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Cognitive Process

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UNIT- XIII
COGNITIVE PROCESS
DR. RAHUL SHARMA
PROFESSOR
PH.D. COORDINATOR
HOD OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
SEEDLING SCHOOL OF NURSING
JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
ATTENTION-
It is the focus of consciousness on a particular
object or idea at a particular time, to the exclusion
of other objects or ideas.
• DEFINITION-
• Attention is defined as a process, which compels the
individual to select some particular stimulus according to
his interest and attitude out of the multiplicity of stimuli
present in the environment.
(SHARMA RN–1967)
• Attention is the concentration of consciousness upon
one object rather than upon another. (DUMVILLE–1938)
TYPES OF ATTENTION
* VOLUNTARY (VOLITIONAL)
* INVOLUNTARY (NON-VOLITIONAL)
• VOLUNTARY ATTENTION-
Voluntary attention demands a conscious effort on our
part. For example, solving an assigned problem in
mathematics, answering a question in an examination
needs voluntary attention. It is further subdivided into two
categories:
• IMPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION
• EXPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION
•IMPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION: A single
act is responsible for arousing attention. For
example, a teacher assigns practice work to
a child and warns of punishment, if not
completed.
•EXPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION: Attention
is obtained by repeated acts of will. For
example, the attention paid during
examination days for securing good grades.
INVOLUNTARY ATTENTION-
This type of attention is aroused without the play of will or
without making a conscious effort on our part. For
example, we give involuntary attention to loud sounds,
bright lights and strong odors, etc.
* Involuntary or non-volitional attention aroused by the
instincts is called enforced non-volitional attention. For
example, giving attention out of curiosity.
* Non-volitional attention aroused by sentiments is called
spontaneous non-volitional attention. For example, we
give somewhat automatic or spontaneous attention
towards some objects, idea, person, around which our
sentiments are formed.
DETERMINANTS OF ATTENTION (OR) METHODS OF AROUSING
ATTENTION (OR) FACTORS AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR
CAPTURING ATTENTION-
certain factors produce and control the condition of attention in a
person. these factors are classified as, external (objective)–those
found in one’s environment and internal (subjective)–those within
the person himself.
• EXTERNAL FACTORS OR CONDITIONS
• NATURE OF THE STIMULUS:. a picture attracts attention more
readily than words. among the pictures, the pictures of
human being (especially beautiful woman or handsome
men) capture more attention than those of animals or
objects. it has been found that in comparison with other
sensations, color and sound attract more attention.
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UNIT XIII Cognitive Process.pptx

  • 1. UNIT- XIII COGNITIVE PROCESS DR. RAHUL SHARMA PROFESSOR PH.D. COORDINATOR HOD OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING SEEDLING SCHOOL OF NURSING JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
  • 2. ATTENTION- It is the focus of consciousness on a particular object or idea at a particular time, to the exclusion of other objects or ideas. • DEFINITION- • Attention is defined as a process, which compels the individual to select some particular stimulus according to his interest and attitude out of the multiplicity of stimuli present in the environment. (SHARMA RN–1967) • Attention is the concentration of consciousness upon one object rather than upon another. (DUMVILLE–1938)
  • 3. TYPES OF ATTENTION * VOLUNTARY (VOLITIONAL) * INVOLUNTARY (NON-VOLITIONAL) • VOLUNTARY ATTENTION- Voluntary attention demands a conscious effort on our part. For example, solving an assigned problem in mathematics, answering a question in an examination needs voluntary attention. It is further subdivided into two categories: • IMPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION • EXPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION
  • 4. •IMPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION: A single act is responsible for arousing attention. For example, a teacher assigns practice work to a child and warns of punishment, if not completed. •EXPLICIT VOLITIONAL ATTENTION: Attention is obtained by repeated acts of will. For example, the attention paid during examination days for securing good grades.
  • 5. INVOLUNTARY ATTENTION- This type of attention is aroused without the play of will or without making a conscious effort on our part. For example, we give involuntary attention to loud sounds, bright lights and strong odors, etc. * Involuntary or non-volitional attention aroused by the instincts is called enforced non-volitional attention. For example, giving attention out of curiosity. * Non-volitional attention aroused by sentiments is called spontaneous non-volitional attention. For example, we give somewhat automatic or spontaneous attention towards some objects, idea, person, around which our sentiments are formed.
