1. The type of service they will receive 2. The price they will pay 3. The expected atmosphere and mood of the restaurant and so on.  A customer has different needs and expectations on different meal occasions and similarly at different times of the day.  126
  127. 127. ‘Services which are not appropriately located may not be performed at all.’ Customers arriving by car will expect adequate car parking facilities. If customers have to travel by public transport, the operation should be well served by buses, trains or taxis. 127
  128. 128. Staff employed by restaurant operation should complement the meal experience of the customers.  They are able to do this in variety of ways: a) Their social skills. b) Their age and sex. c) Their uniform. d) The tempo of their service and so on.  128
  129. 129. The production of the right product. The meal experience begins with basic marketing questions of who are our customers and what do they want. Caterers are able to determine their position in their market and offer the right product at the right price for the identified market segments. 129
  130. 130.  1. 2. 3. 4. General trends in eating out include the following: An increase in interest in healthy eating by the general public. An increase in awareness of hygiene and cleanliness. An increase in the demand for vegetarian foods, particularly by young people. A decline in the general demand for red meats with an increase in demand for white meats, fish and pasta. 130
  131. 131. 5. 6. 7. A growing demand for organically produced fresh foods with a resistance to foods containing artificial additives, flavourings and colourings. An increase in demand for spicy type foods. An increase in the demand for no smoking zones in restaurants. 131
  132. 132. STYLE / TYPES OF SERVICE 132
  133. 133. Introduction There are many different approaches to serving food. For example: 1. TABLE SERVICE 2. BUFFET SERVICE 3. CAFETERIA SERVICE 4. OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE  An operation should use a service style or a combination of service styles that best satisfies its guests’ wants and needs.  133
  134. 134. Traditional table service provides service for guests who are seated at tables.  There are four(4) common styles of table service: A. AMERICAN SERVICE B. ENGLISH SERVICE C. FRENCH SERVICE D. RUSSIAN SERVICE  134
  135. 135. Simplified version of Russian service. Food is prepared and dished on to individual plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining room and served to guests. More popular because it is quicker and guests receive the food while it’s still hot and beautifully presented. The food is presented on the right side of the guests and plates are cleared on the left side of the guests Can be simple and casual or complex and elegant. 135
  136. 136. Much like service at home. Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on platters to be passed around the table. The food is brought to the table by servers who present the food to the guests. The guests then pass the food around the table, helping themselves to the amount they desire. This types of service is often used in homes during holidays such as Thanksgiving and Christmas. 136
  137. 137. Many food items are partly or completely prepared at tableside. The food is attractively arranged on platter and presented to guests after which the preparation of the food is completed on a gueridon table beside the guest’s seats. “Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table) used for the service or preparation of foods in the dining environments. This is the most expensive and impressive form of service and it requires experienced employees. 137
  138. 138.  Employs three servers working together to serve 1.    the meal and may include a captain to seat guests and wine steward to serve wine. Chef de Rang ( Station server) In charge of service for approximately four tables Greet guests, describe and take menu orders Supervises service and completes the preparation of some dishes on the gueridon and carves, slices or de-bones dishes for guest. 138
  139. 139. 2.  3.    Demi Chef de Rang ( Assistant Station server) Assists the Chef de Rang, takes beverage orders and serves food. Commis de Rang ( Food server in training) Assist the Demi de Rang with serving water, bread and butter, serving and cleaning of plates, taking orders to the kitchen and bringing the food to the restaurant. Advantages: guests receive a great deal of attention and the service is extremely elegant. Disadvantages: -fewer guests may be served, -more space is necessary for service. -many highly professional servers are required. -service is time-consuming. 139
