INTRODUCTION TO THE
Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty
Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management,
MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY,
Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499
email: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
According to the Oxford Dictionary, hospitality
means “the reception and entertainment of guests,
visitors or strangers with liberality and good will”.
The word hospitality is derived from hospice (nursing
home), a medieval “house of rest” for travelers and
Hospitality then includes hotels and restaurants.
Hospitality may be defined as meeting the needs of
guests in a variety of establishments.
The hospitality Industry offers employment to people
of differing personalities, background and skills
through a wide diversity of type of outlets serving
food and beverages.
Café: usually offer teas, coffees, soft drink,
snack and often light meals.(eg.coffee bean, starbuck)
Cafeterias: usually attached to institution such as
museums or educational establishment sometimes
recreational place. Usually offer light refreshment.
Food halls/ Food courts: in the shopping mall, offer
are light food to heavy food such as pastries, noodle, rice
Public House: the meals available range from simple bar
snacks or sometimes informal restaurant style offering
three course meal.
Casual dining restaurant (BISTROS): service provided
usually casual dining and table service.
Ethnic restaurant: offering culture experience offered
to guests as well as the food.
Functions (receptions/banquet/conventions): the
number of guests and the style of function can vary
enormously so function demand extreme flexibility from
both food management and service staff.
Fine dining restaurant: offering comfortable or
impressive ambience for the fine cuisine. Staff must be
2. LODGING SECTOR
3. FOODSERVICE SECTOR
Institutional foodservices, etc
4. ALLIED INDUSTRY
Educational and training institutions
Defined as “the art of supplying food and beverage
services away from home or to the home but prepared
The National Restaurant Association (USA) divides
the foodservice industry into two categories:
However since 1993,Restaurants and Institutions
(USA) no longer divided the industry into these
categories because menu item and facility
ambience choices between categories are almost
In Malaysia, there are still obvious differences
between the two categories of foodservice.
The term commercial and noncommercial are still
used to indicate the degree of choice a customer
has in selecting where to eat.
The foodservice industry can be classified into 2
Manufacturing and Industrial Plants
Commercial and Office Buildings
Colleges & Universities/Primary & Secondary Schools
In-transit Foodservice (airlines/railways)
Recreation and Sports Center
Hotel Food and Beverage Outlets
Recreation and Sport
Vending and Nonstore Retailers
A. EMPLOYEE FOODSERVICE
B. GOVERNMENT NURSERIES, ELEMENTARY AND
SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS
Subsidized foods for infants, toddlers, children,
students in residential halls, boarding schools,
Government/semi-government higher institutions
Student dining halls
Academic and non-academic staff cafeterias
In-house subsidized mass foodservice for
District hospitals/healthcare centers
‘Pusat Serenti/ Pusat Pemulihan Dadah’
‘Boys’/Girls’ rehabilitation centers
Rumah anak-anak yatim
Rumah orang-orang tua
Rumah orang-orang cacat
“Taman Bahagia”, ‘Pusat Penyakit Kusta- Sg.Buluh,
MILITARY/ UNIFORMED FOODSERVICE
Officers and Open Mess
Three (3) basic commercial food service operations
Owned by an owner or owners who have one or more
properties that have no chain relationship.
Menus may not be identical among properties.
Food purchase specifications may differ, operating
procedures are varied, etc.
Part of a multi-unit organization
Often share the same menu
Purchase supplies and equipment cooperatively.
Follow operating procedures that have been
standardized for every restaurant in the chain
May be owned by a parent company, a franchise
company or by a private owner or owners
Some chains are operated by a management
Large chains can readily acquire cash, credit and long-
term leases on land and buildings
Ability to experiment with different menus, themes,
designs and operating procedures
Can afford staff specialists who are experts in finance,
construction, operations and recipe development
Able to generate internal financial information that
can be used as a basis of comparison among
Difficult to keep up with changing markets and
Involve a large amount of paperwork, rules and
procedures that can slow them down.
Top management may lose motivation to keep up and
what is best for the company might not always receive
the highest priority.
A special category of chain operations
The franchisee (the owner of the franchise
property) pay fees to:
a) Use the name
b) Building design
c) Business methods of the franchiser (the franchise
The franchisee must agree to maintain the
franchisor’s business and quality standards.
To initial franchise fees, the franchisee may be
required to pay:
Royalty fees assessed on the basis of a specified
percentage of sales or other factors
Advertising costs, sign rental fees and other costs such
as stationary and food products.
Company-sponsored training programs for
management staff and training resource materials for
National contributions toward local advertising
Higher sales because:
a) more extensive advertising.
b) greater name recognition of the franchise chain.
c) the consistency of product and services among chain
properties (guest know what to expect).
Lower food costs due to volume purchasing by the
Tested operating procedures which specify how
things should be done.
The contract is generally very restrictive
The franchisee has little choice about:
a) The style of operation
b) The product served
c) Services offered
d) Methods of operation
The menu might be set along with the décor,
required furnishings and production equipment.
Since the franchise agreement is drawn up by the
franchiser, the document generally favors the
The agreement may leave little to negotiate
This causes problems if there are disagreements
between the two parties.
Traditionally, a large percentage of institutional
food service operations have focused on nutrition
and other non-economic factors.
Today, as pressures for cost containment
accompany reduced income, there is a need to
manage institutional food service operations as
Sometimes this is done by the institutions
Other institutions choose management
companies to help them minimize costs.
Large nationwide management companies have
greater resources to solves specific problems.
Can save money for institutions through effective
negotiations with suppliers.
Can often operate institutional food service
programs at a lower cost than the institutions can.
Institution administrators, trained in areas other
than food service operations, can delegate food
service responsibilities to professional food service
Too much control in matters that affect the public
image of the institution, long range operating plans
and other important issues.
Some people may dislike having a profit-making
business involved in the operation of a health care,
educational or other institutional food service
There may be concerns that a management company
will decrease food and beverage quality.
The institutional operation may depend too much on
the management company. What happens if the
management company discontinues the contract?
How long will it take discontinues the contract? How
long will it take to implement a self-oriented program
or find another management company?
Although management companies are usually hired
to reduce operating costs, higher operating costs are
also possible when management companies are used.