  • 6. DETERMINANTS OF ATTENTION (OR) METHODS OF AROUSING ATTENTION (OR) FACTORS AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR CAPTURING ATTENTION- certain factors produce and control the condition of attention in a person. these factors are classified as, external (objective)–those found in one’s environment and internal (subjective)–those within the person himself. • EXTERNAL FACTORS OR CONDITIONS • NATURE OF THE STIMULUS:. a picture attracts attention more readily than words. among the pictures, the pictures of human being (especially beautiful woman or handsome men) capture more attention than those of animals or objects. it has been found that in comparison with other sensations, color and sound attract more attention.
  • 7. INTENSITY OF THE STIMULUS: In comparison to a weak stimulus, an intense stimulus attracts more attention of an individual. Our attention becomes easily directed to a loud sound, a bright light or a strong smell. SIZE OF THE STIMULUS: As a general rule bigger size objects in the environment are more likely to catch our attention than a small object. A small size on a very big background also attracts attention.
  • 8. CONTRAST, CHANGE AND NOVELTY: Change and variety strike attention more easily than routine. The use of maps and charts suddenly attracts the student’s attention, when compared to the routine verbal talk. Any change in the stimulation to which we have become adapted immediately captures our attention. Novelty means something new or different. It attracts attention very easily and is closely related to change. A new building, a new teacher are all examples of common novelty.
  • 9. LOCATION OF THE STIMULUS: The location of the stimulus also affects attention. For example, it has been found in experiments that advertisements given on the front page or on the upper half of any page attract more attention. REPETITION OF THE STIMULUS: A repeated stimulus attracts our attention. We may ignore a stimulus at first instance but, when it is repeated several times, it captures our attention. A misspelt word is more likely to be noticed.
  • 10. MOVEMENT OF THE STIMULUS: A moving stimulus catches our attention more quickly than a stimulus that does not move. This is why the pictures on a television screen or those in a cinema hold our attention for hours at time. DEFINITE FORM OF THE OBJECT: A sharply defined object attracts our attention more than a broad indefinite object. A figure attracts more attention than the background.
  • 11. ISOLATION OF THE STIMULUS: Isolation is an important external determinant of attention. A student sitting alone in the corner of the class is seen first (attracts more attention than others). INTERNAL FACTORS OR CONDITIONS: A person’s attention to a stimulus depends not only upon the characteristics of the stimulus or the favorable environmental conditions but also upon his interest, motives, basic needs and urges, etc.
  • 12. INTEREST AND ATTENTION: Interest is a very helpful factor in securing attention. We attend to objects, in which we are interested than those in which we are not interested. MOTIVES: The basic drives and urges of the individual are very important in securing attention. Thirst, hunger, sex, curiosity, fear are some of the important motives that exercise definite influence upon attention. When hungry we may attend to even distasteful food but while our belly is full we may not attend to even the tastiest one. MENTAL SET-UP: A person always attends to those objects, towards which his mind has set. For example, on the day of examination the slightest thing concerning the examination easily attracts the attention of the students.
  • 13. PAST EXPERIENCE: Learning and previous experience facilitate attention. If we know by our past experience that a particular person is sincere to us, we pay attention to what ever he advices. EMOTION: The emotional state, in which a person determines attention. For example, a person attends only to bad qualities of his enemy. HABIT: Habit is also an important determinant of attention. A man develops the habit of attending to necessary and desirable things and on the other hand also develops habit of not attending to unnecessary and undesirable things.
  • 14. AIM: Every man has some immediate and ultimate aims. So a student whose aim is to pass the examination will at once attend to the textbooks or notes. MEANING: In comparison to meaningless stimuli, meaningful stimulus attracts more attention. DISPOSITION (NATURAL TENDENCY) AND TEMPERAMENT: Both are important internal factors which attract attention. For example, a man having a religious disposition and spiritual temperament will attend to religious matters.
  • 15. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION SPAN OF ATTENTION It is the amount of time a person can concentrate on a task without becoming distracted. The maximum amount of material that can be attended in one period of attention is called span of attention. This can be visual attention or auditory attention. The average human attention span is 3-5 minutes in children and in adults maximum 20 minutes. Shifting of attention occurs when our attention passes from one part of the stimulus to another part of the stimulus.
