“Muscle force and energy haven’t got themain meaning already, but information has.”D. BellMass Media
• The print editions (the press): newspapers, magazines.• The electronic mass media: television, radio, the Internet.
Charles Horton Cooley, Robert Ezra Park,Walter Lippmann and many others are thepioneers in studying of the mass media.Charles HortonCooleyRobert EzraParkWalterLippmann
Periodical editions: a newspaper, a magazine, abulletin, other edition, that has got a permanent titleand a current number;Broadcasting;Television program;Video film;News film;Another form of spreading mass information.
The InternetThe Internet is the main achievement in thedevelopment of the means of masscommunication. Nowadays the Internet isclassified as the fifth stage of technicaldevelopment of the mankind. The other fourstages are water energy processing, steamenergy, electricity and electronics.
1. When the Internet is used in order to find any interestinginformation;2. The stage of commerce and communication;3. The stage of communication environment.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNETIS DIVIDED INTO THREE STAGES:
The Internet is used as the means of mass mediaand different types are growing and spreading now .They are of great popularity, though their audienceis less than of “traditional” mass media. Almost alltypes of mass media have got sites in the Internet,information is published on many sites and it isregularly renewed. Usually the Internet mass mediahave the main income thanks to the advertising, butalso they can be sponsored by a broadcastingorganization.
USA,Great Britainand mass media in these countries
• In Russia (July, 2010) more than 93 thousandof mass media were registered, 90 per centof them are private.• According to the appraisals of internationalagencies, Russian mass media are not free.There are some main causes of it, namely:censorship in Russia, pressure of authoritieson the mass media, control of the televisionchannels by the state.
Television in RussiaRussia has got 16 channels for generaluse, about 117 satellite and cablechannels, 15 channels that broadcastoutside Russia, about 180 regional and 30channels of different localities. The totalnumber of channels is 330.
The survey, that was held in Russia in2004, showed how often people watchedcurrent news and information programs onpolitical topics.regularlysometimesseldomdon`t look
Printing editions are the most widespread kind ofmass media in Russia. By the beginning of 2009 27.425newspapers had been registered, but not more than14.000 of them are printed now. Also 20.433magazines, 787 miscellanies, 1297 anthologies, 1519bulletins and 214 editions on magnetic media wereregistered. In 2009 51.725 printing mass media wereregistered.The number of readers of national daily newspapers(May-October,2008) is 6.522.200 people, and ofnational weekly newspapers is 14.019.200 people.The number of readers of different magazines in 2008was 36.200.000 people. In conclusion we can say thatabout 62% of population read magazines. Cinema-guides and TV-guides (28,5%), women’s and fashioneditions (28,1%) are the most popular among people.
The radio in Russia Today there are 1419 broadcasting stations inour country, 292 of them are state. Local broadcasting stations, which are ofmunicipal property, are state as well. Thenumber of such stations is more than 300.
The most popular broadcastingstations in Russia:Radio of RussiaRussian RadioMayakEurope +
The Internet in RussiaIt is known that in 2011 the Internet becamemore popular and profitable than press.From July till October,2011, 10,5 billionroubles were invested into the Internetadvertisement, and 8,6 billion roubles wereinvested into the press advertisement.
According to the surveys, which were held bythe American organization Pew Research Centerfor the People & the Press, in 2008 the Internetin the USA became more important source ofinformation than daily newspapers. About 40%of people informed that they used the Internetto get news. Only 35% of people readnewspapers. Nevertheless, the television wasthe most popular source of the news: about70% of people informed that they watched thenews on TV.
The television is one of the main kind ofmass media in the USA. 99% of Americanhomes have got one TV set, and themajority of them have got more than that.NBC, CBS, ABC, Fox and CW are thebiggest broadcasting networks.
Printing editions:"Washington Post""The New York Times""The Christian Science Monitor""The Wall Street Journal""The Los Angeles Times""The Boston Globe""The New York Post""Philadelphia Inquirer""Baltimore Sun""Newsweek"
In 2011 the USA spent 32 billion dollarson advertisement in the Internet. In the future the profits of the Americannewspapers and magazines will be onlydecreasing, but the Internet will besteadily developing.
In British mass media the reviews ofcultural life and various art directions arepresented widely. There are somepopular editions, such as “NewScientist”, “Lancet” and the educationalsupplement to the newspaper “Times”.“Associated Press Limited”, “Rider” and“Associated Press” are the main newsagencies in England.
The television in Great Britain BBC is based inLondon, but has studiosand televisionequipment all over thecountry, it ensures thework of national andregional channels andbroadcasting stationson the area of GreatBritain. One of the services isbroadcasting in English(World Service) and 32other languages of theworld. ITC doesn`t make programs.It grants licenses andcontrols broadcastingcompanies, which areresponsible for makingprograms for two maincommercial channels –ITV/Channel3 and Channel4. 15 companies maketelevision programs for ITCand for 14 regions of Britain.BBC (British BroadcastingCompany)ITC (Independent TelevisionCommission)
The television in Great BritainThe television is an influential and dominant kindof mass media in modern Britain, and also it is avery popular amusement. Some people prefer torent TV sets, because in this case they arerepaired free of charge.Current news, documentaries, sports, educationaland cultural programs are of high quality. However,series, films, quizzes and different shows ofdubious quality are shown.
England has got one of the most developedpublishing industries in the world. More than2000 local, 1300 weekly, 200 daily andSunday’s newspapers are published in thiscountry. Two out of three Englishmen readdaily national newspapers, three out of fourEnglishmen read Sunday newspapers.Local and regional newspapers are in greatdemand. The biggest British editions are “Newsof the World” ( the circulation is about 4,4million copies, “Sun” (about 3,8 million copies);“Daily Mail” (the circulation is about 2,1 millioncopies), “ Mirror” (2,3 million copies).
150 local and regional independent radio stationsof the country work thanks to their advertisers andbroadcast mainly pop-music, news and programsof the local meaning. Radio is the most quick-growing kind of mass media in Britain. The government sets up new internationalcommercial radio stations in order to extendbroadcasting process. The first license was givento Classic FM and the second one was given toVirgin 1215. The government wanted to varybroadcasting system when its programs could besuitable for any tastes and interests.
THE INTERNET IN GREAT BRITAINMany magazines have got electronic versions, andBritish observers think that in the future printingversions of magazines will be only a “visiting card”.The Internet is actively used by BBC. Its main site isthe biggest in the world. The number of visits canachieve 150 million a month.60% of young Englishmen watch television programson the Internet, though their quality is worse.
Millions of people can’t live without television in themodern world, and broadcasting is appreciated by peoplethanks to the musical programs and news. Newspapers alsocan give any necessary information. But the Internet is themost popular source of information.In the epoch of information technologies it is very difficultto imagine our life without mass media, because they are veryimportant in the life of people. It is the best way to be aware ofpolitical and economical events, and numerous well-knownachievements.