Part of a large
(wants) of guests
No. of guests are more
Complex, some guests
Profit not major motivation
PEOPLE IN FOOD SERVICE
Can be grouped into three (3) general categories:
2. Production personnel
3. Service personnel
There are three (3) levels of managers
Concerned with long-term plans and goals
Focus more than other managers on the
Watch for environmental opportunities and
threats such as changes in strategy by
competitors, a sluggish economy and so on.
Are in the middle of the chain of command
Key positions through which communication flows up
and down the organization.
Concerned with shorter-term goals and less
concerned with large environmental issues
Supervise lower-level middle managers or supervisors.
Concerned primarily with food production
Usually have little contact with the guests.
Typical production personnel include:
c) Assistant cooks
d) Pantry-service assistants
g) Receiving employees
Have a great deal of contact with guest
Perform a wide variety of functions and
Service personnel include:
Dining room managers
Other service personnel
At large properties, the dining room manager directly
supervises an assistant (host)
Helps his or her assistant greet and supervise other service
Directly supervise service employees.
Check all phases of dining room preparation.
Complete mise en place (‘to put everything in place’)
Discuss menu specials
Expected regular guests
Anticipated total number of guests with servers and other
May greet and help seat guests, present menus and take
Serve food and beverages to guests.
Skills food servers need depend on the operation.
Guest service at table service restaurant is different
from guest service at coffee shop.
Setting up tables with proper appointments.
Removing dirty dishes, linens and so on from tables.
Also perform mise en place before the meal period
begins and clean up afterwards.
Prepare mixed drinks and other alcoholic beverages
Serve them directly to guests or to their servers
Provide food and beverage items to guests in lounge
May take reservations
Total the price of food and beverages on guest checks
and collect guest payments.
During busy periods to help production and
service personnel communicate
This person often a manager
Controls the process of turning in order and
picking up food items
Can monitor production times
Resolve disputes about when an order came in
Coordinate the interaction among cooks and
May assist in the transfer of food from production
employees to food servers.
Help to control product quality and costs by
examining each tray before it goes into the dining
Checking food for appearance and portion size.
TYPICAL STAFF STRUCTURE IN LARGE RESTAURANT
As a waiter you must have a good knowledge of
the product served, what they consist of and
how they are presented.
Among the basic duties of a waiter are:
Preparation and maintenance of the work area.
Maintaining good customer and staff relation.
Making recommendation and assisting guests
Order taking and recording.
Service and clearing of food and beverage.
Classification Definition of Duties
Responsible in serving vegetable,
placing plates, serving from trolley
hors d’oeuvres or sweets.
In charge of number of table, taking
orders and serving in the correct
In charge of number of table, taking
orders and serving in the correct
In charge of restaurant and service.
May take orders and pass them to the
Maitre d hotel
In charge of restaurant and service.
May take orders and pass them to the
Maitre d hotel
Responsible for restaurant personnel
Responsible for service of food and
beverage in the lounge.
Chef de salle
Responsible for the service of all
drinks during the meal
Food and Beverage service has traditionally been
seen as delivery system. The food service process
actually consists of two processes, which are being
managed albeit at the same time. There are:
The operational sequence – Delivery
The customer process – Managing the customer
Preparation for service
The service of food and drink
Clearing following service
Mise en place
2. Taking order:
order taken and copied to supply point.
second copy retained for service.
copied to supply point, cashier for billing and
retained for service.
technical skill and product knowledge should well
Bill as check- cash
Prepaid- customer has credit issued by third party.
No charge- customer not paying.
Semi self clear- customers place the soiled ware on
strategic place trolley within the dining for removal
b) Self clear- on a conveyor or conveyorized tray,
collecting system for mechanical transportation to
the dish wash area.
c) Self-clear and strip- into conveyorized dishwash
baskets for direct entry of the basket through
7. Clearing following sequence
collecting linen, check quantities, equipment, empty
coffee pot and milk jug and so on.
Four basic processes can be identified based on what
the customer has to be involved in.
Service at a laid cover
Part service at a laid cover and part self service
Service at a single point (ordering, receipt of order
All these processes, the customer comes to where the
food and beverage service is offered and the service is
provided in area primarily designed for the purpose.
E. Specialized service or service in situ
Process where the customer receives the service in
another location and where the area is not primarily
designed for the purpose.
Service to customer at a laid cover:
2. Bar counter- service to customer seated at bar
Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or
on platters to be passed around the table.
The food is brought to the table by servers
and guests then pass the food around the
table, helping themselves to the amounts
Some operations use family service when
featuring family-oriented themes.
Serving dishes are placed on the dining table,
allowing the guests to select and serve themselves.
Enables the guests to select only what they require.
Often offered in addition to plate service for example
main item may be plate-served and the guests left to
help themselves to vegetables or salad.
c) American service
Food is prepared and dishes onto individual plate
in the kitchen, carried into the dining room and
serve to guests.
Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a
serving dish and beautifully garnished.
The dish then is presented to the guests and
served individually by lifting the food onto guest’s
plate with serving spoon and fork.
e) French service
Many food items are partly or completely prepared at
tableside, which the preparation of the food is
completed on a gueridon table beside the guest’s
f) Gueridon service
“Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table) used for the
service or preparation of foods in the dining
Combination of table service and self-service
GROUP C: SELF-SERVICE
Self-service of customers:
Service of customers at a single point-consumed
on premises or taken away.
5. Take away
Customer orders and is served from single point at
counter, customer consumes off the premises.
Drive-thru: form of take away where customer drives
vehicles past order, payment and collection points.
Fast food: customer receives a complete meal, offering
limited range menu, fast service with take away facility.
6. Vending – provision of food service and beverage
service by means of automatic retailing.
7. Kiosks – outstation to provide service for peak
demand or in specific location.
8. Food court – series of autonomous counters where
customer may either order and eat or buy from a
number of counters or eat in separate eating area or
9. Bar – describe selling point and consumption area in
Service to customer in area not primarily designed for
Tray – whole or part of meal on tray to customer in
situ. (Hospitals, aircraft).
2. Trolley – service of food and beverage from trolley
away from dining areas (aircraft or on train)
3. Home delivery – food delivered to customer’s
home or place of work.
Lounge – variety of food and beverage in lounge
Room – variety of food and beverage in guest
apartments or meeting room.
Drive-in – customers park motor vehicle and are
served at the vehicles.
The effects of variation in the five customer
service characteristic and the resource utilization
can be considered as follows.
Availability- whether the food that they order
available or not.