  • 16. ALTERATIONS IN ATTENTION DISTRACTION: • Distraction means any stimulus whose presence interferes with the process of attention or draws away attention from the object which we wish to attend. • (HR BHATIA—1968) • These alterations in attention reduce the efficiency of work.
  • 17. • SOURCES OF DISTRACTION • The various sources of distraction is present. They affect the individual according to his own mental set- up and personality characteristics. The conditions which cause distraction to an individual may prove helpful in sustaining attention to others. • External factors/environmental factors • Internal factors
  • 18. • EXTERNAL FACTORS • Noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats, unfavorable temperature, inadequate ventilation, defective methods of teaching, defective voice of the teacher, etc. • INTERNAL FACTORS • Emotional disturbances, illness, boredom, lack of motivation, fatigue, etc. The nurse should take great care to get away all possible causes of distractions in working area so as to sustain attention.
  • 19. • TYPES OF DISTRACTION • CONTINUOUS DISTRACTION • The distraction is continuous in nature. For example, the sound of radio played continuously, the noise at the market place, etc.. • DISCONTINUOUS DISTRACTION • It is irregular. For example, the hearing of somebody’s voice every now and then. It interferes with work because of the impossibility of adjustment.
  • 20. PERCEPTION •When our sense organs come in contact with the world and are stimulated by external stimuli and receive sensations, it results in perception. Perception is the interpretation of sensory stimuli, which arrives the sense organs and the brain. Interpretation gives meaning to sensation and we become aware
  • 21. DEFINITIONS •Perception is the experience of objects, events or relationships obtained by extracting information from and interpreting sensations. (JH jackson, O desiderato and DB howieson—1976) •Perception is an individual’s awareness aspect of behavior, for it is the way each person processes the raw data he receives from the environment, into meaningful
  • 22. PRINCIPLE OF FIGURE-GROUND RELATIONSHIP •According to principle of figure-ground relationship, a figure is perceived in relationship to its background. The perception of the object or figure in terms of color, size, shape and intensity, etc. Depends upon the figure-ground relationship. We perceive a figure against a background or background against a figure depending upon the characteristics of the
  • 24. PRINCIPLE OF CLOSURE According to principle of closure, while confronting an incomplete pattern one tends to complete or close the pattern or fill in sensory gaps and perceive it as a meaningful whole. This type of organization is extremely helpful in making valuable interpretation of various incomplete objects, patterns or stimuli present in our environment. For example, the lines in the figure may be well perceived as letters W, M and D
  • 26. PRINCIPLE OF GROUPING: Principle of grouping refers to a tendency to perceive stimuli in some organized meaningful patterns by grouping them on some solid basis like similarity, proximity and continuity. On the basis of similarity, objects or stimuli which look alike are usually perceived as a unit. For example, in the following figure vertical rows of black dots and blank dots may be seen to form separate groups in terms of their perception (figure 3.3).
  • 28. PRINCIPLE OF GROUPING: On proximity basis objects or stimuli, which appear close to one another are likely to be perceived as belonging to the same group. Example: we see three sets of two lines each and not six separate lines:
  • 29. PRINCIPLE OF GROUPING: The objects or stimuli are perceived as a unit or group on the basis of their continuity. Our attention is being held more by a continuous pattern rather than discontinuous ones. Example: we see a curved line and a straight line. We do not see a straight line with small semi- circles above and below
  • 30. PRINCIPLE OF CONTRAST Perceptual organization is very much affected through contrast effects as the stimuli that are in sharp contrast to nearby stimuli may draw our maximum attention and carry different perceptual affects. Example: here the surrounding circles in A make the central circle seem larger than the central circle in B, even though the two are of the same size.
  • 31. FACTORS AFFECTING PERCEPTION- SENSE ORGANS: Perception depends upon the sense organs or receptors, on which the stimuli act and sensory neurons, which transmit the nerve current from the receptors to the sensory area of the brain. For example, if cones are not developed in the retina, color cannot be perceived. BRAIN: Perception depends upon the functioning capacity of sensory area and the association areas of the brain. For example, if the auditory area is destroyed we cannot have auditory perception.
