applications of rs and gis in solid waste management
With rapid urbanization and ever increasing population
growth there has been a substantial increase in the
generation of solid waste & contamination of air, water
and land resources.
The solid wastes from different municipalities, not
managed properly, have been creating problems for
human health and environment.
Some of the solid wastes have been proved to be
extremely toxic and infectious.
The uncontrolled dumping of such wastes have not only
brought about increasing number of incidents of health
hazard but also causing the surface and ground water
contamination and thus posing serious environmental
threat to the human being.
The present study would deal with, how
Geographical Information System (GIS)
and Remote sensing techniques can be
used as a decision support tool for
planning waste management.
Source of information
The Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation ward
boundary map from Town Planning Department of
Assessment of the existing solid waste management
system in the study area through interview with the
employee working with waste management, survey
conducted through the questionnaire to the case study
Survey Of India Toposheet of the Study Area
The other various information was collected through
The efficiency of solid waste disposal depends
upon selection of proper site and there are
several issues that have impacts for site
The two main reasons for undertaking the
present study are rapid growth in population
and urban sprawl leading to an increase in the
amount of waste generated.
The scope of the work is to use the latest
techniques of GIS and Remote Sensing to select
a favorable site for solid waste disposal in urban
area like Visakhapatnam.
To study the existing system of storage, collection,
transportation, treatment and disposal of MSW in the
Study Area, Visakhapatnam City.
Quantitative assessment of solid wastes generated
from different sectors in the study area.
To create spatial digital database consisting of base
map, land use/ land cover, drainage, road network
maps with the help of merged product of LISS III &
PAN of IRS-1D, SOI toposheets and ground data on
ARC/INFO GIS platform.
To select a site where the greatest protection of
environment is provided using the latest techniques of
GIS and Remote Sensing
The present study entitled “USE OF GIS
IN IDENTIFICATION OF SUITABLE SITE
FOR LANDFILL IN VISAKHAPATNAM” was
carried out in Visakhapatnam, “the city of
LAND USE DETAILS OF VISAKHAPATNAM CITY
Percentage to total
Public and Semi-Public
CHART SHOWING LANDUSE DETAILS
OF VISAKHAPATNAM CITY
Land Use Of Visakhpatnam City
Public & SemiVacant Land, 5%
Restricted Area, 2%
Water Courses, 2%
Public & Semi-Public
Industrial , 2%
Contribution of GIS in SWM
There are several phases in solid waste
management, right from the stage where
it is generated till it reaches its final
destination or at a stage where it is no
more a threat to the environment.
It is observed that solid waste
management can be bifurcated into mainly
One is the waste management in the area
where it is generated and second is the
management of waste at dumping
GIS could help in dealing with several
factors simultaneously which needs to be
considered while planning waste
“GIS is a system of computer hardware
and software, designed to allow users to
collect, manage, analyse and retrieve
large volume of spatially referenced data
and associated attribute data collected
from a variety of sources.”
Thus, the purpose of this paper is to
demonstrate the use of GIS and remote
sensing techniques to identify appropriate
areas which are suitable for reasonable,
convenient, and administratively
transparent waste-disposal siting in
Solid waste Managem ent
W aste handling, S eperation
S torag e
Tran sfer and tran sport
WASTE GENERATION –
(raw material, products, solid waste)
OUT FLOW: Materials, products, Solid wastes,
Combustion gases and ashes
Handling of solid waste until they are
placed in the containers used for their
storage before collection
Domestic Solid Waste
Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste
a) Types of containers
b) Container location
c) Public Health & aesthetics
d) Collection method
a) Recover usable material : Manual sorting
b) Reduce the volume
c) Alter the physical form
Providing the system of waste storage on
the road side the major activity Primary
Waste Storage facilities are made available
by GVMC along streets and near
commercial complexes. In addition,
shopkeepers at a few commercial
complexes provide bins for public use.
GVMC has about 598 dumper placer
container for storage of waste
DISTRIBUTION OF DUMPER PLACER
CONTAINERS BY ZONE
Collection and transportation
Primary Waste Collection
Primary waste collection is the important essential step
of solid waste management activity. Primary collection
system is necessary to ensure that the waste stored at
source is collected regularly and it is not disposed of on
the streets, drains, water bodies, etc.
The collection of solid waste from the door to door
households, shops, and establishment is called primary
collection. GVMC has provided Pushcarts (6 tubs),
Tricycles to collect the solid waste from the households,
commercial establishments etc
collection of solid waste for the second time,
i.e. from community collection points,
prior to its transport (often as part of a
collection round by larger vehicles) to a
transfer station, treatment facility or
Transportation of waste stored at waste storage depots
at regular intervals is essential. The collection and
transportation of waste is practiced on all the days of the
year including the public holidays. In GVMC, waste
stored in open spaces is either loaded manually or with
the help of loaders in trucks.