Level of service – method of service, speed of
service, accept credit card or not.
Reliability – serve the customer properly or not.
Flexibility of the service.
SIMPLE CATEGORIZATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE PROCESS
By staff to
At laid cover
area and is seated
area and is
buffet or passed
or take away
or take away
By staff or
The menu dictates:
How your operation will be organized and
The extent to which it will meets goals.
How the building itself (interior) should be
designed and constructed.
The menu is much more than just a list of available
Communicates the operation’s image by helping to
set a mood and build interest and excitement.
For production employees:
Dictates what foods must be prepared.
The tasks of service employees are also influenced by
what items are offered on the menu.
Menu is the chief in-house marketing and sales tool.
Tells them what food and beverages must be
Types of equipment they have to have.
The number of workers they must hire
The skill level of those workers.
A) Fixed menu:
Single menu is used daily.
Work best at restaurants and other food service
Where there are enough items listed on the menu to
B) Cycle menu
One that changes every day for a certain period of
days, then the cycle is repeated.
Provide variety for guests who eat at an operation
frequently or even daily (Institutional operations
such as schools and hospitals).
Cycles range from a week to four weeks.
If cycle is too short, the menus repeat too often
and guests may become dissatisfied.
If cycle is too long, production and labor costs
involved in purchasing, storing and preparing the
greater variety of foods may be excessive.
Menus can also be categorized by type.
Three basic types of menus are:
There are also a large number of specialty
menus designed to appeal to a specific guest
group or meet a specific marketing need.
The types of menus will depend on the :
Number of meals it serves
The type of operation it is
Breakfast menu items are “simple, fast and
To keep prices down and make quick service possible,
the most breakfast menus are relatively limited,
offering only the essential breakfast menu items.
Guests are usually in a hurry.
Therefore, lunch menus also easy and quick to make.
Sandwiches, soups and salads are important in many
Most lunch menus offer specials everyday and printed
on a separate piece of paper and clipped onto the
Usually lighter than dinner because most guests do
not want to feel filled up and sleepy during the
The menu items offered at dinner are heavier and
more elaborate than those offered at breakfast or
Guest are willing to pay more for dinner.
They also expect:
a) A greater selection of menu items
b) Place a greater premium on service, atmosphere
From poolside menus to menus for afternoon
When the menu has been properly planned:
Work will flow more smoothly
Guests will be served more effectively
Profits will be greater
Menu planning consists selecting new menu items for
an existing menu.
Know your guests
What kind of guests?
Are they willing to pay for a meal?
What do your guests want to eat and drink?
When menu items are selected, the preferences
of guests must be considered.
By interviewing guests
Studying production and sales records
Knowing your operation
Type of operation helps determine what kinds of
menu items are appropriate.
Five(5) components of your operation have a
direct impact on what kinds of menu items can
Theme or cuisine
Three basic categories of menu are:
A la carte
Combination table d’hote/ a la carte
Pronounced as “tobble dote”
Offers a complete meal for one price
Sometimes called prix fixe (“pree feeks”)
Prix fixe is French for “fixed price”.
Example: Set menu
Offer choices in each course
Item is individually priced and charged
Item are cooked to order
The prices of the menu items they select are added
together to determine the cost of the meal.
Many operations have menus that are a
combination of the table d’hote and a la carte
Example: Chinese and other ethnic-food
Include fruit or tomato juice, cheese, fruit and
seafood items such as shrimp cocktail
To enliven the appetite before dinner
Generally small in size and spicy or pleasantly biting
Sometimes a “soup du jour” is listed (du jour
means “of the day”)
Soup offered are determined by type of
Seafood restaurant usually offer soups like:
a. Clam chowder
c. Lobster bisque
Italian restaurants often have minestrone soup
What kinds of entrees to offer: beef, pork, fish,
entrée salads, etc.
Must consider methods of preparation
Sometime is part of the entrée-sirloin tips in gravy
served over rice.
Sometime is separate-a baked potato or side dish of
In many restaurant, vegetables is served with entrée
but can also be offered as side dishes.
The first decision a planner must make about
salads is whether they will be strictly side dishes
or offered as entrees
Salad entrees: chicken salad, shrimp salad or
Side-dish salads: tossed salad, coleslaw, potato
salad, fruit salad and cottage cheese salad.
Typically high-profit items.
Low-calorie can be offered for the health-
Non alcoholic beverages are often listed at the end of
If an operation offers alcoholic beverages, how many
beverages will be included.
Based on guest preferences, the restaurant’s image,
beverage inventory cost, space and other factors.
Menu is too small
Type is too small
No descriptive copy
Every item treated the same
Some of the operation’s food and beverages are not
Basic information about the property and its policies
are not included
To determine how well menu items are selling:
Sales history records
Once all the menu items have been selected for
the menu, the menu should be reviewed for
business, aesthetic and nutritional balance.
Business balance: the balance between food
costs, menu prices, the popularity of items and
other financial and marketing considerations.
Aesthetic balance: the degree to which meals
have been constructed with an eye to the colors,
textures, and flavors of foods.
Nutritional balance: more important for
institutional food service operations than for
A well-designed menu complements:
a) A restaurant’s overall theme
b) Blends in with the interior décor
c) Communicates with guests
d) Helps sell the operation and its menu items
Menu design depends on the type of operation.
After selected the menu items, copy must be
The appropriateness of menu copy depends on:
a) The operation
b) Its guests
c) The meal period
Copy of children’s menus should be
Copy on lunch menus should be brief and to
Copy on dinner menus can be more
Menu copy can be divided into 3 elements:
Descriptive copy for menu items
Supplemental merchandising copy
Major heads, subheads and names of menu items.
Major heads: Appetizers, Soups, Entrees, etc.
Subheads: under the main heading ENTRÉE could
be “Steak”, “Seafood” and “Today’s Special”.
Keep menu items names simple so that guests are
Rules of grammar should be followed for the
language that is used,
Informs guests about menu items and helps
Descriptive copy included:
Menu item’s main ingredient
Important secondary ingredients
Method of preparation
The description should not be a recipe.
Most entrées are high-profit items and they
usually get the most copy.
Specialties of the house deserve extra copy,
since they help define an operation’s character
Copy on the menu that is devoted to subjects
other than the menu items.
Includes basic information of:
Days and hours of operation
Reservations and payment policies, etc.
