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Knowledge Organization | LIS653 | Fall 2017


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Knowledge Organization final class posters for Fall 2017, Dr. C. Pattuelli | Pratt Institute.

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Knowledge Organization | LIS653 | Fall 2017

  1. 1. “Imagine a world in which everyone has free access to the sum of human knowledge in their own language.” - Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia wiki{LAM} wikipedia + wikidata for libraries, archives, & museums 653-01 Knowledge Organization Dr. Cristina Pattuelli • Fall 2017 Emily Sposa, Ursula Romero Sarah Adams, & Kevina Tidwell Image by Pixabay user OpenClipart-Vectors - CC0 Who Should Have the Power Over Knowledge? Who Has the Power Over Knowledge? INSTITUTIONS! “THE PEOPLE”! FORM FUNCTION For full list of references, please scan QR code -> Wikipedian-in-Residence - British Museum - Brooklyn Museum Edit-a-Thon - Interference Archive - Boston University Library Crowdsourcing Content - Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam - German Bundesarchiv Wikipedian + Art Curator Mixers - British Museum Wikipedia as Public Program - State Library of Queensland VIAFbot - OCLC, Wikipedia Wikidata for Digital Preservation - Yale University Improve wikipedia pages by adding verifiable information, bolstering credibility. Link back to institution’s holdings. Increase traffic to institution’s website. Replace incorrect and untrue information. Present expertise in a new format to more users than would visit the institution’s page. Using wikipedia as instruction tool on institution’s holdings. HOW have LAM’s engaged with wikipedia or wikidata? WHY would a LAM engage with wikipedia or wikidata? *a non-exhaustive list How Can We Collaborate?
  2. 2. Classification and Metadata Creation for Stolen, Lost, and Repatriated Objects Drew Facklam, Dana Kautto, Kristen Tivey, and Amelia Bathke Ownership: Concepts and History Laws, Treaties and Conventions: 1863 (Federal Law 100), 1907 (Hague Convention), 1970 (UNESCO Convention), 1990 (NAGPRA) Examples: Elgin Marbles, Kennewick Man Creating Digital Files for Repatriation More museums and art museums rely on creating digital files for their repatriation projects and there are several different methods that museums use: ● Creating a digital file so the group of people can recreate their own copy of an artifact ● Offering the people's access to a virtual tour of the museum in which their artifacts are for education ● Taking 3D scans and creating a replica so the original can be preserved or given back Figure 2. Getty Publications. Figure 1. Elgin Marbles. Getty Images. Figure 3. Killer Whale Hat and its Replica, Smithsonian Museum. Figure 5. Traditional Knowledge Attribution labels used at Plateau Peoples’ Web Portal, Local Contexts. Linked Open Data: Issues of Ownership Art museums are increasingly using LOD to provide linked access to their collections. What effects could this have for issues of ownership?
 ● Collection metadata can be owned by all ● This shared ownership may be unwanted in cases of unjustly owned/displayed art ● A wider audience can better scrutinize issues of art documentation and ownership ● Linking between institutions introduces much-needed conversations regarding complex relationships, including questions of ownership Figure 4. An example of LOD in art museums is American Art Collaborative founded in 2015. Ethically Organizing Knowledge Things to keep in mind in order to responsibly name, catalog, and classify disputed cultural objects: ● Language, assumptions, “best” practices: all up for decolonization ● There is no one, true context—artifacts can have layered histories and meanings ● Subject Headings and Vocabularies were set by biased humans, often long ago ● Awareness & understanding are important, collaboration and action are more impactful An example of a collaborative archive by U.S. institutions & indigenous peoples: Plateau Peoples’ Web Portal at http:// Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO) ● Used by an overwhelming number of institutions while creating internal standards ● Interoperable ● Huge variety in what kind of objects a record can identify ● Consistently uses authority control LIS 653-01: Fall 2017 with Prof. Cristina Pattuelli
  3. 3. Dance Cataloguing and Notation NYPL Dance Division: Library of Congress: Reference: Dance Notation: • Early dance notation was show as with the vertical line to symbolize the spine. This sometimes ran alongside the music to go along with the notes in the score. • In 1928 Rudolf Von Laban published Schrifttanz, a dance script, that has become known as Labanotation (see diagram below) Emma Karin Eriksson, Rose Kernochan, Chelsea Fritz, and Kasey Breien LIS – 653-01 Knowledge Organization Professor Pattuelli Fall 2017 The Dictionary Catalog of the Dance Collection: • I n 1 9 6 4 , N Y P L w a s designated its own division called: Dance Division • In 1965 librarians Dorothy Lourdou & G. Oswald created a cataloging system for their collection. • Created in 1974. • Originally started with 8,000 subject headings. • Eventually grew to 45,000 entries in their authority list. And filled 10 volumes. Dance And RDA: • Rule 25.5B deals with dance in two parts. The first addressing qualifiers to a heading. The second how to address a uniform language. • In November2014 RDA committee decided to adopt the idea that choreographed work falls under authorship Bourassa, D. (2015). Library cataloging reforms and their impact on choreographic works. Dance Chronicle , 38, 233-242. doi: 10.1080/01472526.2015.1042948 Labanotation Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://