  • 32. MEMORY IMAGES OF THE PAST EXPERIENCE: Memory images help us in the comprehension of the object or stimulus before us. For example, a child has come in contact with a horse for the first time. He has already seen a cow. When he is asked what it (horse) is, he may say it is a cow or like a cow. PERSONAL INTERESTS AND MIND SET: We perceive those things quickly and clearly, which are concerned with our interests and mind set.
  • 33. ACQUIRED INTERESTS: Our acquired interests also determine the object or objects, which we perceive. A person, who has a hobby of collecting stamps will quickly notice any new stamp on a letter. NEEDS AND DESIRES: Our needs or desires also modify our perceptions. Besides these, our beliefs, opinions and cultural ideals also modify our perception of things, situations and objects.
  • 34. Intelligence INTRODUCTION: It consists of an individual’s mental or cognitive ability, which helps the person in solving his actual life problems and leading a happy and well-contended life.
  • 35. Definition: INTELLIGENCE IS THE AGGREGATE OR GLOBAL CAPACITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO THINK RATIONALLY, TO ACT PURPOSEFULLY AND TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. (WECHSLER—1944) INTELLIGENCE IS THE ABILITY TO MASTER THE INFORMATION AND SKILLS NEEDED TO SUCCEED WITHIN A PARTICULAR CULTURE. (LOLURTO— 1991)
  • 36. Classification of Intelligence: CONCRETE INTELLIGENCE: CONCRETE INTELLIGENCE IS RELATED TO CONCRETE MATERIALS. THIS TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE IS APPLICABLE WHEN THE INDIVIDUAL IS HANDLING CONCRETE OBJECTS OR MACHINES. THE PERSON USES THIS INTELLIGENCE IN THE OPERATION OF TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS. EXAMPLE: ENGINEERS, MECHANICS GENERALLY HAVE THIS TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE.
  • 37. Classification of Intelligence: SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE: SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE IS THE ABILITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO REACT TO SOCIAL SITUATIONS IN DAILY LIFE. IT INCLUDES THE ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND PEOPLE AND ACT WISELY IN HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS. PERSONS HAVING THIS TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE, KNOW THE ART OF WINNING FRIENDS AND INFLUENCE THEM. EXAMPLE: LEADERS, MINISTERS, SALESMEN, DIPLOMATS ARE SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT.
  • 38. Classification of Intelligence: ABSTRACT OR GENERAL INTELLIGENCE: GENERAL INTELLIGENCE IS THE ABILITY TO RESPOND TO WORDS, NUMBERS AND LETTERS, ETC. THIS TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE IS ACQUIRED BY STUDY OF BOOKS AND RELATED LITERATURE. MOSTLY GOOD TEACHERS, LAWYERS, DOCTORS, PHILOSOPHERS HAVE THIS TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE.
  • 39. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence: ACCORDING TO HOWARD GARDNER, THERE ARE EIGHT MAJOR KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE Type of intelligence Description 1. Musical intelligence Skills in tasks involving music. Example: Musicians 2. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence Skills in using the whole body or various portions of it, in the solution of problems or in the construction of products. Example: Dancers, athletes, actors, surgeons, etc. 3. Logical-mathematical intelligence Skills in problem solving and scientific thinking. Example: Scientists 4. Linguistic intelligence Skills involved in the production and use of language. Example: Literati 5. Spatial intelligence Skills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architects 6. Interpersonal intelligence Skills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations and intentions of others 7. Intrapersonal intelligence Knowledge of the internal aspects of one self; access to one’s own feelings and emotions 8. Naturalist intelligence Ability to identify and classify patterns in nature
  • 40. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence: ACCORDING TO HOWARD GARDNER, THERE ARE EIGHT MAJOR KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE
  • 41. Emotional Intelligence: INTELLIGENCE THAT PROVIDES AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT OTHER PEOPLE ARE FEELING AND EXPERIENCING, AND PERMITS US TO RESPOND APPROPRIATELY TO OTHER’S NEEDS IS CALLED EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  • 42. Intelligence Quotient: THE IDEA OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT WAS UTILIZED FIRST IN 1916 BY STANFORD-BINET TESTS. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT IS THE RATIO BETWEEN MENTAL AGE (MA) AND CHRONOLOGICAL AGE (CA). WHILE THE CHRONOLOGICAL AGE IS DETERMINED FROM THE DATE OF BIRTH, MENTAL AGE IS DETERMINED BY INTELLIGENCE TESTS.