Can be also entertaining: a history of the
restaurant, a statement about management’s
commitment to guest service or even poetry.
The menu must be organized into a layout-a
rough sketch of how the finished menu will
Listing menu items in the right sequence
Placing the menu item’s names and descriptive
copy on the page
Determining the menu’s format
Choosing the right typeface and the right paper
Integrating artwork into the menu.
A meal has beginning, middle and an end.
Appetizers and soups listed first, entrees next and
Those items that are most popular or are most
profitable are typically listed first so guest can find
Draw a rough sketch of the menu with boxes or
series of horizontal lines to represent the
approximate space the descriptive copy for each
menu items will take up.
Should be careful not to make the menu too
Refers to menu’s size, shape and general makeup.
Refers to the style of the menu’s printed letters.
Never set menu copy in type that is smaller than 12-
In general, type should be dark color printed on lightcolored paper for easy reading.
Should be reflect the operation’s personality.
Includes drawings, photographs, decorative
patterns and borders.
Used to attract interest, highlight menu copy or
reinforce the operation’s image
Should fit in with the interior design or overall
decorative scheme of the restaurant.
Differs in strength, opacity (the amount of
transparency) and ink receptivity
The right paper for the menu depends in part on
how often the menu will be used.
A well-designed cover communicates the images,
style, cuisine, even the price range of the
The name of the restaurant is all the copy the
Colors on the cover should either blend in or
contrast pleasantly with the color scheme of the
Colors must be chosen with care because colors
produce many conscious and subconscious
The ‘meal experience’ may defined as a series of events-
both tangible and intangible.
The main part of the experience begins when customers
enter a restaurant and ends when they leave.
Those tangible: FOOD AND DRINK
Those intangible: SERVICE,ATMOSPHERE,
SOCIAL: A social occasion
BUSINESS: The more important and valued the
business, the more expensive and up-market will
be the restaurant.
CONVENIENCE and TIME: Convenient because
of its location or because of its speed of service.
ATMOSPHERE and SERVICE: The atmosphere,
cleanliness and hygiene of certain types of
catering facilities and the social skills of the
PRICE: The price level of an operation.
THE MENU: May appear interesting or
adventurous or have been recommended, enabling
customers to enjoy a different type of meal from 115
that cooked at home.
Valuable data for all caterers:
An analysis of who eats out and frequency that they
The actual reason given by customers for eating
Types of catering establishments that the public
choose to eat out.
Sufficient data to aid decision-making.
2. Accurate and up-to-date consumers profiles, so that
able to meet the requirements of the consumer.
3. Competitive analysis, so that an organization can in
part measure its own performance
Research should always be ongoing and not just of an
The type of food and drink that people choose to
consume away from home depends on a number
of factors which are of particular concern to
customers. They include:
The choice of food and drink available: whether
the menu is limited or extensive, the operation
revolves around one particular product or varied
The quality of the product offered: fresh or
The quantity of the product offered: portion sizes.
The consistent standards of the product.
The range of tastes, textures, aromas and colors
offered by a food dish or drink.
The food and drink are served at correct
The presentation of the food and drink
enhances the product offered.
The price and perceived value for money
The quality of the total meal experience
matches or even enhances the expectations of
The menu choice offered by a restaurant is
The price the customer is willing to pay.
The amount of time available for meal experience.
The level of the market in which the restaurant is
situated and consequently.
The types of customer likely to frequent that type of
The production and service facilities available.
The skills of the staff.
Availability of commodities.
Potential profitability of the menu.
The higher the cost of the meal to the customer, the
more service the customer expects to receive.
The actual service of the food and beverages to the
customer may be described as the ‘direct’ service.
Part of the restaurant’s total service is also
composed of ‘indirect’ services for example provision
of cloakroom facilities, availability of a telephone for
customer use and so on.
Customers will frequent a restaurant not only
because of its food and service but also because
they feel the price they are paying represents
value for money.
ATMOSPHERE AND MOOD
1. Often described as an intangible ‘feel’ inside a
2. Include the décor and interior design of the
3. The table and seating arrangements
The service accompaniments
5. The dress and attitude of the staff
6. The tempo of service
7. The age, the dress and sex of the other customers
8. The sound levels in the restaurant
9. The temperature of the restaurant, bars and
10. Overall cleanliness of the environment
11. The professionalism of the staff.
The first impression of the restaurant is very
Composed of many different aspects:
1. The size and shape of the room
2. The furniture and fittings
3. The color scheme
5. Air conditioning and so on
The color scheme should blend and balance and
be enhanced by lighting arrangement, table and
Arriving at a restaurant for a meal bring a series of
expectations regarding that restaurant:
The type of service they will receive
2. The price they will pay
3. The expected atmosphere and mood of the restaurant
and so on.
A customer has different needs and expectations on
different meal occasions and similarly at different
times of the day.
‘Services which are not appropriately located may not be
performed at all.’
Customers arriving by car will expect adequate car
If customers have to travel by public transport, the
operation should be well served by buses, trains or taxis.
Staff employed by restaurant operation should
complement the meal experience of the customers.
They are able to do this in variety of ways:
a) Their social skills.
b) Their age and sex.
c) Their uniform.
d) The tempo of their service and so on.
The production of the right product. The meal
experience begins with basic marketing questions of
who are our customers and what do they want.
Caterers are able to determine their position in their
market and offer the right product at the right price
for the identified market segments.
General trends in eating out include the following:
An increase in interest in healthy eating by the
An increase in awareness of hygiene and
An increase in the demand for vegetarian foods,
particularly by young people.
A decline in the general demand for red meats with
an increase in demand for white meats, fish and
A growing demand for organically produced fresh
foods with a resistance to foods containing artificial
additives, flavourings and colourings.
An increase in demand for spicy type foods.
An increase in the demand for no smoking zones in
There are many different approaches to serving
food. For example:
1. TABLE SERVICE
2. BUFFET SERVICE
3. CAFETERIA SERVICE
4. OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE
An operation should use a service style or a
combination of service styles that best satisfies
its guests’ wants and needs.
Traditional table service provides service for guests
who are seated at tables.
There are four(4) common styles of table service:
A. AMERICAN SERVICE
B. ENGLISH SERVICE
C. FRENCH SERVICE
D. RUSSIAN SERVICE
Simplified version of Russian service.
Food is prepared and dished on to individual
plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining room
and served to guests.
