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attention in psychology

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  2. 2. Meaning:  Attention is an active part of consciousness.  The activity of concentrating mind on a particular matter is called attention.  Attention is not possible in the absence of consciousness, but attention and consciousness are not one.  The field of consciousness is vast and attention is one of its parts. For example, I am reading at this time. Book, note, table, chair, etc., all this can be under my consciousness, but my attention is on the words being read on the paper MEANING OF ATTENTION
  3. 3. Attention is the concentration of consciousness upon one object rather than others – Dumvile.  Attention is the process of getting an object of thought clearly before the mind – Ross.  Attention is merely conation or striving considered from the point of view of its effects on cognitive process – McDougall.  Attention is being keenly alive to some specific factor in our environment. It is a preparatory adjustment for response – Morgan and Gilliland.  Attention can be thought of as the bridge over which some parts of the external world the aspects selectively focused on are brought into the subjective world of our consciousness so that we may regulate our own behaviour – Carver and Schuler DEFINITION
  4. 4.  Nature: Attention is focusing of consciousness on a particular object.  Attention is constantly shifting/changeable  Attention is selective  Attention is a mental process  Attention is a state of preparedness or alertness  Attention has narrow range/span NATURE of ATTENTION
  5. 5.  External Factors:  The external factors are concerned with the environment.  These are also called Objective Factors.  Size: Size has effect on attention. It is natural an unusual size attracts attention of the people. Very big size or very small size too draws our attention when compared with normal size. For example, a Lilliputian (dwarf man) walking on the road too draws our attention.  Intensity: Loud sounds, strong smells and deep colours are attractive in nature.  If a sound is intense then it would attract our attention.  The thunder is louder than a car sound. So, our attention is drawn on thunder EXTERNAL FACTORS
  6. 6.  Movement: Moving things draws our attention more than stationary one. A moving car attracts faster than a stationary car.  Contrast: Anything that is different from its surrounding is contrast. A black dust in the milk drawn attention quickly. A swan among the crows attracts suddenly.  Repetition: If a thing or person or event is repeated several times, then our attention drawn to it. When an advertisement is repeated in the walls drawn our attention.  Duration: attention is drawn to a thing that lasts longer. A salesperson draws attention by lengthening his voice.  Change: Change draws our attention easily. In the midst of continuous noise a slight moment of silence draws our attention.  Novelty: Newness attracts quickly than traditional one. A new teacher attracts the children very much in the school.
  7. 7.  The internal factors are concerned with the individual. So, these are also called subjective factors.  Interest: we are interested in some things and disinterested in other things. Interesting things draws our attention soon. An engineer and a botanist going down the same path will attend entirely different things on the way. Engineer attention will be on the buildings and botanist attention will be on the trees.  Desire: A person’s desire becomes a cause of paying attention to a thing. For example, a person has to desire of buying a hammer. There are many things available in a market, but when he goes to a shop where hammers are available. INTERNAL FACTORS
  8. 8.  Aim/Goal: Every man has some immediate aim and ultimate goal in their life. The immediate aim of a student is to pass in the examination while his ultimate goal may be to become a doctor. The student, whose goal is not to pass the examination, will not be concerned with textbooks or note, etc , but who has the aim to pass in the examination, will at once attend to them. Habit: Habit is also a vital determinant of attention. The kind of habit we found in our life, our attention is drawn to such things. if a person has habit to play cricket, then his attention is always drawn to it, and he will listen to cricket commentaries with attention.  Past Experience: It is also affect attention. If we know by our past experience that a particular person is sincere to us, we shall pay attention to whatever he advises us. If our experience is contrary, we shall not attend even to his most serous advice.
  9. 9.  Span of attention refers to the number of objects, letters and digits one can attend to in a fraction of a second so as exclude eye movement or counting – Prem Praksh.  The extent or limit of the ability of a person to attend to a concentrate on something. The length of time which a reader can concentrate on what he is reading without thinking of anything else is called Span of attention.  Attention Span: It varies with age, physical, mental and emotional condition and nature of material read.  Attention brings an object into consciousness. How many objects can be brought into consciousness at a time, the number of them is called span of attention. On an average span of attention of a child is limited to 4 to 5 whereas for adults it is within 6 to 7 letters or digits.  Touchidoscope is the apparatus using for determine the span of attention. SPAN OF ATTENTION
  10. 10. • Meaning :Distraction means the driving of attention or some interference in attention. • For example, when one is studying, the sound of a song or noise breaks in upon attention. • The object which causes the distraction is called distractor. • Definition: Distraction may be defined as any stimulus whose presence interferes with the process of attention or draws away attention from the object to which we wish to attend – H.R.Bhatia. • A distraction may be defined as any factor which normally tends to break up attention – Prem Prakash DISTRACTION
  11. 11.  Sources of Distraction :The sources of distraction can be roughly divided into two - external and internal sources.  External Factors: It is also called environmental factors. These are more common and prominent.  Noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats, inadequate ventilation, defective method of teaching, improper use of teaching aids, defective voice of the teacher are the common external distractors in the classrooms.  Internal Factors: Emotional disturbances, ill-health, anger, fear, feeling of insecurity, boredom, lack of motivation, feeling of fatigue, lack of interest, unrelated subject matter are the examples for internal distractor. SOURCES OF DISTRACTION