  • 43. Intelligence Quotient: IQ = MA/CA × 100 IMAGINE A 10-YEAR-OLD BOY SCORES A MENTAL AGE OF 12.HIS IQ WILL BE 12/10 X100=120
  • 44. LEARNING: One of the most important characteristics of human beings is their capacity to learn. An individual starts learning immediately after his birth or in a strict sense even earlier in the womb of the mother. Our personality–our habits, skills, knowledge, attitudes, interests and character is largely the result of learning.
  • 45. Definition:  The term learning covers every modification in behavior to meet environmental requirements. (GARDNER MURPHY—1968)  Learning is defined as the behavioral modification which occurs as a result of experience as well as training. (GALES )  Learning is defined as the process of acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes. (CROW AND CROW)
  • 46. Types of Learning: STIMULUS RESPONSE LEARNING: CONDITIONING LEARNING INVOLVES THE CONDITIONING OF RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH A PROCESS OF STIMULUS ASSOCIATION AND SUBSTITUTION. PERCEPTION LEARNING: SIGHT, HEARING, TASTE, SMELL AND TOUCH ARE CONSIDERED AS THE FIVE GATEWAYS OF KNOWLEDGE. ALL KNOWLEDGE IS BASED ON SENSE PERCEPTION. THE INDIVIDUAL RECEIVES INFORMATION FROM SENSE ORGANS AND INTERPRETS THEM IN THE LIGHT OF PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE. THE ATTACHING OF MEANING TO SENSATION IS CALLED PERCEPTION
  • 47. Types of Learning: VERBAL LEARNING: ALL LEARNING TAKING PLACE IN FORMAL EDUCATION IS VERBAL LEARNING. THE LANGUAGE WE SPEAK, COMMUNICATION DEVICES WE USE ARE THE RESULT OF SUCH LEARNING. SIGNS, PICTURES, SYMBOLS, WORDS, FIGURES, SOUNDS AND VOICES EMPLOYED BY INDIVIDUAL ARE THE ESSENTIAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF VERBAL LEARNING.
  • 48. Types of Learning: MOTOR LEARNING: WHEN LEARNING INVOLVES PRIMARILY THE USE OF MUSCLES, IT IS CALLED MOTOR LEARNING. IN THIS TYPE THE INDIVIDUAL ACQUIRES NEW MUSCULAR COORDINATION'S AS A MODE OF RESPONSE TO A SIMILAR SITUATION. LEARNING TO WALK, SWIM, PLAY THROW BALL, PIANO ARE EXAMPLES OF MOTOR LEARNING. CONCEPT LEARNING: A CONCEPT IS THE FORM OF A MENTAL IMAGE THAT DENOTES A GENERALIZED IDEA ABOUT THINGS, PERSONS OR EVENTS. IN LEARNING A CONCEPT, AN INDIVIDUAL TRIES TO FIND OUT SOME COMMON PROPERTY IN A GROUP OF OBJECTS
  • 49. Types of Learning: PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING: PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING IS A HIGHER TYPE OF LEARNING. THIS LEARNING REQUIRES THE USE OF COGNITIVE ABILITIES LIKE THINKING, REASONING, GENERALIZATION, IMAGINATION, ETC. ATTITUDE LEARNING: MUCH OF OUR LEARNING IS BASED ON ATTITUDES. BECAUSE OF FORMATION OF ATTITUDES WE SHOW FAVORABLE OR UNFAVORABLE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS OBJECTS, PERSONS OR SITUATIONS. THE INDIVIDUAL LEARNS A SUBJECT BASED ON HIS ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE SUBJECT.
  • 50. Types of Learning: PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING: IN PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING, LEARNING TASKS ARE PRESENTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEY MAY BE LEARNED BY REASON OF THEIR ASSOCIATIONS. KRISHNA, A BOY’S NAME MAY BECOME EASY TO REMEMBER IN A PAIRED ASSOCIATION WITH LORD KRISHNA.
