• A coalition of libraries could be created to provide most of the books readers would want. • A coalition of foundations, universities, and other nonprofit organizations could be formed to cover the costs. • A central organization could be designed to handle the problems of coordination, processing, and preservation.
Moreover, we can learn from the experience of other countries. Virtually every developed country has launched some kind of national digital library, and many developing countries are doing the same. They have worked through all sorts of problems and have arrived at viable solutions. If they have not come up with one model that fits countries of all sizes, they have demonstrated that the idea of a national digital library can be put into practice. It is not just true but tried.Here at Harvard, we have conducted a preliminary survey of the projects underway in other nations. We have even located an incipient NDL in Mongolia. The Dutch are now digitizing every Dutch book, pamphlet, and newspaper produced from 1470 to the present. President Sarkozy of France announced last November that he would make f750 million available to digitize the nation’s cultural “patrimony.” And the Japanese Diet voted 12.6 billion yen for a two-year crash program to digitize their entire national library. If the Netherlands, France, and Japan can do it, why can’t the United States?
No one has done more to push the idea of DPLA into the public consciousness than Darnton, who has written numerous articles, testified before both houses of Congress, and sought both public and private support to bring this idea into fruition.
The combination of business models and mechanisms required to support a successful effort is likely to be complicated and varied, reflecting substantial differences in the primary missions of the participating institutions. How much the effort costs will depend on both technical and organizational needs; this workstream will consider these aspects simultaneously to ensure that there is a sustainable model for the DPLA. Philanthropy will be a good starting point, but the effort must have a business model and a means of drawing on core funding from libraries and governments in order to get to scale. New models for working with publishers will be a component of this project.
The DPLA must be as broad, open, and non-partisan as possible. Suggestions that have already been raised include a federated model similar to the Internet Engineering Task Force, a lightweight coalition, a government commission, a new 501(c)(3), or a grafting the system onto a pre-existing structure, such as the Library of Congress or the American Library Association. Questions to address include how best to create coherence out of diversity by erecting one virtual library out of a multiplicity of collections and to which common practices the DPLA should adhere.
It will confront issues such as digital lending, orphan works, international works, metadata ownership, strategies for tiered access, and how to deal with vendors and materials under various kinds of restrictions. Questions to address include how best to achieve what is possible in the current copyright environment while considering a package of legal reforms — including model legislation — that will help achieve more in the future. Major issues include the doctrine of first sale in a digital era and orphan works.
This work is well underway: efforts began in May 2011 with a meeting on Linked Open Data, followed by a Beta Sprint seeking public input on potential models, which drew more than 60 statements of interest. In June, technical workshop participants drafted a set of key principles for all DPLA technical development. The workstream will determine best practices for state of the art digitization of a wide range of materials. In cooperation with the Content and Scope workstream, it will identify collections to be digitized and will determine costs of doing so at scale. Questions to address include standards, interfaces, APIs, and other technical aspects of digitized content for public usage; and how to improve digital access to books, including eBooks, and other forms of content. Major issues include how best to create a generative DPLA that will provide for the creation of as-yet-unknown forms of use and access.
In September 2011, an independent review panel appointed by the DPLA Steering Committee reviewed the betas. Based on the panel’s recommendations, the Steering Committee invited creators of the most promising betas to present their ideas during the first plenary meeting, in October 2011. These betas are:Digital Collaboration for America’s National CollectionsDLF/DCC: DPLA Beta SprintextraMUROSGovernment Publications: Enhanced Access and Discovery throughOpen Linked Data and CrowdsourcingMetadata Interoperability ServicesShelfLife and LibraryCloudThree additional betas that may serve as useful additions to the DPLA’s initial technical foundation were also invited to present:BookwormDPLA Collection Achievements & Profiles SystemWikiCite—A Universal Citation Platform
Digital Public Library of America
DIGITAL PUBLIC LIBRARY of AMERICA Maine Shared Collections Strategy February 24, 2012
DPLA Knowledge is the common property of mankind. He who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening me. • Thomas Jefferson
DPLA The art of printing…diffuses so general a light…that all the window shutters despotism and priestcraft can oppose to keep it out, prove insufficient. Benjamin Franklin
DPLACOPYRIGHT NOTICE attached to recent electronic edition:Copy: No text selections can be copied fromthe book to the clipboard….Lend: This book cannot be lent to someone else.Give: This book cannot be given to someone else.Read aloud: This book cannot be read aloud.--taken from Lewis Hyde, Common as Air: Revolution, Art, and Ownership, FSG 2010Previous quotes from NYRBlog by Robert Darnton 10/4/10—based on a talk given at theopening of an off-the-record conference at Harvard on Oct 1, 2010 to discuss thepossibility of creating a National Digital Library.