  140. 140. Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a serving dish and beautifully garnished.  To serve, the server places a heated plate before each guest from the right side, going around the table clockwise.  The dish then is presented to the guests and served individually by lifting the food onto guest’s plate with serving spoon and fork.  140
  141. 141. Advantages: Only one server is needed and that this service is as elegant as French service, faster and less expensive. Disadvantages: Large investment in silverware and the number of platters needed. The last guest served at the table must be served from the less well displayed food remaining. 141
  142. 142. Guests select their meal from an attractive arrangement of food on long tables. The guest either helps themselves or is served by services staff behind the buffet tables. Plates, flatware and other necessary items are conveniently located. Sometimes used for banquets in combination with limited table service usually for beverages. 142
  143. 143. Guests advance through serving lines, selecting their food items as they go and pay for their meals at the end of the counter. The most expensive or hardest-to-serve food items are usually portioned by service staff. However, cafeteria service is similar to buffet service, guest help themselves to items on display. 143
  144. 144. Fast-food service, deli service, counter service, banquet service and tray service are among the others. 1. Fast-food service  Offer seating as well as drive-through and takeout services  Service is limited to taking the guests’ orders and giving the food to the guests on trays or in carry-out sacks or cartons. 2. Deli service  Take-out service may offer limited seating at tables or at counter.  144
  145. 145. 3.  4.     Counter service Often found in bars, lounges, snack shops and coffee shops. Banquet service Can accommodate any size group ranging from a dozen to an unlimited number of guests. The menu, number of guests and time of service are predetermined and well organized in advance. The menu can be limited and served quickly or may consist of several courses, elaborately presented and served. Water and coffee are replenished periodically. 145
  146. 146. Tray service:  Associated with institutional food service.  Meal are plated, put on trays, kept hot or cold in special transport carts ad moved from preparation/plating areas to service areas as needed. 5. 146
  147. 147. Standard Operating Procedure  Each operation should set its own policies and standard operating procedures.  They detail exactly what must be done and how it should be done  Managers cannot rely on employee’s common sense to do the right thing at the right time.  Performance standards that are measurable and observable should be tied to each operating procedure.  Performance standards help managers and employees determine whether procedures are being performed correctly. 147
  148. 148. The old saying “the guest is always right” still applies and that is the attitude that servers should convey. What is needed to improve service in many operations is not expensive equipment or an elaborate atmosphere but a genuine concern for guests and the use of consistent service procedures. Training service staff to properly welcome and serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities of dining room or food and beverage managers. 148
  149. 149. Training service staff to properly welcome and serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities of dining room or food and beverage managers. Service staff must be polite, properly groomed and have a genuine interest in helping guests enjoy the dining experience. 149
  150. 150. Teamwork between service and production employees is a must. Builds morale and esprit de corps- a spirit of cooperation that guests recognize and appreciate and one that makes everyone’s job easier and more enjoyable. 150
  151. 151. In the service sequence that follows, all serving activities are performed by servers. The sequence begins after guests have been seated: Greet and seat the guests. Open the napkins. Offer iced water. Take order for aperitifs. Serves the bread and butter. Offer the menu and suggests specials and inform the guests of variations to the menu. 151
