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INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE, UNIT1, MPHARM PCG SEM2.pptx

INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE, UNIT1, MPHARM PCG SEM2 Fundamendal concepts of Traditional Medicine Ayurveda Siddha Unani Homeopathy Ayurveda – Pharmacopoiea, Analysis of formulations Siddha – Gunapadam, Types of medicines,Dhatu Jeevam moolikai Purification(Suddhi)

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INDIAN
SYSTEM OF
MEDICINE
UNIT 1
S. PRITHIVIRAJAN., M. Pharm
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, COP,
Madurai Medical College,
Madurai-20
M PHARM – PHARMACOGNOSY
SEM 2
Contents
1. Fundamendal concepts of Traditional Medicine
• Ayurveda
• Siddha
• Unani
• Homeopathy
2. Ayurveda – Pharmacopoiea, Analysis of formulations
3. Siddha – Gunapadam, Types of medicines, Purification
FUNDAMENDAL CONCEPTS OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
The Indian systems of medicine include all the non-allopathic systems
of medicine excluding Homeopathy. For example, Aryurved, Sidha, Unani,
Yoga and Naturopathy.
1. AYURVEDA
Ayurveda treatment starts with an internal purification process,
followed by a special diet, herbal remedies, massage therapy, yoga, and
meditation. According to ancient Indian philosophy, the universe is composed
of five basic elements or pancha bhutas, PRITHVI (earth), JAL (water), TEJA
(fire), VAYU (air) and AKASH (space).
The Pancha Bhuta theory and the human body: The human body is in a
state of continuous flux or dynamic equilibrium. The pancha bhutas are
represented in the human body as the doshas, dhatus and malas.
There are three doshas in the body. They are Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
There are direct equivalents for these three doshas, known as Tridoshas.
• The factors responsible for movement and sensation in a single cell/whole
body are the representatives of Vata; it explains the entire biological
phenomena that are controlled by the functions of central and autonomous
nervous system.
• The factors responsible for digestion, metabolism, tissue building, heat
production, blood pigmentation, activities of the endocrine glands and
energy are the representatives of Pitta.
• The factors respon-sible for strengthening the stomach and the joints,
providing firmness to the limbs, and refreshing the sense organs are the
representatives of Kapha.
• There are some special areas in the
body in which each dosha
predominates, namely, the chest for
kapha, digestive organs for pitta and
the large intestine for vata
• Diagnosis: In Ayurveda implies a
moment-to-moment moni-toring of
the interaction between order
(health) and disorder (disease). The
disease process is a reaction between
the bodily humours (doshas) and
tissues (dhatus) and is influenced by
the environment.
Treatment:
Ayurvedic therapy often begins with shodhana (cleansing) in which
toxins, emotional or physical, are eliminated or neutralized.
Once shodhana is completed, shamana (palliative treatment) is used to
reduce the intensity of a disease and balance the disordered doshas.
Finally, rasayana (rejuvenation therapy) is used to maintain health and
reduce the negative effects of disease.
In Ayurveda, vegetable, animal, mineral substances or metals could be
used for their healing effects. The metals mentioned as drugs were gold,
silver, copper, lead, tin and iron. Along with these substances elements from
the earth, like arsenic, antimony, sand and lime, were also used
Ad

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INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE, UNIT1, MPHARM PCG SEM2.pptx

  • 1. INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE UNIT 1 S. PRITHIVIRAJAN., M. Pharm Dept. of Pharmacognosy, COP, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-20 M PHARM – PHARMACOGNOSY SEM 2
  • 2. Contents 1. Fundamendal concepts of Traditional Medicine • Ayurveda • Siddha • Unani • Homeopathy 2. Ayurveda – Pharmacopoiea, Analysis of formulations 3. Siddha – Gunapadam, Types of medicines, Purification
  • 3. FUNDAMENDAL CONCEPTS OF INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE The Indian systems of medicine include all the non-allopathic systems of medicine excluding Homeopathy. For example, Aryurved, Sidha, Unani, Yoga and Naturopathy. 1. AYURVEDA Ayurveda treatment starts with an internal purification process, followed by a special diet, herbal remedies, massage therapy, yoga, and meditation. According to ancient Indian philosophy, the universe is composed of five basic elements or pancha bhutas, PRITHVI (earth), JAL (water), TEJA (fire), VAYU (air) and AKASH (space). The Pancha Bhuta theory and the human body: The human body is in a state of continuous flux or dynamic equilibrium. The pancha bhutas are represented in the human body as the doshas, dhatus and malas.