DPLA a comprehensive library of digitized works that willbe easily accessible to the general public.DIGITAL PUBLIC LIBRARY OF AMERICA• large-scale digital public library that will make the cultural and scientific record available to all.• a ‘distributed system,’….it won’t be one big database, but a system of linked databases scattered all over the United States in a way to make them perfectly compatible….
DPLAThe Digital Public Library of America, an organization dedicated to building a large-scale digital public library that will make the cultural and scientific record available to all.
DPLA to make as much of the learning and cultural patrimony of the United States inthe humanities, the sciences, the social sciences, and other areas of knowledge free andaccessible … FIRST OBJECTIVEBegin with works in the Public Domain (usually those published before 1923)• Library of Congress (committed)• National Archive (committed)• Major Research Libraries (some committed)• Hathi Trust• Internet Archive• Other digitized collections
DPLA Collections Suggested as Possible Candidates for Inclusion in a Digital Public Library of America Already digitizedAmazon National Digital Newspaper programARTStor NYPL Digital GalleryCursor books Opening History (UIUC)Europeana and/or non‐U.S. Overdrivepublic domain collections Oxford University PressFlickr Commons Project Gutenberg (other public domainGoogle Book Search e‐book sites)Hathi Trust Public Library of Science (PLoS)Humanities e‐book project Smithsonian commonsInternet Archive State digital libraries (Texas, California,JSTOR North Carolina, Massachusetts)MIT Press (university State Historical Societiespresses) University Press e‐book consortiumMountain West DigitalLibrary
DPLA Collections Suggested as Possible Candidates for Inclusion in a Digital Public Library of America Content digitized with federal funding a. Cultural organizations • Library of Congress • National Archives • Smithsonian Institution b. Grant making agencies • Institute of Museum and Library Services • National Endowment for the Humanities • National Science Federation
DPLA SECOND OBJECTIVEThe next objective of DPLA is to digitize the vast bulk of cultural works that are still in copyright — but long out of print.
DPLA STEERING COMMITTEE• Paul Courant Harold T. Shapiro Professor of Public Policy and Dean of Libraries at the University of Michigan• Robert Darnton Carl H. Pforzheimer University Professor and Director of the Harvard University Library• Carla Hayden Chief Executive Officer of the Enoch Pratt Free Library (Baltimore, Maryland)• Charles Henry President of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR)• Luis Herrera City Librarian for the City and County of San Francisco• Susan Hildreth Director of the Institute for Museum and Library Services• Brewster Kahle Founder of the Internet Archive• Michael A. Keller Ida M. Green University Librarian, Director of Academic Information Resources at Stanford University• Carl Malamud President, Public.Resource.Org• Deanna Marcum Associate Librarian for Library Services at the Library of Congress• Maura Marx Director, DPLA Secretariat; Berkman Center Fellow; Executive Director, Open Knowledge Commons• Jerome McGann John Stewart Bryan University Professor at the University of Virginia• Dwight McInvaill Director of the Georgetown County Library (South Carolina)• John Palfrey (Chair) Faculty Co-Director at the Berkman Center; Henry N. Ess III Professor of Law and Vice Dean of Library and Information Resources at Harvard Law School• Peggy Rudd Director and Librarian of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission• Amy E. Ryan President of the Boston Public Library• Doron Weber (Vice Chair) Vice President, Programs at the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
DPLA FUNDINGThe Sloan Foundation and Arcadia Fund $5 million in funding for an intense two- year grassroots process to build a realistic and detailed workplan for a national digital library
ELEMENTS OF THE DPLACodeCode is the technical backbone of the DPLA. Where possible, the DPLA will make use of existing free and open source code; all new code funded by the DPLA will be free and open source.
