Unit 4: Motivation and Emotion (Week 5)


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Unit 4: Motivation and Emotion (Week 5)

  1. 1. CHAPTER8Motivationand Emotion
  2. 2. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Diversity-UniversalityStability-ChangeMind-BodyNature-NurturePerson-SituationEnduring IssuesHow do motivesand emotions affectbehavior, and howare they affected bythe externalenvironment?
  3. 3. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Diversity-UniversalityStability-ChangeMind-BodyNature-NurturePerson-SituationEnduring IssuesAre motives andemotions inborn or acquired?
  4. 4. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Diversity-UniversalityStability-ChangeMind-BodyNature-NurturePerson-SituationEnduring IssuesDo motives andemotions change significantlyover the life span?
  5. 5. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Diversity-UniversalityStability-ChangeMind-BodyNature-NurturePerson-SituationEnduring IssuesTo what extent doindividuals differ in theirmotivations and emotions?
  6. 6. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Diversity-UniversalityStability-ChangeMind-BodyNature-NurturePerson-Situation How do motives andemotions arise from, and inturn affect, biologicalprocesses?Enduring Issues
  7. 7. Specific needor desire, such ashunger, thirst, orachievement,that promptsgoal-directedbehavior otive
  8. 8. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Feeling,such asfear, joy,orsurprise,thatunderliesbehaviormotion
  9. 9. Perspectives onMotivation
  10. 10. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Compare and contrast instincts, drive-reduction theory, and arousal theory(including the Yerkes-Dodson law) as explanations of human behavior. Distinguish between primaryand secondary drives, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and summarize Maslow’s hierarchy of motives.InstinctsInstinct theory was popular inthe early 20th century, but wasultimately disputed because:• Most important humanbehavior is learned.• Human behavior is rarely rigid,inflexible, unchanging, and commonto all, as is the case with instincts.• Ascribing every conceivable humanbehavior to a corresponding instinctexplains nothing.
  11. 11. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Drive Reduction TheoryNeed: Requirement of material(e.g., food, water) essential forsurvivalDrive: Need creates state of tensionor arousalDrive-reduction theory: Attempts toreduce the unpleasant state oftension and return the organism tohomeostasis
  12. 12. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Primary drives:Unlearned drives thatare based on aphysiological stateSecondary drives:Learned drives that arenot based on aphysiological statePrimary and Secondary Drives
  13. 13. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Arousal TheoryBehavior stems from thedesire to maintain anoptimum level of arousalSometimeslevel of arousalis reduced.Other timeslevel of arousalis increased.
  14. 14. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Arousal TheoryYerkes-Dodson law: The more complex thetask, the lower the level of arousal that can betolerated before performance deterioratesSimple task = increase level of arousal Complex task = reduce level of arousal
  15. 15. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Sensation Seeking• Thrill-seeking behavior• Not explained by arousaltheory• Zuckerman: A basicmotivation, some aspectsof which are inherited andneurologically based
  16. 16. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation:A desire to perform a behaviorthat stems from the enjoymentderived from the behavior itselfExtrinsic motivation:A desire to perform a behaviorto obtain an external rewardor avoid punishment
  17. 17. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013A Hierarchy of MotivesMaslow’s hierarchy ofneeds: Higher motivesonly emerge after lowerlevel motives aresatisfiedPhysiological NeedsSafety NeedsBelongingness NeedsEsteem NeedsSelf-ActualizationNeedsSource: Adapted from Motivation andPersonality by Abraham H. Maslow.Copyright © 1970. Reprinted bypermission of Pearson Education,Upper Saddle River, NJ
  18. 18. Hunger andThirst
  19. 19. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Biological and Emotional FactorsHunger and thirstare influenced by:LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify the areas of thebrain that are involved in hunger and describe therole of glucose, leptin, and ghrelin in determining abiological need for food. Distinguish between thebiological need for food and the experience ofhunger (including the role of incentives).InternalcuesExternalcues
  20. 20. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Biological FactorsHunger isstimulated internallythrough the brain’scomplex monitoring of:• Fats• Carbohydrates• Glucose(a simple sugar)• Various hormones
  21. 21. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Incentives(i.e. cooking aromas)Emotional factorsCultural factorsSocial factorsOther Factors that Stimulate Hunger1234
  22. 22. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Eating Disorders and ObesityLEARNING OBJECTIVE: List the symptoms that are used to diagnose anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa, muscle dysmorphia, and obesity. Describe the people who are mostlikely to develop these disorders and the most likely causes of them.Anorexia nervosa• Approximately 1% ofadolescents sufferfrom anorexianervosa.• About 90% of themare white upper- ormiddle-classfemales.• Over 10% of thosewith anorexianervosa die as aresult of thedisorder.Bulimia nervosa• Approximately 1-2%of all adolescentfemales havebulimia nervosa.• Upper- and middle-class women aremost at-risk.Muscledysmorphia• It is more commonin young males.