  • 4. There are three doshas in the body. They are Vata, Pitta and Kapha. There are direct equivalents for these three doshas, known as Tridoshas. • The factors responsible for movement and sensation in a single cell/whole body are the representatives of Vata; it explains the entire biological phenomena that are controlled by the functions of central and autonomous nervous system. • The factors responsible for digestion, metabolism, tissue building, heat production, blood pigmentation, activities of the endocrine glands and energy are the representatives of Pitta. • The factors respon-sible for strengthening the stomach and the joints, providing firmness to the limbs, and refreshing the sense organs are the representatives of Kapha.
  • 5. • There are some special areas in the body in which each dosha predominates, namely, the chest for kapha, digestive organs for pitta and the large intestine for vata • Diagnosis: In Ayurveda implies a moment-to-moment moni-toring of the interaction between order (health) and disorder (disease). The disease process is a reaction between the bodily humours (doshas) and tissues (dhatus) and is influenced by the environment.
  • 6. Treatment: Ayurvedic therapy often begins with shodhana (cleansing) in which toxins, emotional or physical, are eliminated or neutralized. Once shodhana is completed, shamana (palliative treatment) is used to reduce the intensity of a disease and balance the disordered doshas. Finally, rasayana (rejuvenation therapy) is used to maintain health and reduce the negative effects of disease. In Ayurveda, vegetable, animal, mineral substances or metals could be used for their healing effects. The metals mentioned as drugs were gold, silver, copper, lead, tin and iron. Along with these substances elements from the earth, like arsenic, antimony, sand and lime, were also used
  • 7. 2.SIDDHA Siddha medicine, traditional system of healing that originated in South India and is considered to be one of India’s oldest systems of medicine. Siddha medicine appears as part of Tamil culture in the earliest Tamil writings by 18 Siddhars The five elements (bhutas) are present in every substance, but in different proportions. Earth, water, fire, air and ether are manifestations of five elements. Munn (solid), Neer (fluid), Thee (radiance), Vayu (gas) and Aakasam (ether). The physiological function in the body is mediated by three substances (dravyas), which are made up of the five elements. They are Vatham, Pitham and Kapam. In each and every cell of the body these three doshas coexist and function harmoniously. The tissues are called dhatus.
  • 8. Vatham is formed by aakasam and vayu. Vatham controls the nervous actions such as movement, sensation, etc. Pitham is formed by thee and controls the metabolic activity of the body, digestion, assimilation and warmth, etc. Kapam is formed by munn and neer and controls stability. When their equilibrium is upset, disease sets in. Treatment: The treatments for the imbalance of the Tridoshas are made up of the five elements. The drugs are made up of the five elements. By substituting a drug of the same constituents (guna), the equilibrium is restored. The correction of the imbalance is made by substituting the drug, which is pre-dominately of the opposite nature.