  152. 152. Allow time for the guests to make their choices. Take the food order up to and including the main course. Offer the wine list. Transfer the food order to the kitchen and cashier dockets and place the order with the kitchen. Take the wine order. Serve the wine. Correct the covers, up to and including the main course. Serve the first course. 152
  153. 153. Clear the first course. Top up wines and open fresh bottles as ordered. Serve additional starter courses. Clear the course preceding the main course. Call away the main course. Serve the salad. Serve the main course. Enquire (after the guests have had the opportunity to taste the food) whether the meals are satisfactory. Clear the main course. 153
  154. 154. Clear the side plates, salad plates and butter dishes. Check and if necessary, change ashtrays. (If ashtrays are being use, they should be changed regularly throughout the meal, especially just before food is served.) Offer hot or cold towels. Offer the wine list for the selection of dessert wines (or if the guests prefer it, continue to serve the wine selected earlier) Offer the menu for dessert, suggesting specials and inform the guests of variations to the menu. Take dessert or cheese order. 154
  155. 155. Transfer the dessert order to the kitchen and cashier dockets and place the order with the kitchen. Correct the covers. Serve the dessert wines or other beverages selected. Serve the dessert or cheese course. Take the order for coffee/tea. ( the coffee/ tea may be served with the dessert/cheese if requested by the guest or as a separate service). Transfer the coffee/tea order to the cashier docket. 155
  156. 156. Take the after-dinner drinks order. Correct the cover. Serve the after-dinner drinks. Serve the coffee/tea. Serve the petit fours. Prepare the bill. Offer additional coffee/tea. Present the bill when it is requested. Accept payment and tender change. Offer additional coffee/tea. See the guests out of the restaurant. 156
  158. 158. INTRODUCTION  Beverages are as important as the food in the dining experience.  They should therefore be given as careful attention as the food when they are being prepared and served. Beverage Equipment Identification  The service of beverages requires a wide range of equipment.  The types of equipment used will vary depending on: a) The tasks to be performed. b) The type of establishment. 158
  159. 159.  When selecting glassware, management will a. b. c. d. e. f. take various factors into account such as: Size Shape Ease of handling and washing Durability Price Appropriate to the style of the establishment and its menu. 159
  160. 160. Many specialist devices and types of equipment have produced over the years to: a. help the waiter with the extraction of corks. b. the carrying of drink. c. cooling of beverages.  The ‘waiter’s friend’ is the recognized device used by waiters to extract corks.  160
  161. 161. The exact procedures to be adopted for the service of beverages will depend on the 1. Type of establishment 2. The styles of service offered 3. The availability of service station areas.  Pre-service duties will include: a. Cleaning and polishing glassware b. Service station mise-en-place c. Preparation of ice buckets d. Handling and placing of equipment.  161
  162. 162. Even when glassware are hygienically washed and sterilized by the high temperature of washing cycle in commercial dishwasher, it is still necessary to polish all glassware by hand before it is placed on the table or used to serve drinks. A lint-free polishing cloth should be used to polish glasses and make sure they are spotlessly clear. 162
  163. 163.  Efficient service requires careful prior preparation of the service equipment.  In some establishments this is done on a special piece of furniture in the dining room known as the drink waiter’s station.  Supplies and equipment required for beverage service are: - Glassware - Ashtrays - Drink trays - Service clothes - Wine lists - Docket books - Table-napkins - Wine coolers - Straws - Ice buckets - Toothpicks - Matches 163
  164. 164.  Ice buckets are used to keep wine and sparkling   a. b.   wines cool in more formal and usually more expensive restaurants. Simple insulated wine coolers sometimes placed on the table are used in less formal establishments. Ice buckets, when required for use should be half filled with: Mixture of crushed ice (two-thirds) Cold water (one-third) The water allows the bottle to sink into the ice instead of balancing on top of it. The bucket may be placed in a tripod stand. 164