  4. 4. 2003 Today 2006 20101998 2004 WWW FOLKSONOMY Is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a URL) for one's own retrieval. The tagging is done in a social environment (shared and open to others). The act of tagging is done by the person consuming the information. FOLKSONOMY • NO HIERARCHY • NO AUTHORITY CONTROL • USER BASED DECISIONS • FLEXIBLE TAXONOMY • HIERARCHY • CONTROLLED VOCABULARY • DECIDED BY AUTHORITY • RIGID • Create Your Own Vocabulary • Publicly Tag Objects • Fluid Organizational Structure • Reflect Current Ways of Thinking • International Collaboration The FOLKSONOMY is dead Long live SOCIAL TAGGING! FOLKSONOMIES ARE GREAT! • Absorbed by Social Tagging • Useful for Information Retrieval • Web Navigation • Metadata Now Being Monetized C. McLaughlin, Robin Miller, and Katie Wolf
  5. 5. Linked Open Data Lindsay Menachemi, Kasey Calnan, Christine Hesch LIS 653-01 Dr. M. Cristina Pattuelli Fall 2017 Sources 1 W3C. (2015). Linked Open Data. Retrieved from /semanticweb/data 2 Berners-Lee, T., Bizer, C., & Heath, T. (2009). Linked Data- The Story So Far. Retrieved November 15, 2017 from 3 Linked Data - Design Issues. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from LinkedData.html. 4 Smith, M. (n.d.). Proposed: a 4-star classification-scheme for linked open cultural metadata. Retrieved December 01, 2017, from classification-scheme-for-linked-open-cultural-metadata/ 5 Voss, J. (2012). Radically Open Cultural Heritage Data on the Web. Retrieved December 01, 2017, from heritage_data_on_the_web Sir Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 Main Principles 1: Name the resource (via URI) 2: Use HTTP URI’s to enable discovery 3: Provide useful information using standards (like RDF) 4: Include links to other URI’s so that people can discover related things Data should be universally identifiable, openly available, and relational. All LOD lives on the Semantic Web. It was originally envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee, the same inventor as the World Wide Web. RDF triples are the common standard used to create LOD. Darth Vader URI IsFatherOf Luke Skywalker URI “Everything that’s good about the web comes from links.” - Raimond & Smethurst, 2009, as cited in Schilling His 5-star system can determine LOD’s effectiveness. Benefits 1: Accessing the METADATA 2: LOD-LAM summit ! Users driven to online content ! New scholarship with open data ! Creation of new Services ! Collaboration between LAM 3: Utilizing data to its fullest potential for the community Challenges 1: Data Fusion & Consistency 2: Trust & Quality 3: Link Maintenance & Reliability 4: Privacy 5: In Libraries, Archives & Museums LODLAM Case Studies Libraries: KCPL & Civil War on the Western Border Archives: LOCAH & Civil War Data 150 Museums: Smithsonian American Art Museum
  6. 6. #Hashtags By Micaela Walker, Hsiu-Man Lin, & Camilla Yohn-Barr # sign incorporated into touchtone phone pad at Bell Laboratories 1963 1988 Internet Relay Chat (IRC) starts using # to identify topics over a computer network Twitter Launches 2006 Aug 2007 First ever use of a hashtag by Google designer Chris Messina #barcamp Nate Ritter uses #sandiegofire to tweet real time info about the fire as a crowdsourcing tool Oct 2007 Hashtag’s function officially incorporated into the Twitter search platform (after rejecting it previously as “too nerdy”) 2009 #nerdsrule 2013 Facebook incorporates hashtags into their search # USED FOR #Emphasizing #Critiquing #Identifying #Iterating #Rallying A post on any searchable internet platform A hashtag can be a command, folksonomy, paralanguage, metadata, facet, advertisement, and/or cultural phenomenon that is used professionally, socially, privately and/or publicly to organize, inform, and communicate. They can be used in conjunction with images, tweets, posts, websites, search engines and blogs, or on their own. They are created by users and can be adopted and adapted by anyone. Social Networks #adulting Institutions #emptymet Companies #howdoyouKFC Movements #blacklivesmatter Knowledge Organization with Professor Pattuelli LIS 653-01 Fall 2017 Sources:, Daer, Hoffman, & Goodman, “Rhetorical Functions of Hashtag Forms Across Social Media Applications,” 2014.Giannoulakis & Tsapatsoulis, “Evaluating the descriptive power of Instagram Hashtags”, 2016. Images, from left: courtesy Creative Commons,,, courtesy 99% Invisible (2), Miriam-Webster (noun) A word or phrase preceded by the symbol (#) that classifies or categorizes the accompanying text (such as a tweet).