  23. 23. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Obesity• Obesity has increasedmore than 50% in thelast decade.• More than two-thirdsof Americans areoverweight or obese.• The obesity statisticsfor American youth aredisplayed to the right.• There really isno “quick fix”for weight loss.• Our bodies appear tobe genetically “set”to maintain a certainweight.– Set-point theory
  24. 24. Applying PsychologyCopyright ©Pearson Education 2013The Slow (but Lasting)Fix for Weight Gain1. Check with your doctor beforeyou start to make sure yourweight loss program will be safe.2. Increase your body’s metabolismthrough regular exercise.3. Modify your diet.4. Reduce external cues thatencourage you to eat undesirablefoods.5. Set realistic goals.6. Reward yourself – in waysunrelated to food – for smallimprovements.
  25. 25. Sex
  26. 26. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Sexualmotivation issimilar to, anddifferent from,other primarydrives.Biological FactorsLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe how sexual motivation is both similar to and differentfrom other primary drives. Identify the factors (biological and nonbiological) that affectsexual motivation.SimilarSex is considereda primary drivebecause it isunlearned and isa physiologicalstate.DifferentSex is vital onlyto the survival ofthe species, notto the survival ofthe individual.
  27. 27. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Biological FactorsTestosterone (the primary male sex hormone)– Baseline levels associated with frequency of sexualbehavior/satisfaction in males and femalesPheromones– Some evidence that they are secreted in the sweatglands of the armpits and in the genitals– May influence sexual attractionBrain– Limbic system and insula: involved in sexualexcitementSexual response cycle– Typical sequence of events characterizing sexualresponse in males and females
  28. 28. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Sexual Response CycleLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the sexual response cycle and how it differs formen and women. Briefly explain what is meant by the statement that “researchindicates that the sex lives of most Americans differ significantly from mediaportrayals.”1. Excitement: Beginning of arousal2. Plateau: Physical changes continue3. Orgasm: Rhythmic contractionsin vagina/penis muscles; male ejaculates4. Resolution: Final phase,body returned to normal state• Refractory period: Time period when malescannot have another orgasm
  29. 29. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Cultural and Environmental FactorsHuman sexualmotivation is much moredependent on experienceand learning than onbiology.• Sight and smell• Moral beliefs• Culture of origin• Age• Gender equality
  30. 30. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Michael, Gagnon, Laumann, & Kolata (1994) studyof 3,432 people aged 18-59.Patterns of Sexual Behavior Among AmericansTwice aweek or more:about 1/3A few timesa month: 1/3A few times ayear or notat all: 1/3Approx.15 minutesVaginalintercourse:over 90%Marriedcouples: moresatisfied and hadsex more oftenthan unmarriedpersons(see also Waite& Joyner, 2001)Males: 6Females: 217% of the men,3% of the women:sex with over 20partnersMen:about 25%Women:about 15%Averageduration ofintercourseMediannumber ofpartners overthe lifetimePercentagewhocommittedadulteryFrequencyof sexPreferredform of sexSatisfactionwith sex life
  31. 31. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Gender Differences in SexualityMen• Men are moreinterested in sexthan are women.• Aggression, power,dominance, andassertiveness aremore closely linked tosex among men thanamong women.Women• Women are morelikely than men tolink sex to a close,committedrelationship.• Women’s sexualityis more open tochange overtime.
  32. 32. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Sexual OrientationLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Summarize the research evidence for and against a biologicalbasis for sexual orientation.What determines sexual orientation?NaturePrimarilyinfluencedby geneticsNurtureA result ofearlylearningandsocializationCombinationLikelyexplanationprobablyinvolves acombination ofthe two
  33. 33. Other ImportantMotives
  34. 34. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Other Important Motives• Stimulus motives:Unlearned motives thatprompt us to explore orchange the world around us– Exploration– Curiosity– Manipulation– Contact• Aggression• Achievement• Affiliation
  35. 35. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Exploration and Curiosity• Sparked by the new andunknown• Directed toward no morespecific goal other than“finding out”• Not unique to humans• Disagreement about the natureand causes of curiosityLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Briefly describe the majorstimulus motives: exploration, curiosity,manipulation, and contact.
