MEANING OF ATTENTION
NATURE OF ATTENTION
FACTORS EFFECTING ATTENTION
SPAN OF ATTENTION
Attention is an active part of consciousness.
The activity of concentrating mind on a particular matter is
Attention is not possible in the absence of consciousness, but
attention and consciousness are not one.
The field of consciousness is vast and attention is one of its
parts. For example, I am reading at this time. Book, note,
table, chair, etc., all this can be under my consciousness, but
my attention is on the words being read on the paper
MEANING OF ATTENTION
Attention is the concentration of consciousness upon one object
rather than others – Dumvile.
Attention is the process of getting an object of thought clearly
before the mind – Ross.
Attention is merely conation or striving considered from the
point of view of its effects on cognitive process – McDougall.
Attention is being keenly alive to some specific factor in our
environment. It is a preparatory adjustment for response –
Morgan and Gilliland.
Attention can be thought of as the bridge over which some
parts of the external world the aspects selectively focused on are
brought into the subjective world of our consciousness so that
we may regulate our own behaviour – Carver and Schuler
Nature: Attention is focusing of consciousness on a
Attention is constantly shifting/changeable
Attention is selective
Attention is a mental process
Attention is a state of preparedness or alertness
Attention has narrow range/span
NATURE of ATTENTION
The external factors are concerned with the environment.
These are also called Objective Factors.
Size: Size has effect on attention. It is natural an unusual
size attracts attention of the people. Very big size or very
small size too draws our attention when compared with
normal size. For example, a Lilliputian (dwarf man)
walking on the road too draws our attention.
Intensity: Loud sounds, strong smells and deep colours
are attractive in nature.
If a sound is intense then it would attract our attention.
The thunder is louder than a car sound. So, our attention is
drawn on thunder
Movement: Moving things draws our attention more than
stationary one. A moving car attracts faster than a stationary
Contrast: Anything that is different from its surrounding is
contrast. A black dust in the milk drawn attention quickly. A
swan among the crows attracts suddenly.
Repetition: If a thing or person or event is repeated several
times, then our attention drawn to it. When an advertisement is
repeated in the walls drawn our attention.
Duration: attention is drawn to a thing that lasts longer. A
salesperson draws attention by lengthening his voice.
Change: Change draws our attention easily. In the midst of
continuous noise a slight moment of silence draws our
Novelty: Newness attracts quickly than traditional one. A new
teacher attracts the children very much in the school.
The internal factors are concerned with the individual. So, these
are also called subjective factors.
Interest: we are interested in some things and disinterested in
other things. Interesting things draws our attention soon. An
engineer and a botanist going down the same path will attend
entirely different things on the way. Engineer attention will be on
the buildings and botanist attention will be on the trees.
Desire: A person’s desire becomes a cause of paying attention
to a thing. For example, a person has to desire of buying a
hammer. There are many things available in a market, but when
he goes to a shop where hammers are available.
Aim/Goal: Every man has some immediate aim and ultimate
goal in their life. The immediate aim of a student is to pass in the
examination while his ultimate goal may be to become a doctor.
The student, whose goal is not to pass the examination, will not be
concerned with textbooks or note, etc , but who has the aim to pass
in the examination, will at once attend to them.
Habit: Habit is also a vital determinant of attention. The kind of
habit we found in our life, our attention is drawn to such things. if a
person has habit to play cricket, then his attention is always drawn
to it, and he will listen to cricket commentaries with attention.
Past Experience: It is also affect attention. If we know by our
past experience that a particular person is sincere to us, we shall
pay attention to whatever he advises us. If our experience is
contrary, we shall not attend even to his most serous advice.
Span of attention refers to the number of objects, letters and digits one
can attend to in a fraction of a second so as exclude eye movement or
counting – Prem Praksh.
The extent or limit of the ability of a person to attend to a concentrate on
something. The length of time which a reader can concentrate on what he
is reading without thinking of anything else is called Span of attention.
Attention Span: It varies with age, physical, mental and emotional
condition and nature of material read.
Attention brings an object into consciousness. How many objects can be
brought into consciousness at a time, the number of them is called span
of attention. On an average span of attention of a child is limited to 4 to 5
whereas for adults it is within 6 to 7 letters or digits.
Touchidoscope is the apparatus using for determine the span of
SPAN OF ATTENTION
• Meaning :Distraction means the driving of attention or some
interference in attention.
• For example, when one is studying, the sound of a song or noise
breaks in upon attention.
• The object which causes the distraction is called distractor.
• Definition: Distraction may be defined as any stimulus whose presence
interferes with the process of attention or draws away attention from the
object to which we wish to attend – H.R.Bhatia.
• A distraction may be defined as any factor which normally tends to
break up attention – Prem Prakash
Sources of Distraction :The sources of distraction can be roughly divided
into two - external and internal sources.
External Factors: It is also called environmental factors. These are
more common and prominent.
Noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats, inadequate
ventilation, defective method of teaching, improper use of teaching aids,
defective voice of the teacher are the common external distractors in the
Internal Factors: Emotional disturbances, ill-health, anger, fear, feeling of
insecurity, boredom, lack of motivation, feeling of fatigue, lack of interest,
unrelated subject matter are the examples for internal distractor.
SOURCES OF DISTRACTION