  • 9. 3. UNANI This system of medicine originated in Greece, but was brought to India by Arabs and Persians. Unani medicine is based on the Greece philosophy. According to Basic Principles of Unani, the body is made up of the four basic elements, i.e. Earth, Air, Water and Fire, which have different Temperaments, i.e. Cold, Hot, Wet and Dry. After mixing and interaction of four ele-ments, a new compound having new temperament comes into existence, i.e. Hot Wet, Hot Dry, Cold Wet and Cold Dry. The body has the simple and compound organs, which got their nourishment through four humours, i.e. blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
  • 10. Health is a state of body in which there is equilibrium in the humours and functions of the body are normal in accordance to its own temperament and the environment. When the equilibrium of the humours is disturbed and functions of the body are normal in accordance to its own temperament (activities) and the environment. Diagnosis: Diseases are mainly diagnosed with the help of pulse (nabz), physical examination of the urine and stool. Also, patients are examined systematically to make the diagnosis easy as spot diagnosis with the help of simple, modern gadgets. Treatment: 1. Ilajbil Tadbeer (Regimental Therapy): Some drugless regimens are advised for the treatment of certain ailments, i.e. exercise, massage, hamam (Turkish bath), Douches (Cold and Hot) and the Regimen for Geriatrics.
  • 11. 2. Ilajbil Ghiza (Dietotherapy): Different diets are recom-mended for the patients of different diseases. 3. Ilajbil Dava (Pharmaco therapy): The basic concept of treatment is to correct the cause of the disease that may be abnormal temperament due to, • Envirnmental factors • Abnormal humours either due to internal causes or external causes which may be pathogenic microorganism, through (a) drugs of opposite temperament to the temperament of the disease that is called Ilaj-bil-zid (b) drugs of similar temperament as of the temperament of the disease that is called as Ilaj-bil-misl
  • 12. • 4. Ilajbil Yad (Surgery): The drugs used are mostly of the plant origin. Some drugs of animal and mineral origin are also used. Patients are treated either by single drug (crude drugs) or by com-pound drugs (formulations of single drugs). 4. HOMEOPATHY Homois means like (similar) and pathos means treatment. Thus, Homoeopathy is a system of treating diseases or suffering by the administration of drugs that possess power of producing similar suffering (diseases) in healthy human beings. Every science has certain basic principles that guide the whole system. Homoeopathy as a science of medical treat-ment has a philosophy of its own, and its therapeutics is based on certain fundamental principles that are quite distinct and different from those of other school of medical science
  • 13. They are as follows: 1. Law of Similia 2. Law of Simplex 3. Law of minimum 4. Drug proving 5. Drug dynamization or potentization 6. Vital force 7. Acute and Chronic Diseases 8. Individualization 9. Direction of cure.
  • 14. The main principles are, Law of similia: The therapeutic law on which homoeopathy is based is Simillia Similibus Curentur, which means ‘Let likes be cured by likes’. In this art of healing, the medicine administered to a diseased individual is such that if given to a healthy person it produces same sufferings (diseases) as found in the diseases individual. Thus, the symptoms of the diseased individual are to be matched with the pathogenesis of the medicine, and the medicines which are most similar, viz. Simillimum is selected and administered with certainty to cure. Law of simplex: Simple and single drugs should be prescribed at a time. Thus, medicines are proved on healthy human beings singly and in simple form without admixture of any other substance.
  • 15. Law of minimum: Drugs are administered in a minimum quantity because of hypersensitivity in disease and the action of drug is always directed towards normal by virtue of altered receptivity of tissue to stimuli in disease. The medicines are just required to arouse a reaction in the body. If they are given in large doses, they cause physiological action producing unwanted side effects and organic damage. The minutest quantity of medicine helps it to reach the disease, which is of very subtle in nature. The curative action of drug can only be expected without any unwanted aggravation by using minimum quantity of medicine.
  • 16. Different dosage forms of Indian System of Medicine 1. Churna (Powders): Churna refers to powdered herbal formulations. Ayurvedic herbs and minerals are finely ground and mixed to create specific formulas. Churna can be taken orally with water or honey. 2. Vati (Tablets): Vati are Ayurvedic tablets made by compressing powdered herbs and minerals into tablet form. Vati may contain a single herb or a combination of herbs. They are convenient to use and often used for various health conditions. 3. Kashaya (Decoctions): Kashaya is a liquid dosage form made by boiling herbs in water and reducing it to a concentrated decoction. Kashaya is typically consumed orally and is known for its potent medicinal properties.