  36. 36. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Manipulation and Contact• Limited to primates,who have agile fingersand toes• Manipulation: An activeprocess• Contact: Can be either activeor passive• Harlow (1958) and Harlow &Zimmerman (1959): Studieswith monkeys demonstratingthe human need for contact
  37. 37. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013AggressionBehavior aimed at doing harmto others; also, the motive tobehave aggressivelyTheories:• Innate drive• A vestige of our evolutionarypast that is triggered by painor frustration• Social learningLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the role of learningas a determinant of aggression including evidencefor gender and cultural differences in aggressivebehavior.
  38. 38. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Aggression: Culture and Gender• Collectivist societies havelower levels of aggression.• Across cultures, males atevery age are moreaggressive than females.• Higher levels ofaggression in males maybe due to socialization aswell as biological factors.
  39. 39. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013AchievementAchievement motive:The need to excel and toovercome obstaclesThree separate but interrelatedachievement-oriented behaviors:• Work orientation• Mastery• Competitiveness: Tends tointerfere with achievementLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify the componentsof achievement behavior and the characteristicsof people who are high in achievement motivation.Explain the factors that affect the affiliation motiveand the likelihood that a person will express their need foraffiliation.
  40. 40. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013AffiliationAffiliation motive:The need to be with others• Common to humans and likelyto be especially strong whenpeople feel threatened• Has an evolutionary basisaccording to some theorists• Expression of need dependson a number of factors
  41. 41. Emotions
  42. 42. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013FearSurpriseDisgustAngerSadnessAnticipationJoyAcceptancePlutchik’s Eight Basic EmotionsLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Discuss the evidence for a set of basic emotions that areexperienced by all humans.Basic Emotions12345678
  43. 43. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Primary and Secondary EmotionsPrimary emotions• Are evident in allcultures• Contribute to survival• Are associated withdistinct facialexpressions• Are evident innonhuman primatesSecondary emotions• Are subtle combinationsof primary emotions• Are not found in allcultures
  44. 44. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Stimuli cause physiologicalchanges in our bodies, andemotions result from thosephysiological changes.LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bardtheory, and cognitive theories of emotion.Theories of EmotionCognitive theoriesCannon-Bard theoryJames-Lange theory
  45. 45. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013The experience of emotionoccurs simultaneously withbiological changes.LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bardtheory, and cognitive theories of emotion.Theories of EmotionCognitive theoriesCannon-Bard theoryJames-Lange theory
  46. 46. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Emotional experiencedepends on one’sperception or judgmentof a situation.LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bardtheory, and cognitive theories of emotion.Theories of EmotionCognitive theoriesCannon-Bard theoryJames-Lange theory
  47. 47. CommunicatingEmotion
  48. 48. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain the importance of facial expressions in communicating emotion andidentify the areas of the brain that are responsible for interpreting facial expressions. Describe therole of body language, gestures, and personal space in communicating emotions.• We convey more emotionalinformation in the way weexpress words, not in the wordswe use.• Facial expression seems tocommunicate the most amongnonverbal channels ofcommunication.• Evolutionary psychologists believethat facial expression served anadaptive function, enabling ourancestors to compete for status,win mates, and defendthemselves.Voice Quality and Facial Expression
  49. 49. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013How the Brain Reads the Face• Activity in the amgydalaand insula in the brain arecritical for the release ofemotions.• These same areas of thebrain also play animportant role in our abilityto correctly interpret facialexpressions.
  50. 50. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Body Language, Personal Space,and Gestures
  51. 51. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Gender and EmotionMen and women:• Don’t necessarily differ in theirphysiological experience of emotion• May react to the same situation withvery different emotionsWomen:• Are more likely to express theiremotions than men• Are more likely to express emotionsstrongly and seek helpLEARNING OBJECTIVE: Summarize the researchevidence regarding gender and cultural differences inemotion, the role of “display rules,” and whether it isadvantageous to express anger as opposed to “holding itin.”Gender