  165. 165.  Divide the various different types of beverage into   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. separate lists. This will helps guests to find and select the beverages they require more speedily. Possible lists may include: Cocktail list Drink list (includes aperitifs, beers, spirits and non-alcoholic drinks) Wine list After-dinner drinks list (liqueurs, ports, brandies) Liqueur coffee list 165
  166. 166.  Wine lists are usually divided into wines of different types, for example: 1. White table wines Red table wines Champagne and sparkling wines Dessert wines 2. 3. 4. 166
  167. 167. All glassware should be handled by the stem or base of the glass. When glasses are being moved in the presence of guests, they should always be carried on a beverage tray. Before the guests’ arrival, when the tables are being laid, several glasses may be held upside down in one hand with their stems between one’s fingers. 167
  168. 168. If a single glass is being laid at a dining table, it should be placed 2.5cm above the main knife. If more than one glass is placed on the table, the glasses are positioned in a line at an angle of 45 in the order in which they will be required. 168
  169. 169. The food waiter and the wine waiter must communicate if they are to provide a co-coordinated sequential service. The sequence of service requires both food and beverages to be served at the appropriate times throughout the meal without interfering with each other. 169
  170. 170. Before the menu is presented, guests are offered an aperitif (pre-dinner drink) to stimulate the appetite. Because the wines are selected to complement the food chosen, the wine list is usually presented after the food order has been taken. 170
  171. 171. The wine selected to accompany each course is served just prior to the food in that course. It is usual to serve: a. White wines before red b. Dry wines before sweet c. Young wines before old  What wines are chosen and in what order is up to the guest, the ‘right’ wine is what the guest wants.  171
  172. 172. Remind guests that dessert wines are available when the desserts are being ordered. Dessert wines are sweet and complement sweet dishes. Orders for after-dinner alcoholic beverages are taken before coffee is served. This allows the coffee and other after-dinner drinks such as port, cognac or liqueurs to be served at the same time. 172
  173. 173. Beverage may be served on their own (in bar or lounge service) or their service may be carefully coordinated with the service of the food so that the beverages complement the food enhancing the guests' enjoyment of both. The style of beverage service offered will depend on the character of the establishment and the type of beverages being served. Venues offering beverage service include public houses and bars, lounges, restaurants and function facilities. 173
  174. 174. When selling beverages: Do not dictate your personal preferences Offer a diversity of recommendations so that guests are prompted to choose what they personally prefer. Suggest beverages that complement the occasion but do not convey any sense of disapproval if something ‘unsuitable’ is chosen. Guest have the right to drink whatever they choose and have come to enjoy themselves, not to be ‘corrected’. Your job is to make them feel comfortable and relaxed. 174
  175. 175. APERITIF Pre-dinner drink taken to stimulate the appetite Dry to taste because dry beverages stimulate the appetite, while sweet drinks tend to dull the appetite. Some guests may prefer to drink a sweet drink such as a sweet sherry before a meal as aperitif. 175
  176. 176.  Popular aperitifs include: 1. Dry champagne Pre-dinner cocktails (acidic or dry rather than creamy) Dry sherry Dry (‘French’) vermouth A proprietary aperitif ( Campari, Fernet Branca, Dubonnet) 2. 3. 4. 5. 176
  177. 177. The term ‘wine’ indicates a type of beverage made from fermented fruit. Wine may be made from a variety of fruits but wine as we generally know it is made from fermented juice of grapes. When another fruit is used to produce the wine, the name of the fruit used included on the label, for example ‘strawberry wine’. 177
  178. 178. Red wine is made from ‘black’ (purple) grapes. White wine is made from ‘white’ (green) grapes. Rose wine which is pink (rose) is made from black grapes but the skins of the grapes are removed early in the process of fermentation. Red wines should be served at ‘room temperature’ (about 18 C) White wines should be served mildly chilled (about 6 C). 178