  • 51. MEMORY : Memory plays a very important role in our learning and psychological growth. Through memory of our past experiences, we handle new situations; it helps us in our relearning problem solving and thinking. Memory is regarded as a special ability of our mind to conserve or store what has been previously learned or experienced to recollect or reproduce it after sometime. Memory is a complex process, which involves learning, retention, recall and recognition.
  • 52. Definition: • Memory consists in remembering what has previously been learned. (WOODWORTH AND MARQUIS—1948)  The power that we have to ‘store’ our experiences, and to bring them into the field of consciousness sometime after experiences have occurred, is termed memory. (RYBURN—1956)
  • 53. Types of Memory:  IMMEDIATE MEMORY OR SENSORY MEMORY  SHORT-TERM MEMORY (STM)  LONG-TERM MEMORY (LTM
  • 54. Types of Memory:  IMMEDIATE MEMORY OR SENSORY MEMORY: which helps an individual to recall something a split second after having perceived it. Immediate memory is needed, when we want to remember a thing for a short time and then forget it. For example, we look up a telephone number from the directory and remember it, but after making the call, we usually forget it.  SHORT-TERM MEMORY: Short-term memory (STM) holds a relatively small amount of information, about seven items, for a short period of (20–30 seconds) time .
  • 55. Types of Memory:  LONG-TERM MEMORY: Long-term memory (LTM) has the unlimited capacity to store information for days, months, years and even a lifetime. With the help of LTM we can store, retain and remember most of the things in our life, at record notice make things quite easy. Long-term memory can be categorized into declarative and procedural memory.
  • 57. Thinking: Thinking is a complex mental activity. It is symbolic in character, initiated by a problem, which the individual is facing, involves the response of the individual to this problem. DEFINITION: THINKING IS A PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS, IN WHICH WE USE IDEAS OR SYMBOLS IN PLACES OF OVERT ACTIVITY. (GILMER—1970)
  • 58. Types of Thinking: PERCEPTUAL OR CONCRETE THINKING: Perceptual thinking is the simplest form of thinking. The basis of this type of thinking is perception, example interpretation of sensation according to one’s experience. CONCEPTUAL OR ABSTRACT THINKING: It is an abstract thinking where one makes use of concepts, the generalized ideas and language. REFLECTIVE THINKING OR LOGICAL THINKING: Reflective thinking aims at solving complex problems rather than simple problems. It requires reorganization of all the relevant experiences and finding new ways of reacting to a situation
  • 59. Types of Thinking: CREATIVE THINKING: Creative thinking is important aimed at creating something new. It is in search of new relationships and associations to describe and interpret the nature of things, events and situations. CRITICAL THINKING: Critical thinking is a higher order well-disciplined thought process, which involves the use of cognitive skills like conceptualization, interpretation, analysis, synthesis and evaluation for arriving at an unbiased, valid and reliable judgment of the gathered or communicated information or data as a guide to one’s belief and action.
  • 60. Aptitude: APTITUDE MEANS QUICKNESS IN LEARNING AND UNDERSTANDING. IT MAY BE A NATURAL TALENT OR AN ACQUIRED ABILITY. IT IS THE SPECIAL APTNESS OR FITNESS FOR A SPECIAL ABILITY, SUCH AS MECHANICAL, MUSICAL, ARTISTIC, SCHOLASTIC OR RELIGIOUS.
  • 61. Aptitude: DEFINITION: AN APTITUDE IS A COMBINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS INDICATIVE OF AN INDIVIDUAL’S CAPACITY TO ACQUIRE (WITH TRAINING) SOME SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE, SKILL OR SET OF ORGANIZED RESPONSES, SUCH AS THE ABILITY TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, TO BECOME A MUSICIAN, TO DO MECHANICAL WORK. (FREEMAN—1971)
  • 62. Types of Aptitude: MANUAL APTITUDE: It indicates motor abilities or skills required for semi-skilled occupations. MECHANICAL APTITUDE: This aptitude involves the ability to understand and solve problems involving mechanical relationships and arrangements such as those, which occur in the adjustment, repair and assembly of machinery. CLERICAL APTITUDE: This aptitude indicates different abilities like perceptual, intellectual abilities, mental skills and motor skills. OTHER TYPES OF APTITUDE: Are musical, graphic, Scholastic/professional aptitudes.