  52. 52. Copyright ©Pearson Education 2013Culture and Emotion• Universalist position:The face looks the same across cultures forspecific emotions.• Culture-learning position:Members of a culture learn the appropriatefacial expressions for emotions.• Display rules:Culture-specific rules that govern how,when, and why expressions of emotion areappropriate.Culture
  53. 53. Acknowledgments
  54. 54. Slide # Image Description Image Sourcetexttemplateupside down blue sky & grass ©iStockphoto.com/Konrad Lewchaptertemplateskydiving ©istockphoto.com/Aleksander Trankov3 woman looking at scale ©istockphoto.com/Lise Gagne4 baby w/ bottle ©istockphoto.com/Photo studio FD4 fancy house ©istockphoto.com/Andrea Hill5 girl crying ©istockphoto.com/Jesus Ayala5 depressed teenager ©istockphoto.com/Aldo Murillo6 happy woman ©istockphoto.com/bo19826 sad woman ©istockphoto.com/Silver Spiral Arts6 angry man ©istockphoto.com/Hakimata Photography & Makeup7 neck pain ©istockphoto.com/Martin Novak8 woman rock climbing ©istockphoto.com/Greg Epperson9 man and baby ©istockphoto.com/Barbara Sauder11 girl chewing fingers: fear ©istockphoto.com/jlmatt11 woman with hands over face: shame ©istockphoto.com/Soubrette11 child: shyness ©istockphoto.com/elkor12 child drinking water ©istockphoto.com/VARDHAN12 person rock climbing ©istockphoto.com/Greg Epperson13 head ©istockphoto.com/Angel Herrero de Frutos13 money ©istockphoto.com/Kyu Oh13 food - burger & fries ©istockphoto.com/Adolfo Lazo14 young woman dancing happily ©istockphoto.com/Justin Horrocks14 young woman sleeping happily ©istockphoto.com/Justin Horrocks15 Figure 8.1: The Yerkes-Dodson law Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 26116 snowboarder ©istockphoto.com/Ben Blankenburg17 girl on swing ©istockphoto.com/HooRoo Graphics
  55. 55. 17 doctor giving child candy ©istockphoto.com/killerb1018 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Adapted from Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 26220 hungry ©istockphoto.com/Neil Wysocki20 bowl ©istockphoto.com/Jill Chen20 dish of noodles ©istockphoto.com/Jamesmcq2421 Figure 8.3: Physiological factors regulating appetite and bodyweightMorris/Maisto, 9/e p. 26422 cooking ©istockphoto.com/Sean Locke22 icon: wanted sign Charlie Levin, adapting wooden board image from©istockphoto.com/andynwt24 Figure 8.4: Rising obesity among American youth Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 26725 person exercising ©istockphoto.com/Overprint25 scrap of paper ©istockphoto.com/Trevor Hunt29 sex feet arousal ©istockphoto.com/Rapid Eye Media29 sex feet climax ©istockphoto.com/Rapid Eye Media29 sex feet post ©istockphoto.com/Niko Guido30 Figure 10.3 From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 2/e p. 409Figure 10.4 From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 2/e p. 40931 woman jumping into a mans arms ©istockphoto.com/Yuri Arcurs32 Figure 8.6: Frequency of sexual behavior around the world Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 27134 restroom doors - gender symbols ©istockphoto.com/k-libre37 kid looking at bug ©istockphoto.com/Barssé37 girl reaching for soda ©istockphoto.com/maska8237 punch through wall ©istockphoto.com/Sami Suni37 girl raising her hand ©istockphoto.com/bonniej graphic design37 Singapore swim class ©istockphoto.com/arturbo38 cat looking around a door ©istockphoto.com/tirc8338 kid looking at bug ©istockphoto.com/Barssé
  56. 56. 39 girl reaching for soda ©istockphoto.com/maska8240 punch through wall ©istockphoto.com/Sami Suni41 globe w/ flags ©istockphoto.com/Stay Media Productions41 silhouettes - hate fighting TrapdoorMedia42 girl raising her hand ©istockphoto.com/bonniej graphic design43 Singapore swim class ©istockphoto.com/arturbo45 Figure 8.7: Plutchiks eight basic emotions Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 27946 crowd ©istockphoto.com/adisa47 Figure 8.10: James-Lange Theory Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 28148 Figure 8.10: Canon-Bard Theory Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 28149 Figure 8.10: Cognitive Theory Morris/Maisto, 9/e p. 28151 icon: helmet ©istockphoto.com/Li Shen Jun51 couple hugging ©istockphoto.com/ODonnell Photograf52 Illustration: profile with brain From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 2/e p. 7053 little girl hugging and kissing little boy ©istockphoto.com/Nicolesy, Inc. | Nicole S. Young53 couple in kitchen ©istockphoto.com/Denis Raev53 couple on couch ©istockphoto.com/Lev Olkha54 woman expressing feelings to a man ©istockphoto.com/Lokibaho55 woman facial expressions ©istockphoto.com/ZoneCreative56 Open Your Book - textbook cover Shutterstock56 Open Your Book - textbook background From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 1/e pp. 213-21456 Open Your Book - open textbook From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 1/e pp. 114-11558 topbar: cactus ©istockphoto.com/Lee Daniels58 topbar: wooden board ©istockphoto.com/andynwt58 text messaging ©iStockphoto.com/Freeze Frame Studio, Inc.59 topbar: helmets ©istockphoto.com/Li Shen Jun59 topbar: athletic field ©istockphoto.com/Jamie Otterstetter60 tabletop of stationery ©istockphoto.com/Stuart Burford