The vehicles involved in the solid waste
transportation in Visakhapatnam include dumper placers,
tractors, mini vans, tippers (big & small). Dumper
placers will carry the bin and unload the waste at the
transfer station and will perform on an average of 12
trips per day. Mini tippers transport the waste from the
open secondary collection points to transfer stations.
VEHICLE S AVAILABLE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MSW IN
Types of Vehicles
Dumper Placer Vehicle
Dead Body Van
Vehicles at Disposal Site
Being Visakhapatnam is the big city and waste generation is more
and the disposal site is far from the city, transfer station is
established to transfer the waste from dumper placers and trucks.
The transfer station is located at town road. The collection vehicle
like dumper placers, tippers and tractors will pick up the waste from
the secondary open collection points and dumper bins and transfer
the waste directly in transfer stations.
A ramp facility is also provided to facilitate unloading of vehicles or
dumper placer containers, directly into large containers at transfer
Waste is weighed at Weigh Bridge at the entrance gate, a record is
being maintained for in time, out time, weight of the solid waste
disposing in to the transfer station and vehicle number. The big
tipper (20 ton capacity) transport the waste to disposal site located
at Kapuluppada which is 25kms away from the city.
DISPOSAL OF WASTE
Currently, the city disposes all of their waste at a Kapuluppada
disposal site. This site is operating for the last 5 years with 100
3 JCB and 1 bulldozer are employed at GVMC for solid waste
management, including the operation of the waste disposal site.
The existing waste disposal site is a dumpsite with no leachate
collection and treatment system and does not meet the current
requirements of the MSW 2000 Rules.
Open burning of waste, indiscriminate disposal, presence of stray
animal & rag pickers at the disposal site and leachate migration into
the river are common occurrences.
Composting: The controlled biological
decomposition of organic matter, such as
food and yard wastes, into humus, a soillike material.
Composting is nature's way of recycling
organic wastes into new soil
BENEFITS OF COMPOSTING
Keeps organic wastes out of landfills.
Provides nutrients to the soil.
Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g.,
Suppresses certain plant diseases.
Reduces the need for fertilizers and
Protects soils from erosion.
Assists pollution remediation.
Solid Waste Site Selection
A number of essential factors are considered in
locating landfill sites. Such factors include both
physical and social environments.
The essential factors: Topography, Climate,
Surface and Ground Water Hydrology, Geology,
Cover material (Land Cover), and Land Uses.
Due to data constraints, we used Topography,
Surface hydrology, Existing settlements,
Sensitive area and Land development (Roads
etc.) of the area as guides to site selection.
Must not be located within 160 meters of a wetland
Must not be located within 160 meters of a sensitive
Must not be located within 200 meters of an existing
Must not be located within 1000 meters of an existing
Must be located within 300 meters of major road.
No landfill should be constructed within critical habitat
No landfill should be constructed within 3048 m(10,000
ft) of any airport.
Not be located on or within 500 m of sites of historic
Process by which residual solid waste is placed in a
Biological, chemical, and physical processes that occur in
the surface of the soil are used to treat the
biodegradable industrial wastes
DEEP WELL INJECTION
Injection of the wastes deep in the ground into
permeable rock formation or underground caverns.
WASTE DISPOSAL- LANDFILL
LAND FILLING involves the controlled
disposal of solid waste on or in the upper
layer of the earth’s mantle.
TYPES OF LANDFILLS
WASTE DISPOSAL- LANDFILL
CELL is used to describe the volume of material
placed in a landfill during one operating period,
usually one day
LIFT a complete layer of cells over the active
area of the landfill
Municipal Solid Waste
Fills for gas production
Excavated Cell or Trench method
Area or Mound method
Excavated Cell or Trench Method
Suitable to areas where:
Adequate depth of cover material is
available at the site
The water table is not near the surface
Typical trench: 60 to 300 m x 5 to 20 m x
1 m; SS: 1.5 to 2:1
Canyon or Depression Method
When canyons, dry borrow pits, quarries,
mine pits or holes, natural depressions
Cost of surface drainage
Availability and haul distances of the cover
Types of wastes handled
Evaluation of seepage potential
Drainage and seepage control facilities
Leachate management plan
Gas collection system
Solid waste filling plan
Development of operation plan
The figure demonstrates the
methodology adopted for the use of GIS in
identification of landfill in the study area.
The flow of the model indicates the
different steps carried in the methodology.