  179. 179.  Many wines, especially European wines are  i. ii.  a. b. described according to the region where the grapes are grown. Example: France: famous wine regions are Burgundy, Bordeaux an Beaujolais German: Rhine and Mosel wines Wine from outside Europe is often described by: The variety of the grape rather than the region of origin Grape variety has a strong influence on the character of the wine. 179
  180. 180. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Chardonnay- full-flavored, dry Riesling- delicate, crisp, fruit-flavoured Traminer- fruity, spicy Cabarnet sauvigon- dry Pinot noir- light, soft Gamay- fruity, light Shiraz- robust 180
  181. 181.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The better the quality of the wine the more detailed the information on the labels is. Labels on ordinary table wines contain: The name of the region Those on superior wines Name of the particular vineyard where the wine was produced The precise area where the grapes may be grown Types of vines that can be used The levels of alcohol and sugar in the finished wine By its vintage (in year when the weather conditions are especially favorable to grape growing). The wines produce in these years are known as vintage wines. 181
  182. 182. Rich and sweet. Designed to be consumed with sweet food items. FORTIFIED WINES A wine strengthened with the addition of spirit. The spirit also preserves the wine for longer periods after the bottle is opened. Fortified wines include Sherry, Vermouth, Muscat and Port. 182
  183. 183. Sparkling wines get their sparkle from carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is produced naturally in the process of fermentation and can be retained to produce a sparkling wine. Champagne is made by a complex process called the methode champenoise or champagne method. The style of sparklin wine include: Brut – dry Sec – medium dry Demi-sec – medium sweet Doux - sweet 183
  184. 184. Champagne or sparkling wine complement most foods. Consume red wine with red meat and white wine with white meat. If unsure, often a rose wine will suffice. Consume white wine before red wine. Consume dry wine before sweet wine Commence with a grape aperitif (wine-based) rather than a grain aperitif (spirit-based) prior to the meal, since the latter can spoil or dull the palate. Make sure your wine is at the correct temperature. 184
  185. 185. The process central to vinification is fermentation, the conversion of sugar to alcohol. VINE SPECIES Grown that produces grapes suitable for wine production and stocks the vineyards of the world is named Vitis vinifere. The same vine variety, grown in different regions and processed in different ways, will produce wines of differing characteristics. Example are: Black: Carbernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gamay. White: Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling. 185
  186. 186. STILL WINE  This is the largest category.  The alcoholic strength may be between 9% and 15% by volume. The wine may be: a. Red:  Being fermented in contact with grape skins from which the wine gets its colour.  Normally dry wines. 186
  187. 187. b.   c.     White: Produced from white grapes Normally dry to very sweet. Rose (made in 3 ways) From red grapes fermented on the skins for up to 48 hours. Mixing red and white wines together. By pressing grapes so that colour is extracted. May be dry or semi-sweet. 187
  188. 188. The most famous is Champagne. This is made by the methode champenoise (secondary fermentation in the bottle) in an area of north-eastern France. They may vary from brut (very dry), sec (medium dry), demi-sec (medium sweet) to doux (sweet). Semi-sparkling wines are known by the term petillant. 188
  189. 189. The sugar contents is indicated on the label: Extra brut very dry Brut very dry Extra-sec dry Sec slightly sweet Demi-sec sweetish up to 6g less than 15g 12 to 20g 17 to 35g 35 to 50g 189
  190. 190. Such as Sherry, Port and Madeira have been strengthened by the addition of alcohol usually a grape spirit. Their alcoholic strength may be between 15% and 22% by volume. Example: Sherry (Spain) 15-18% Port (Portugal) 18-22% Madeira (Portuguese island of Madeira) 18% Marsala (Marsala in Sicily) 18% 190
  191. 191. The information always includes: 1. The country where the wine was made. 2. Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (% vol). 3. Contents in litres, cl or ml. 4. Name and address or trademark of supplier.  It may also include: a. The year the grapes were harvested, called the vintage. b. The region where the wine was made. c. The quality category of the wine. d. Details of bottler. 191