ELEMENTS OF DPLAMetadataMetadata is a key part of the DPLA discovery framework; it describes content and resources in the DPLA, enables users to find them, and connects US holdings to holdings in other countries.
ELEMENTS OF DPLAContentThe DPLA will• incorporate all media types and formats• begin with works in the public domain that have already been digitized and are accessible through other initiatives.• Further material will be added incrementally starting with orphan works and materials that are in copyright but out-of-print.• The DPLA will also explore models for digital lending of in-copyright materials.
ELEMENTS OF DPLATools and ServicesThe DPLA will provide a number of tools and services designed to provide enhanced use of content. There will also be tools to facilitate digitization of and broad public access to content. The DPLA platform will be generative and open to public innovation to facilitate new discovery, encourage new kinds of questions, and enable the creation of new tools and services, including social sharing and networking services, research tools, and as-yet unforeseen applications.
ELEMENTS OF DPLACommunityThe DPLA will be designed as a participatory platform that facilitates the involvement of the public in all aspects of its design, development, deployment, maintenance, and support. The DPLA will actively support the community of users and developers that want to reuse and extend its content, data, and metadata.
WORKSTREAM (Committees) – DPLAThe Audience & Participation workstream will collaborate with each of the other workstreams to ensure that the DPLA effort considers, anticipates, and incorporates, to the extent possible, the current and future needs of the broadest possible user group.
WORKSTREAM – DPLAThe Content & Scope workstreamwill identify a collection development policy by confronting questions regarding management of and access to distributed materials, research, and data curation.will collect data concerning how many books and other materials exist in US libraries and their copyright status, and conduct analyses of already-digitized collections in the US and abroad.will also work with the Technical Aspects workstream to recommend guidelines on bibliographic data, metadata, interoperability, and international cooperation.
WORKSTREAM – DPLAThe Financial/Business Models workstream will make recommendations for a sustainable business plan. Any effort to greatly increase the scope of public access to digital resources will require partnerships among many entities, public and private, including government institutions, foundations, libraries (public, academic, and special-purpose), and publishers, both for-profit and non-profit.
WORKSTREAM -- DPLAThe Governance workstream will define a system of decision making and management for the DPLA.
WORKSTREAM -- DPLAThe Legal Issues workstream will make recommendations regarding how to approach and influence the legal and copyright environment in order to support equitable knowledge distribution in a digital world.
WORKSTREAM -- DPLAThe Technical Aspects workstream will make decisions regarding technology to be used in the DPLA and will advise development of the DPLA prototype.
DPLA -- TIMELINEOctober 2010 -- meeting at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced StudyDecember 2010 – Sloan Foundation and Arcadia Fund AwardMay 2011 -- Beta Sprint announced to seek ideas and models that demonstrate how to index and provide access to a wide range of broadly distributed content
TIMELINE -- DPLASeptember 2011-- an independent review panel reviewed the beta sprint projectsOctober 21, 2011 – DPLA Plenary MeetingOctober 21, 2011 -- association between the DPLA and Europeana announcedApril 27, 2012 -- DPLA WestApril 2013 – Some version of DPLA running
DPLA -- PROWe believe that a significant amount of cultural heritage content is already published in digital form on the Web, but is largely hidden and poorly discoverable by the general public. In this context, we think that the DPLA initiative is well positioned to act as a catalyst to virtually move large amounts of this content from the invisible Web, to the visible and interoperable Web.
DPLA -- CONWhat astounds me is that libraries seem to fail to realize that the realization of a so- called "National Digital Library" would effectively put most libraries out of business and most librarians out of work. If all US works were available online from one central US location, why, exactly, would current library patrons need their local library? Why would they vote to fund it, or contribute money or books to it?
DPLA -- CONShould the Digital Public Library of America protect public libraries’ franchise and branding by dropping the “Public” from the DPLA’s name? Some say, ―Most emphatically.”
DPLA The Digital Public Library of America doesnt exist yet, but its closer to becoming a reality.