More popular because it is quicker and guests
receive the food while it’s still hot and beautifully
The food is presented on the right side of the
guests and plates are cleared on the left side of the
Can be simple and casual or complex and elegant.
Much like service at home.
Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on
platters to be passed around the table.
The food is brought to the table by servers who
present the food to the guests.
The guests then pass the food around the table,
helping themselves to the amount they desire.
This types of service is often used in homes
during holidays such as Thanksgiving and
Many food items are partly or completely
prepared at tableside.
The food is attractively arranged on platter and
presented to guests after which the preparation of
the food is completed on a gueridon table beside
the guest’s seats.
“Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table) used for
the service or preparation of foods in the dining
This is the most expensive and impressive form of
service and it requires experienced employees.
Employs three servers working together to serve
the meal and may include a captain to seat
guests and wine steward to serve wine.
Chef de Rang ( Station server)
In charge of service for approximately four
Greet guests, describe and take menu orders
Supervises service and completes the
preparation of some dishes on the gueridon and
carves, slices or de-bones dishes for guest.
Demi Chef de Rang ( Assistant Station server)
Assists the Chef de Rang, takes beverage orders and serves
Commis de Rang ( Food server in training)
Assist the Demi de Rang with serving water, bread and butter,
serving and cleaning of plates, taking orders to the kitchen
and bringing the food to the restaurant.
Advantages: guests receive a great deal of
attention and the service is
Disadvantages: -fewer guests may be served,
-more space is necessary for service.
-many highly professional servers are
-service is time-consuming.
Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a
serving dish and beautifully garnished.
To serve, the server places a heated plate before
each guest from the right side, going around the
The dish then is presented to the guests and served
individually by lifting the food onto guest’s plate
with serving spoon and fork.
Only one server is needed and that this service is as
elegant as French service, faster and less expensive.
Large investment in silverware and the number of
The last guest served at the table must be served from
the less well displayed food remaining.
Guests select their meal from an attractive
arrangement of food on long tables.
The guest either helps themselves or is served by
services staff behind the buffet tables.
Plates, flatware and other necessary items are
Sometimes used for banquets in combination with
limited table service usually for beverages.
Guests advance through serving lines, selecting their
food items as they go and pay for their meals at the end
of the counter.
The most expensive or hardest-to-serve food items are
usually portioned by service staff.
However, cafeteria service is similar to buffet service,
guest help themselves to items on display.
Fast-food service, deli service, counter service,
banquet service and tray service are among the
1. Fast-food service
Offer seating as well as drive-through and takeout services
Service is limited to taking the guests’ orders
and giving the food to the guests on trays or in
carry-out sacks or cartons.
2. Deli service
Take-out service may offer limited seating at
tables or at counter.
Often found in bars, lounges, snack shops and
Can accommodate any size group ranging from
a dozen to an unlimited number of guests.
The menu, number of guests and time of service
are predetermined and well organized in
The menu can be limited and served quickly or
may consist of several courses, elaborately
presented and served.
Water and coffee are replenished periodically.
Associated with institutional food service.
Meal are plated, put on trays, kept hot or cold in
special transport carts ad moved from
preparation/plating areas to service areas as
Standard Operating Procedure
Each operation should set its own policies and standard
They detail exactly what must be done and how it should
Managers cannot rely on employee’s common sense to do
the right thing at the right time.
Performance standards that are measurable and
observable should be tied to each operating procedure.
Performance standards help managers and employees
determine whether procedures are being performed
The old saying “the guest is always right” still
applies and that is the attitude that servers should
What is needed to improve service in many
operations is not expensive equipment or an
elaborate atmosphere but a genuine concern for
guests and the use of consistent service
Training service staff to properly welcome and
serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities of
dining room or food and beverage managers.
Training service staff to properly welcome and serve
guests is one of the chief responsibilities of dining
room or food and beverage managers.
Service staff must be polite, properly groomed and
have a genuine interest in helping guests enjoy the
Teamwork between service and production
employees is a must.
Builds morale and esprit de corps- a spirit of
cooperation that guests recognize and appreciate and
one that makes everyone’s job easier and more
In the service sequence that follows, all serving
activities are performed by servers.
The sequence begins after guests have been seated:
Greet and seat the guests.
Open the napkins.
Offer iced water.
Take order for aperitifs.
Serves the bread and butter.
Offer the menu and suggests specials and inform
the guests of variations to the menu.
Allow time for the guests to make their choices.
Take the food order up to and including the main
Offer the wine list.
Transfer the food order to the kitchen and cashier
dockets and place the order with the kitchen.
Take the wine order.
Serve the wine.
Correct the covers, up to and including the main
Serve the first course.
Clear the first course.
Top up wines and open fresh bottles as ordered.
Serve additional starter courses.
Clear the course preceding the main course.
Call away the main course.
Serve the salad.
Serve the main course.
Enquire (after the guests have had the opportunity
to taste the food) whether the meals are satisfactory.
Clear the main course.
Clear the side plates, salad plates and butter dishes.
Check and if necessary, change ashtrays. (If ashtrays
are being use, they should be changed regularly
throughout the meal, especially just before food is
Offer hot or cold towels.
Offer the wine list for the selection of dessert wines
(or if the guests prefer it, continue to serve the wine
Offer the menu for dessert, suggesting specials and
inform the guests of variations to the menu.
Take dessert or cheese order.
Transfer the dessert order to the kitchen and cashier
dockets and place the order with the kitchen.
Correct the covers.
Serve the dessert wines or other beverages selected.
Serve the dessert or cheese course.
Take the order for coffee/tea. ( the coffee/ tea may
be served with the dessert/cheese if requested by the
guest or as a separate service).
Transfer the coffee/tea order to the cashier docket.
Take the after-dinner drinks order.
Correct the cover.
Serve the after-dinner drinks.
Serve the coffee/tea.
Serve the petit fours.
Prepare the bill.
Offer additional coffee/tea.
Present the bill when it is requested.
Accept payment and tender change.
Offer additional coffee/tea.
See the guests out of the restaurant.
Beverages are as important as the food in the
They should therefore be given as careful
attention as the food when they are being
prepared and served.
Beverage Equipment Identification
The service of beverages requires a wide range of
The types of equipment used will vary
a) The tasks to be performed.
b) The type of establishment.