  192. 192. Tasting may be said to be an analysis of wine by the senses. Sight: indicating the clarity and colour of the wine. Smell: determines the bouquet of a wine by means of a vigorous swirling in the glass. Taste: allows detection of the aroma in the mouth. The tasting of wines includes looking at, smelling and tasting the wine. 192
  193. 193. SENSE CHARACTERISITC DESCRIPTION SIGHT Clarity Bright/clear/hazy/cloudy Colour Orange-pink/onion skin/pink/rose/blue-pink white Bouquet Purple/ruby/red/redbrown/mahogany/brownamber rose SMELL red Pale yellow/pale green/straw/yellow/gold/ yellow-brown/ maderised Depth Full/deep/light/nondescript Character Clean/unclean/acetic/fruity/ fragrant/sweet/musty/woody /baked 193
  194. 194. TASTE Dryness Bone dry/dry/medium/sweet/very sweet Body Full-bodied/medium/light Flavour Acid/bitter/spicy/grapy Tannin Hard/silky/soft Acid Tart/green/piquant/cloying 194
  195. 195. Distilled alcoholic beverages. Distillation is the process of converting liquid into vapor by heating and then condensing the vapor back to liquid form. Almost any fruit or vegetable can be crushed to liquid, fermented and then distilled to make a spirit. 195
  196. 196. Spirit Whisky Gin  Rum Vodka Brandy Base Grain (barley, wheat and maize) Neutral spirit made from grain and flavored with juniper berries. Sugar cane Potatoes or grain Grapes 196
  197. 197. All whisky distilled in Scotland is covered by the generic term Scotch.  Different brand labels which offer the public may be: a. Proprietary Scotch -This means that it is a blend of: i. Malt whisky distilled from malted barley. ii. Grain whisky distilled from maize. b. Deluxe whiskies  Same product as above but will have been matured much longer.  Some well known brand names here are Dimple Haig, Johnny Walker and Black Label.  Whether Proprietary Scotch or Deluxe whiskies, both styles are sold on the market at the recognized alcoholic strength of 40% OIML.  197
  198. 198. The term ‘gin’ is taken from the first part of the word Genievre which is the French term for juniper.  Maize, rye and malted barley used in gin production.  Example of gin: a. Fruit gin b. Geneva gin c. Old Tom d. London dry gin  198
  199. 199. Made from the fermented by-products of sugar cane. Available in dark and light varieties. VODKA Describe as a colourless and flavourless spirit. 199
  200. 200. Defined as a spirit distilled from wine.  Brandy should be stored away from strong light and odours at a temperature of between 15º and 18ºC.  It is best served neat at room temperature or as a long drink.  Example: a. Cognac b. Almagnac  200
  201. 201.  Made from fermented grain by the process called brewing.  The traditional ingredients are malt (barley soaked to germinate and then dried), yeast, hops and water.  Beer is the general term for ales, lagers and stout.  Ales and lagers are made by different techniques of fermentation.  Ales are top-fermented whereas lagers are bottom-fermented.  Lagers are paler and more highly-carbonated then ales.  Stout is a dark heavy beer.  Draught beer is beer drawn from a barrel rather than bottled or canned.  Today many beers are served chilled. 201
  202. 202. i. ii. iii. Pump (manual) – from cask Free flow – by keg beers, carbon dioxide cylinder is connected to the keg and the gas forces the beer to the top. Meters – used with keg beers. They are sealed pumps which dispense beer in half pints (measure for liquids). 202
  203. 203. They are fermented drinks, deriving their alcoholic content from the conversion of malt sugars into alcohol by brewers yeast. The basic materials used in the brewing process are as follows: Malted barley Hop – the part of the hop that is the flower, which contains an oil that gives beer its flavour. Sugar - refined sugars are used which aid the fermentation and the production of alcohol and also add sweetness. Yeast – yeast plus sugar produces alcohol and gives off a gas, carbon dioxide. 203
  204. 204.  a. b. c. There are three main categories of beer: Ales: top-fermented, pale, strong or dark. Lagers: bottom-fermented, paler and more highlycarbonated. Stout: sweet or bitter, dark heavy beer. 204
  205. 205. Liqueurs are spirit-based (sometimes wine-based) liquors, sweetened and flavored. Often taken with the coffee at the end of a meal. Usually served neat (without any mixer) in liqueur glass. Also be taken in black coffee as a liqueur coffee. Liqueurs are also frequently used in cocktails. 205
  206. 206. Cocktails are mixed drinks. Two or more ingredients are mixed by one of the following methods: Shake and strain (in a cocktail shaker with ice) Stir and strain (in a mixing glass with ice) Blend (in an electric blender with the quantity of ice specified in the recipe) Build (prepared directly in the glass). 206