  • 17. 4. Avaleha/Leha (Herbal Jams): Avaleha, also known as leha or herbal jams, are prepared by cooking herbs with jaggery, honey, ghee (clarified butter), and other ingredients. Avaleha is a semi-solid formulation that is sweet and palatable. 5. Arishta (Herbal Fermented Liquids): Arishta is a fermented liquid preparation made by fermenting herbs, water, and sugar or jaggery. It is allowed to undergo a natural fermentation process, resulting in an alcoholic preparation. Arishta is commonly used for various ailments. 6. Asava (Herbal Infusions): Asava is similar to arishta but is non-alcoholic. It is prepared by fermenting herbs, water, and honey or sugar. Asava is known for its rejuvenating and therapeutic properties.
  • 18. 7. Ghrita (Medicated Ghee): Ghrita refers to medicated ghee, which is clarified butter infused with various herbs. Ghrita is widely used in Ayurvedic formulations due to its ability to carry medicinal properties deep into the tissues of the body. 8. Taila (Medicated Oils): Taila denotes medicated oils used for external application or internal consumption. These oils are prepared by processing herbs with a base oil, such as sesame oil or coconut oil. Taila is widely used in Ayurvedic massage therapies and treatments. 9. Choorna – External (Herbal Dusting Powders): Choorna refers to mixture of powders used for external applications. These powders are prepared by grinding specific herbs into a fine powder and are often used to promote wound healing and manage skin conditions.
  • 19. 10. Lepa (Herbal Paste): Lepa is a herbal paste made by grinding herbs into a fine powder and mixing it with water, oils, or other liquids. Lepa is applied externally as a poultice or paste for various skin conditions. Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) is a unique book of standards describing the quality, purity and strength of selected drugs that are manufactured, distributed, and sold by the licensed manufacturers in India. It is developed in two parts; The part one comprises of mono- monographs of medicinal substances of natural origin and part two includes selected compound formulations sourced from the schedule - I books under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 comprising of popular Ayurvedic formulations of different period of times.
  • 20. The first part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India was published in 1978 and thereafter, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (mono- monograph) Part-I, Vol. I was published in the year 1989 and subsequently, the other volumes were published with their legalized status under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Analysis of formulations and bio crude drugs The herbal formulation, in general,can be standardizedschematically as to formulate the medicament using raw materials collected from different localities and a comparative chemical efficacy of different batches of formulationare to be observed.
  • 21. The preparations with better clinical efficacy are to be selected. After all the routine physical, chemical and pharmacological parameters are to be checked for all the batches to select the final finished product and to validate the whole manufacturing process. The stability parameters for the herbal formulations which include physical, chemical and microbiological parameters are as follows: Physical parameters include color, odor, appearance, clarity, viscosity, moisture content, pH, disintegration time, friability, hardness, flowability, flocculation, sedimentation, settling rate and ash values. Chemical parameters include limit tests, chemical tests, chemical assays etc.Chromatographic analysisof herbals can be done using TLC, HPLC, HPTLC, GC, UV, GC-MS and fluorimetry etc.
  • 22. Microbiological parameters include total viable content, total mold count, total entero bacterial and their count. Limiters can be utilized as a quantitative or semi-quantitative tool to ascertain and control a number of impurities like the reagents used during abstraction of various herbs, impurities coming directly from the manufacturing vessels and from the solvents, etc Siddha Pharmacology (Gunapadam) Siddha pharmacology deals with the detailed study of Siddha drugs. Siddha pharmacology is based on the concept of five basic elements (Panchabhutam) and taste (Suvai) of the drug. Innumerable varieties of medicinal plants, minerals and animal products have been mentioned in Siddha literature.