When selecting glassware, management will
take various factors into account such as:
Ease of handling and washing
Appropriate to the style of the establishment
and its menu.
Many specialist devices and types of equipment
have produced over the years to:
a. help the waiter with the extraction of corks.
b. the carrying of drink.
c. cooling of beverages.
The ‘waiter’s friend’ is the recognized device used
by waiters to extract corks.
The exact procedures to be adopted for the
service of beverages will depend on the
1. Type of establishment
2. The styles of service offered
3. The availability of service station areas.
Pre-service duties will include:
a. Cleaning and polishing glassware
b. Service station mise-en-place
c. Preparation of ice buckets
d. Handling and placing of equipment.
Even when glassware are hygienically washed and
sterilized by the high temperature of washing cycle in
commercial dishwasher, it is still necessary to polish all
glassware by hand before it is placed on the table or
used to serve drinks.
A lint-free polishing cloth should be used to polish
glasses and make sure they are spotlessly clear.
Efficient service requires careful prior preparation of the
In some establishments this is done on a special piece of
furniture in the dining room known as the drink waiter’s
Supplies and equipment required for beverage service are:
- Drink trays
- Service clothes
- Wine lists
- Docket books
- Wine coolers
- Ice buckets
Ice buckets are used to keep wine and sparkling
wines cool in more formal and usually more
Simple insulated wine coolers sometimes placed
on the table are used in less formal establishments.
Ice buckets, when required for use should be half
Mixture of crushed ice (two-thirds)
Cold water (one-third)
The water allows the bottle to sink into the ice
instead of balancing on top of it.
The bucket may be placed in a tripod stand.
Divide the various different types of beverage into
This will helps guests to find and select the
beverages they require more speedily.
Possible lists may include:
Drink list (includes aperitifs, beers, spirits and
After-dinner drinks list (liqueurs, ports, brandies)
Liqueur coffee list
Wine lists are usually divided into wines of different
types, for example:
White table wines
Red table wines
Champagne and sparkling wines
All glassware should be handled by the stem or base of
When glasses are being moved in the presence of
guests, they should always be carried on a beverage
Before the guests’ arrival, when the tables are being
laid, several glasses may be held upside down in one
hand with their stems between one’s fingers.
If a single glass is being laid at a dining table, it should
be placed 2.5cm above the main knife.
If more than one glass is placed on the table, the
glasses are positioned in a line at an angle of 45 in the
order in which they will be required.
The food waiter and the wine waiter must communicate
if they are to provide a co-coordinated sequential
The sequence of service requires both food and
beverages to be served at the appropriate times
throughout the meal without interfering with each
Before the menu is presented, guests are offered an
aperitif (pre-dinner drink) to stimulate the appetite.
Because the wines are selected to complement the food
chosen, the wine list is usually presented after the food
order has been taken.
The wine selected to accompany each course is served
just prior to the food in that course. It is usual to serve:
a. White wines before red
b. Dry wines before sweet
c. Young wines before old
What wines are chosen and in what order is up to the
guest, the ‘right’ wine is what the guest wants.
Remind guests that dessert wines are available when the
desserts are being ordered. Dessert wines are sweet and
complement sweet dishes.
Orders for after-dinner alcoholic beverages are taken
before coffee is served. This allows the coffee and other
after-dinner drinks such as port, cognac or liqueurs to
be served at the same time.
Beverage may be served on their own (in bar or
lounge service) or their service may be carefully
coordinated with the service of the food so that the
beverages complement the food enhancing the
guests' enjoyment of both.
The style of beverage service offered will depend on
the character of the establishment and the type of
beverages being served.
Venues offering beverage service include public
houses and bars, lounges, restaurants and function
When selling beverages:
Do not dictate your personal preferences
Offer a diversity of recommendations so that guests
are prompted to choose what they personally prefer.
Suggest beverages that complement the occasion but
do not convey any sense of disapproval if something
‘unsuitable’ is chosen.
Guest have the right to drink whatever they choose
and have come to enjoy themselves, not to be
Your job is to make them feel comfortable and
Pre-dinner drink taken to stimulate the appetite
Dry to taste because dry beverages stimulate the
appetite, while sweet drinks tend to dull the appetite.
Some guests may prefer to drink a sweet drink such as a
sweet sherry before a meal as aperitif.
Popular aperitifs include:
Pre-dinner cocktails (acidic or dry rather than creamy)
Dry (‘French’) vermouth
A proprietary aperitif ( Campari, Fernet Branca,
The term ‘wine’ indicates a type of beverage made
from fermented fruit.
Wine may be made from a variety of fruits but wine as
we generally know it is made from fermented juice of
When another fruit is used to produce the wine, the
name of the fruit used included on the label, for
example ‘strawberry wine’.
Red wine is made from ‘black’ (purple) grapes.
White wine is made from ‘white’ (green) grapes.
Rose wine which is pink (rose) is made from black
grapes but the skins of the grapes are removed early in
the process of fermentation.
Red wines should be served at ‘room temperature’
(about 18 C)
White wines should be served mildly chilled (about 6
Many wines, especially European wines are
described according to the region where the
grapes are grown.
France: famous wine regions are Burgundy,
Bordeaux an Beaujolais
German: Rhine and Mosel wines
Wine from outside Europe is often described by:
The variety of the grape rather than the region of
Grape variety has a strong influence on the
character of the wine.
The better the quality of the wine the more detailed the
information on the labels is.
Labels on ordinary table wines contain:
The name of the region
Those on superior wines
Name of the particular vineyard where the wine was
The precise area where the grapes may be grown
Types of vines that can be used
The levels of alcohol and sugar in the finished wine
By its vintage (in year when the weather conditions are
especially favorable to grape growing).
The wines produce in these years are known as vintage
Rich and sweet.
Designed to be consumed with sweet food items.
A wine strengthened with the addition of spirit.
The spirit also preserves the wine for longer periods
after the bottle is opened.
Fortified wines include Sherry, Vermouth, Muscat
Sparkling wines get their sparkle from carbon
Carbon dioxide is produced naturally in the process
of fermentation and can be retained to produce a
Champagne is made by a complex process called the
methode champenoise or champagne method.
The style of sparklin wine include:
Brut – dry
Sec – medium dry
Demi-sec – medium sweet
Doux - sweet
Champagne or sparkling wine complement most
Consume red wine with red meat and white wine
with white meat.