  207. 207. Pre-dinner cocktails: -Usually acidic or dry and make good aperitifs -Example: Dry Martini After-dinner cocktails: -Tend to be richer, often creamy and sweet -Example: Brandy Alexander Long drink cocktails: -Often contain fruit juices, soft drinks or milk in addition to their alcoholic base. -Example: Tom Collin 207
  208. 208. Includes a wide variety of beverage items from cold to hot and from the simple to the exotic  Some are served from the kitchen/still area and some are dispensed from the bar. 1. Served from the kitchen/ still area: i. Tea (Darjeeling, English Breakfast, Earl Grey, China and herbal tea) ii. Coffee (Long black, Café au lait, Espresso, Cappuccino, Vienna coffee, Decaffeinated) iii. Hot chocolate  208
  209. 209. Aerated water (water charged with gas, usually carbon dioxide. Aerated waters often contain a syrup for taste and color) Fruit juices (fresh, canned, boxed or bottled). Squashes (fruit juices or syrups with sugar, water and other ingredients usually described as ‘cordials’) Mineral waters may be still (e.g. Evian) or sparkling (e.g.Perrier) 209
  210. 210. Prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called Camellia sinesis. A healthy beverage containing approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids muscle relation and stimulates the central nervous system. 210
  211. 211. 1. 2. 3. 4. China (oldest tea growing)- more fragrant and delicately perfumed teas (e.g. Lapsang Souchong). Ceylon (Sri Lanka)- have a delicate, light, lemon flavour. India (world’s largest tea producer)-best known teas being Darjeeling which is delicate, rounded mellow flavoured and Assam, a stronger and more full-bodied and flavoured tea. Kenya – medium flavoured tea. 211
  212. 212.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tea may be purchased in a variety of forms: Bulk (leaf) Tea bags - heated sealed and contain either standard or specialty teas. String and tag - one cup bag with string attached. Envelopes - string and tag but in an envelope. Instant - instant tea granules. 212
  213. 213. a. Assam - rich full and malty flavoured. b. Ceylon – a pale golden colour. c. Darjeeling – a delicate tea with light grape d. e. f. g. h. flavour. Earl Grey – a blend of Darjeeling and China. Jasmine – fragrant and scented flavour. Kenya – consistent and refreshing tea. Lapsang Souchong – smoky, pungent and perfume tea, delicate. Orange Pekoe – similar to Lapsang Souchong but with slightly fruity aroma and flavour. 213
  214. 214. The tree which produce Coffea are the genus Coffee which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. The fruit of the coffee tree is known as the cherry. The cherry usually contains two coffee seeds. 214
  215. 215. Green bean have to be roasted in order to release the coffee aroma and flavour  The common degrees of roasting are: a. Light or pale roasting – for mild beans to preserve their delicate aroma. b. Medium roasting – stronger flavour. c. Full roasting – bitterish flavour. d. High roasted coffee – strong bitter.  215
  216. 216. The method involves passing steam through the finely ground coffee and infusing under pressure. Served black in a small glass cup. Cappuccino If milk is required, it is heated for each cup by a high pressure steam injector and transform a cup of black coffee into cappuccino. Decaffeinated Made from beans after the caffeine has been extracted. Cafe au lait Also known as white coffee, served with milk. 216
  217. 217. Aerated with carbon dioxide.  Examples: a. Soda water: colourless and tasteless. b. Tonic water: colourless and quinine flavoured. c. Dry ginger: golden straw coloured with a ginger flavour. d. Bitter lemon: pale cloudy coloured with sharp lemon flavour .  217
  218. 218. Divided water into two main types: mineral water and spring water. Mineral water: has a mineral content (strictly controlled). Spring water: has a fewer regulations, apart from those concerning hygiene. Natural spring water From natural springs in the ground. Being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometime naturally charged with an aerating gas. 218
  220. 220. The end-of-service procedures includes: Preparing and presenting a bill Payment procedures and methods Tips (gratuities) Saying goodbye to the guests Tidying, cleaning and resetting after service. 220