  • 23. This branch of Siddha medicine describes about Raw drugs (Moolaporutkal), Purification of raw drugs (Suddhi) and methods of preparation of medicines (Marunthugalin Seyalmurai). Based on their origin, raw drugs are categorized as materials of medicinal plant, mineral and animal origin. 1. Uppu (Lavanam): Drugs that dissolve in water and decrepitated when put into fire giving off vapours (water soluble inorganic compounds). There are 25 varieties and are called kara-charam, salts and alkalis. 2. Pashanam: Drugs that do not dissolve in water but give off vapour when put into fire (water insoluble inorganic compounds). 3. Uparasam: Drugs that do not dissolve in water (chemi-cals similar to Pashanam but differing in their actions) such as mica, magnetic iron, antimony, zinc sulphate, iron pyrites, ferrous sulphate.
  • 24. 4. Loham: Metals and minerals alloys (water insoluble, melt in fire, solidify on cooling) such as gold, silver copper, iron, tin and lead. 5. Rasam: Drugs that are soluble (sublime when put in fire, and changes into small crystals), such as mercury amalgams and compounds of mercury, arsenic. 6. Gandhakam: Sulphur insoluble in water, burns off when put into fire. 7. Ratnas and uparatnas: Thirteen varieties are described, such as coral, lapis-lazuli, pearls, diamonds, jade, emerald, ruby, sapphire, opal, vaikrantham, rajavantham, spatikam harin mani.
  • 25. Drugs of Herbal Origin – Moolikai (Raw drugs) Among the 6000 species of medicinal plants documented and published in medical and ethno-botanical literatures in India, 750 species are commonly used in Siddha. Raw drugs obtained from plant kingdom are used not only in herbal preparations but also in Siddha preparations involving minerals and substances of animal origin. A number of medicinal plants, traditionally used for over 1000 years named rasayana are present in herbal preparations of Indian traditional health care systems. In Indian systems of medicine most practitioners formulate and dispense their own recipes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world.
  • 26. Drugs of Mineral Origin - Dhathu Siddha literatures describe 220 minerals. They are studied under the following four headings: Metals (11), Salts (25), Mercury and Arsenic compounds (64) and other minerals (120). Sulphur: Calcined sulphur or red oxide of sulphur can be obtained by solidifying it first by the Siddha method of purification. In small doses, it conserves the body, and it is diaphoretic and alterative. Therapeutic ally is used as both external and internal remedy against skin diseases, rheumatic arthritis, asthma, jaundice and blood poisoning. Arsenic: As per Siddha kalpa, purified and consolidated arsenic is effective against all fevers, asthma and anaemia.
  • 27. Gold: It is alterative, nervine tonic, antidote to poison and a powerful sexual stimulant. Very little is absorbed in the system. Care is taken to see that calcinations of gold is freed from metallic state and lustre to ensure safe absorption in the system. Drugs of Animal Origin - Jeevam Raw drugs obtained from animal kingdom are also used in medicinal preparations in Siddha. e.g. Coral, Conch, Horn of deer, Musk, Honey, etc.
  • 28. Purification Process - Suddhi The word “Suddhi” means “to get rid of impurities”. Suddhi is a unique process of detoxification which is employed to purify/detoxify and to potentiate the effect of various kinds of raw drugs used in Siddha formulations with a view to reduce their toxic contents /effects as well as to enhance their therapeutic properties According to Siddha doctrines, everything found in nature is having two qualities, nalvinai (good effect) and thee vinai (bad effect). Similarly the raw drugs also possess two extreme qualities like therapeutic effect, toxic effect. Example : Nabhi (Aconitum ferox), a herbal poisonous rhizome commonly known as aconitum is used extensively in various Siddha formulations, with great therapeutic significance.
  • 29. Nabhi Roots are traditionally used in treatment of Scorpion sting, Snake bite. It has Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Anti periodic, Anodyne, Narcotic and Sedative actions. It contains major toxic alkaloids such as aconitine and pseudoaconitine. Siddha system recommends the administration of Nabhi only after suddhi (purification) in different medias.