If unsure, often a rose wine will suffice.
Consume white wine before red wine.
Consume dry wine before sweet wine
Commence with a grape aperitif (wine-based) rather
than a grain aperitif (spirit-based) prior to the meal,
since the latter can spoil or dull the palate.
Make sure your wine is at the correct temperature.
The process central to vinification is
fermentation, the conversion of sugar to alcohol.
Grown that produces grapes suitable for wine
production and stocks the vineyards of the world
is named Vitis vinifere.
The same vine variety, grown in different regions
and processed in different ways, will produce
wines of differing characteristics. Example are:
Black: Carbernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gamay.
White: Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling.
This is the largest category.
The alcoholic strength may be between 9% and 15%
by volume. The wine may be:
Being fermented in contact with grape skins from
which the wine gets its colour.
Normally dry wines.
Produced from white grapes
Normally dry to very sweet.
Rose (made in 3 ways)
From red grapes fermented on the skins for up to
Mixing red and white wines together.
By pressing grapes so that colour is extracted.
May be dry or semi-sweet.
The most famous is Champagne. This is made by the
methode champenoise (secondary fermentation in the
bottle) in an area of north-eastern France.
They may vary from brut (very dry), sec (medium
dry), demi-sec (medium sweet) to doux (sweet).
Semi-sparkling wines are known by the term petillant.
The sugar contents is indicated on the label:
Extra brut very dry
up to 6g
less than 15g
12 to 20g
17 to 35g
35 to 50g
Such as Sherry, Port and Madeira have been
strengthened by the addition of alcohol usually a
Their alcoholic strength may be between 15% and 22%
by volume. Example:
Sherry (Spain) 15-18%
Port (Portugal) 18-22%
Madeira (Portuguese island of Madeira) 18%
Marsala (Marsala in Sicily) 18%
The information always includes:
1. The country where the wine was made.
2. Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (%
3. Contents in litres, cl or ml.
4. Name and address or trademark of supplier.
It may also include:
a. The year the grapes were harvested, called the
b. The region where the wine was made.
c. The quality category of the wine.
d. Details of bottler.
Tasting may be said to be an analysis of wine by the
Sight: indicating the clarity and colour of the wine.
Smell: determines the bouquet of a wine by means of
a vigorous swirling in the glass.
Taste: allows detection of the aroma in the mouth.
The tasting of wines includes looking at, smelling and
tasting the wine.
Distilled alcoholic beverages.
Distillation is the process of converting liquid into
vapor by heating and then condensing the vapor back
to liquid form.
Almost any fruit or vegetable can be crushed to liquid,
fermented and then distilled to make a spirit.
Grain (barley, wheat and maize)
Neutral spirit made from grain
and flavored with juniper berries.
Potatoes or grain
All whisky distilled in Scotland is covered by the generic
Different brand labels which offer the public may be:
-This means that it is a blend of:
Malt whisky distilled from malted barley.
Grain whisky distilled from maize.
Same product as above but will have been matured much
Some well known brand names here are Dimple Haig,
Johnny Walker and Black Label.
Whether Proprietary Scotch or Deluxe whiskies, both styles
are sold on the market at the recognized alcoholic strength
of 40% OIML.
The term ‘gin’ is taken from the first part of the
word Genievre which is the French term for juniper.
Maize, rye and malted barley used in gin
Example of gin:
a. Fruit gin
b. Geneva gin
c. Old Tom
d. London dry gin
Made from the fermented by-products of sugar cane.
Available in dark and light varieties.
Describe as a colourless and flavourless spirit.
Defined as a spirit distilled from wine.
Brandy should be stored away from strong light and
odours at a temperature of between 15º and 18ºC.
It is best served neat at room temperature or as a
Made from fermented grain by the process called brewing.
The traditional ingredients are malt (barley soaked to
germinate and then dried), yeast, hops and water.
Beer is the general term for ales, lagers and stout.
Ales and lagers are made by different techniques of
Ales are top-fermented whereas lagers are bottom-fermented.
Lagers are paler and more highly-carbonated then ales.
Stout is a dark heavy beer.
Draught beer is beer drawn from a barrel rather than bottled
Today many beers are served chilled.
Pump (manual) – from cask
Free flow – by keg beers, carbon dioxide cylinder is
connected to the keg and the gas forces the beer to
Meters – used with keg beers. They are sealed
pumps which dispense beer in half pints (measure
They are fermented drinks, deriving their alcoholic
content from the conversion of malt sugars into
alcohol by brewers yeast.
The basic materials used in the brewing process are
Hop – the part of the hop that is the flower, which
contains an oil that gives beer its flavour.
Sugar - refined sugars are used which aid the
fermentation and the production of alcohol and also
Yeast – yeast plus sugar produces alcohol and gives
off a gas, carbon dioxide.
There are three main categories of beer:
Ales: top-fermented, pale, strong or dark.
Lagers: bottom-fermented, paler and more highlycarbonated.
Stout: sweet or bitter, dark heavy beer.
Liqueurs are spirit-based (sometimes wine-based)
liquors, sweetened and flavored.
Often taken with the coffee at the end of a meal.
Usually served neat (without any mixer) in liqueur
Also be taken in black coffee as a liqueur coffee.
Liqueurs are also frequently used in cocktails.
Cocktails are mixed drinks. Two or more ingredients are
mixed by one of the following methods:
Shake and strain (in a cocktail shaker with ice)
Stir and strain (in a mixing glass with ice)
Blend (in an electric blender with the quantity of ice
specified in the recipe)
Build (prepared directly in the glass).
-Usually acidic or dry and make good aperitifs
-Example: Dry Martini
-Tend to be richer, often creamy and sweet
-Example: Brandy Alexander
Long drink cocktails:
-Often contain fruit juices, soft drinks or milk in addition
to their alcoholic base.
-Example: Tom Collin
Includes a wide variety of beverage items from
cold to hot and from the simple to the exotic
Some are served from the kitchen/still area and
some are dispensed from the bar.
Served from the kitchen/ still area:
Tea (Darjeeling, English Breakfast, Earl Grey,
China and herbal tea)
ii. Coffee (Long black, Café au lait, Espresso,
Cappuccino, Vienna coffee, Decaffeinated)
iii. Hot chocolate
Aerated water (water charged with gas, usually carbon
dioxide. Aerated waters often contain a syrup for taste
Fruit juices (fresh, canned, boxed or bottled).