  221. 221. The two purposes of guest’s bill: 1. To inform the guest of the amount to be paid. 2. To act as a control system for the establishment.  Guest’s bills may be presented at the table, at the bar or at a cashier’s desk.  Bill should be kept up to date at all times and ready for presentation as soon as the guest requires it. 221
  222. 222. You should be alert to signs that guests may want their bill. Bills should not be presented until they are asked for. When a bill is presented at the table, it is placed in front of the host( the person who has asked for the bill) on a small plate from the right. Bill is folded so that the amount to be paid cannot be seen by the other guests or it is placed in a billfold. 222
  223. 223. If there is no obvious host, you may place the bill in the center of the table. Bills presented at bars should be presented on a plate, folded or in a billfold. Do not hover around waiting for your guests to pay. Remain alert so that when they have paid for their meal, there is no unnecessary delay while they are kept waiting for you to collect the payment. 223
  224. 224. Common payment methods include: 1. Cash  Very simple, settling of the bill and the tendering of guest’s change. 2. Credit cards  When the card is placed on the bill, you should collect it and before processing it, check: a) The establishment accepts the kind of card presented. b) Its expiry date. c) That it has been signed. d) Check the number against the current warning bulletin. 224
  225. 225. To use the card, place it in the addresser or stamping machine with the credit slip on top and slide the bar over both to imprint the slip or print the credit slip with the computer printer. List the costs of the meals, tax and bar total on the slip and total the amount. Bring a pen and have the guest check and sign the slip. Compare the signature with the one on the credit card to be sure they are identical and return the credit card. 225
  226. 226. 3.     Cheques Usually not accepted without the support of a banker’s card. Check name and bank’s name on the banker’s card match those on the cheque. The bill being paid does not exceed the limit stated on the card. If the bill is higher than the card limit, ask the customer to pay at least the excess by a different method. 226
  227. 227. Vouchers (Luncheon) Often given to office workers as a supplement to their salaries.  Make sure the establishment accepts the vouchers before you accept them in payment of a bill. 5. Charge accounts  The transaction must have been authorized by management.  Check the guest’s signatures against a charge record or if it is in a hotel, the guest’s name against a room number. 4.  227
  228. 228.  Is a monetary reward for courteous and efficient     a. b. c. service. Tips are incentives to do a good job. Sometimes tipping is based on the quality of food instead of the attention given by the server. Generally, the size of the tip is between 10 and 20 percent of the total amount of the guest check. A tip may be given in various ways: If tip is handed to you, thank the guest politely. If it is left on the table, pick up before the table is cleared. If several servers share the responsibility of one table, they should divide the tip. 228
  229. 229. Be neat. Friendly greetings. Be friendly and helpful but be efficient. Smile often when appropriate. Check often to see whether customers are in need service and offer to help them. Serve orders to customers as soon as possible. Offer appropriate condiments with foods. Pour water and coffee for customers as needed. 229
  230. 230. The last impression guests are given as they leave after a meal is as important as their first impression on arrival. The farewell should be warm and friendly and as personal as possible. Assist those departing by moving their chairs for them, collecting their personal belongings and offering to call for a taxi if not too busy. If busy, at least acknowledge their departure with nod and a smile If you can, wish them ‘Good evening’ and thank them for coming. 230
  231. 231. When the guests have left, the tables and service areas must be cleared of used and soiled items and the tables prepared for use again. Remove coffee cups and center items, glassware and ashtrays. The cups and saucers should be carried using either the two-or the three-plate technique. Do not stack the cups. Glassware should be removed on a drink tray while the remaining centre items are removed by hand. Ensure that all the chairs are returned to the their original positions round the table. Do not forget to check the chairs for crumbs. 231
  232. 232. DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: 232