Squashes (fruit juices or syrups with sugar, water and
other ingredients usually described as ‘cordials’)
Mineral waters may be still (e.g. Evian) or sparkling
Prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a
tropical evergreen bush called Camellia sinesis.
A healthy beverage containing approximately only
half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids
muscle relation and stimulates the central nervous
China (oldest tea growing)- more fragrant and
delicately perfumed teas (e.g. Lapsang
Ceylon (Sri Lanka)- have a delicate, light,
India (world’s largest tea producer)-best known
teas being Darjeeling which is delicate,
rounded mellow flavoured and Assam, a
stronger and more full-bodied and flavoured
Kenya – medium flavoured tea.
Tea may be purchased in a variety of forms:
Tea bags - heated sealed and contain either
standard or specialty teas.
String and tag - one cup bag with string attached.
Envelopes - string and tag but in an envelope.
Instant - instant tea granules.
a. Assam - rich full and malty flavoured.
b. Ceylon – a pale golden colour.
c. Darjeeling – a delicate tea with light grape
Earl Grey – a blend of Darjeeling and China.
Jasmine – fragrant and scented flavour.
Kenya – consistent and refreshing tea.
Lapsang Souchong – smoky, pungent and
perfume tea, delicate.
Orange Pekoe – similar to Lapsang Souchong
but with slightly fruity aroma and flavour.
The tree which produce Coffea are the genus Coffee
which belongs to the Rubiaceae family.
The fruit of the coffee tree is known as the cherry.
The cherry usually contains two coffee seeds.
Green bean have to be roasted in order to release
the coffee aroma and flavour
The common degrees of roasting are:
a. Light or pale roasting – for mild beans to preserve
their delicate aroma.
b. Medium roasting – stronger flavour.
c. Full roasting – bitterish flavour.
d. High roasted coffee – strong bitter.
The method involves passing steam through the
finely ground coffee and infusing under pressure.
Served black in a small glass cup.
If milk is required, it is heated for each cup by a
high pressure steam injector and transform a cup
of black coffee into cappuccino.
Made from beans after the caffeine has been
Cafe au lait
Also known as white coffee, served with milk.
Aerated with carbon dioxide.
a. Soda water: colourless and tasteless.
b. Tonic water: colourless and quinine flavoured.
c. Dry ginger: golden straw coloured with a ginger
d. Bitter lemon: pale cloudy coloured with sharp
lemon flavour .
Divided water into two main types: mineral water
and spring water.
Mineral water: has a mineral content (strictly
Spring water: has a fewer regulations, apart from
those concerning hygiene.
Natural spring water
From natural springs in the ground.
Being impregnated with the natural minerals
found in the soil and sometime naturally charged
with an aerating gas.
The end-of-service procedures includes:
Preparing and presenting a bill
Payment procedures and methods
Saying goodbye to the guests
Tidying, cleaning and resetting after service.
The two purposes of guest’s bill:
1. To inform the guest of the amount to be paid.
2. To act as a control system for the establishment.
Guest’s bills may be presented at the table, at the
bar or at a cashier’s desk.
Bill should be kept up to date at all times and
ready for presentation as soon as the guest
You should be alert to signs that guests may want their
Bills should not be presented until they are asked for.
When a bill is presented at the table, it is placed in front
of the host( the person who has asked for the bill) on a
small plate from the right.
Bill is folded so that the amount to be paid cannot be
seen by the other guests or it is placed in a billfold.
If there is no obvious host, you may place the bill in the
center of the table.
Bills presented at bars should be presented on a plate,
folded or in a billfold.
Do not hover around waiting for your guests to pay.
Remain alert so that when they have paid for their meal,
there is no unnecessary delay while they are kept
waiting for you to collect the payment.
Common payment methods include:
Very simple, settling of the bill and the tendering
of guest’s change.
2. Credit cards
When the card is placed on the bill, you should
collect it and before processing it, check:
a) The establishment accepts the kind of card
b) Its expiry date.
c) That it has been signed.
d) Check the number against the current warning
To use the card, place it in the addresser or stamping
machine with the credit slip on top and slide the bar
over both to imprint the slip or print the credit slip with
the computer printer.
List the costs of the meals, tax and bar total on the slip
and total the amount.
Bring a pen and have the guest check and sign the slip.
Compare the signature with the one on the credit card
to be sure they are identical and return the credit card.
Usually not accepted without the support of a
Check name and bank’s name on the banker’s card
match those on the cheque.
The bill being paid does not exceed the limit stated
on the card.
If the bill is higher than the card limit, ask the
customer to pay at least the excess by a different
Often given to office workers as a supplement to their
Make sure the establishment accepts the vouchers
before you accept them in payment of a bill.
5. Charge accounts
The transaction must have been authorized by
Check the guest’s signatures against a charge record
or if it is in a hotel, the guest’s name against a room
Is a monetary reward for courteous and efficient
Tips are incentives to do a good job.
Sometimes tipping is based on the quality of food
instead of the attention given by the server.
Generally, the size of the tip is between 10 and 20
percent of the total amount of the guest check.
A tip may be given in various ways:
If tip is handed to you, thank the guest politely.
If it is left on the table, pick up before the table is
If several servers share the responsibility of one
table, they should divide the tip.
Be friendly and helpful but be efficient.
Smile often when appropriate.
Check often to see whether customers are in need
service and offer to help them.
Serve orders to customers as soon as possible.
Offer appropriate condiments with foods.
Pour water and coffee for customers as needed.
The last impression guests are given as they leave
after a meal is as important as their first
impression on arrival.
The farewell should be warm and friendly and as
personal as possible.
Assist those departing by moving their chairs for
them, collecting their personal belongings and
offering to call for a taxi if not too busy.
If busy, at least acknowledge their departure with
nod and a smile
If you can, wish them ‘Good evening’ and thank
them for coming.
When the guests have left, the tables and service
areas must be cleared of used and soiled items and
the tables prepared for use again.
Remove coffee cups and center items, glassware and
The cups and saucers should be carried using either
the two-or the three-plate technique.
Do not stack the cups. Glassware should be
removed on a drink tray while the remaining centre
items are removed by hand.
Ensure that all the chairs are returned to the their
original positions round the table.
Do not forget to check the chairs for crumbs.
Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty
Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management,
MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY,
Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499
email: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org