Master plan for Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India

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This presentation gives the Master Plan for Solid Waste Management in India. Starting from an overview of the current Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, the financial capital of India, it goes on to details of the Plan. It is backed by robust sustainability assessment. It attempts to guide policy makers, professionals and volunteers in the field, of the possibilities in terms of implementable solutions towards realizing the Vision 2023, as envisaged in the presentation.

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Master plan for Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management Master Plan for Mumbai, India Vision 2023 BY PRATIMA PANDEY & ARINDAM CHAKRABORTY JANUARY 11, 2014 Towards completion of ‘Online Course On Solid Waste Management’ UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
  2. 2. Contents of the Presentation About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  3. 3. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  4. 4. Mumbai Capital of Maharashtra state of India; was called „Bombay‟ till November 1995 Mumbai Metropolitan Greater Region (MMR) Area: 437.71 Sq Mumbai - India‟s most Km; Most consists of populous at dense city in „Island city‟ 18.4 Million the world with and Suburbs consists of 7 28,000 per population of areas including sq.km c b 12.4 Million Greater Mumbai Contd.
  5. 5. Mumbai 41.3% of total Urban households live in „Slums‟ d Governed by municipal corporation called the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM, hereafter) or Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) Climate – Moderately hot, humid almost throughout the year Contd.
  6. 6. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  7. 7. “ „Maximum city‟… Minimum Waste Management?” At source During • Low service coverage • Littering, open burning • No source segregation or treatment • Open and over-burdened dumpsites (esp. Deonar and processing Mulund) • No formal recovery & recycling Top to bottom • Long-term planning not apparent • Lack of communication & transparency between MCGM and public • Public Apathy
  8. 8. Waste in the City… “Municipal solid waste" includes commercial and residential wastes generated in a municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes” f Chart: Typical Current Waste Composition e Municipal Solid waste generation: 7000 Tons Per Day (TPD); expected to go upto 10,000 TPD by 2025 c
  9. 9. Waste Management in the City…  Collection  Beat system of sweeping; area assigned to a pair of sweepers g  Frequency generally once a day  83% served by community bin collection system and 15% by door to door collection g  35,000 personnel employed and fleet of 800 vehicles h g Slum Adoption Scheme g: • Honorarium to CommunityBased Organizations (CBOs) to lead slum-cleaning; authorized to collect small amounts per household in lieu of services provided Advanced Locality Management (ALM) g – • Street communities interact with Ward officers for civic issues including waste management
  10. 10. Waste Management in the City… Highlights of Informal Recycling: •Door-to-door waste collectors, street and dumpsite rag pickers, or the roaming waste dealers j •Dharavi slum, one of the largest slums of the world, a „recycling hub‟ k
  11. 11. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  12. 12. Master Plan Vision 2023 for Mumbai City “A clean city which focuses on both waste reduction & waste recovery on the strength of collaboration between all major primarily citizens & administration…” stakeholders,
  13. 13. Master Plan Stakeholders Limitations MCGM Low Community Awareness Non-satisfactory record of law implementation Private sector Public Land a limiting resource Limited finances for costly technology Complicated sharing of finance and land with neighboring municipal corporations NGOs, ALMs Private collectors Wastepickers NGO –Non-governmental Organisation
  14. 14. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  15. 15. Master Plan – Waste Collection  Increase service coverage to 100% from current 71% A  Door-to-door collection - Current 11% to 23% to 50% in 5 yr span  Waste collection in MOST slums (40% of the city‟s households) be under coverage  Public Awareness campaigns Waste reduction at source  Use of collection bins  „Littering is a punishable offence‟ with penalty of $10 from 7th year onwards  Increase ‘segregation at source’ by 20% - to fulfill source composting (8%) & recycling targets (12%)  Provision of segregation bins  Awareness among public/Municipal Collection personnel/waste pickers    Need/ways of remunerable segregation Pivotal role played by waste-pickers  Part-time Employment of rag- pickers  Punitive action for non-segregation of waste from 7th year onwards For implementation time frame, please see Table 1
  16. 16. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 100% 75% 71% 60% 53% 50% 23% 11% 2013 100% service coverage 2018 Door to door coverage 2023 Collection bin coverage Chart 2: Comparison of recommended trends of two modes of service coverage towards goal of 100%
  17. 17. Master Plan – Waste Transportation, Processing and Disposal  Waste Transportation  Design transport routes keeping public convenience in view  Arrange modernized, parallel set of vehicles in 5 yr span   Smooth transfer of waste from bins to trucks Manual waste handling to be phased out  Waste Processing & Disposal Sanitary changes to existing Landfill and urgent diversion of waste reaching and sitting in the landfill Sanitary provisions in KanjurMarg (KM) landfill (60 Hectare area) Phase-out other two dumpsites in scientific way (see Timeframe Table) Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) Plant in 6 Hectare of KM For implementation time frame, please see Table 1
  18. 18. Master Plan - Recycling and Recovery 65% of generated waste is organic  Composting (including localized vermi-composting) & Anaerobic digestion (AD)  Contracts of MCGM with private sector to supply compost bins at source; buy compost, biogas, digestate 20% of generated waste is recyclable  Formalizing ‘informal’ recycling  Part-time Employment of rag- pickers  special provisions for Dharavi slum to encourage recycling efforts  Contracts of MCGM with private sector to buy recyclables at market price For implementation time frame, please see Table 1
  19. 19. Implementation Timeframe Targets Daily waste generated (TPD) Service Coverage Segregation at source (%) Public Awareness campaign Collected waste (TPD) 2013 2018 2023 7000 8115 9407 71% 0% 75% 10% 100% 20% ----From 1st to 6th year--5,798 6,412 8,736 On-site composting 0% 14% 25% AD treatment in Mulund 0% 6% 6% Recycling from MBT plant 0% 10% 18% 0% 30% 49% Waste dumped in Landfill 5,798 4,488 4,480 KanjurMarg 2,798 3,488 4,480 Deonar (50% in first 5 years) 2,000 1,000 Closed Mulund 1,000 Closed Closed Waste recovered (%)
  20. 20. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  21. 21. Social & Environmental Sustainability Assessment Waste Collection Plan Increasing service coverage to 100% a welcome move for society Major relief to slum dwellers Littering penalty generally acceptable to public Waste tax (1%) to be imposed but incentives to be provided to performers Awareness and advertising campaigns to increase acceptance Waste Transportation Plan Convenience for society and good for environment Waste Processing and Disposal Plan Relief to people in vicinity of dumpsites Lowered air, soil and water pollution Land saved by provision of waste diversion from landfill Waste Recycling and Recovery Plan Reduce Green house gas emissions Provision of sanitary compost bins to households & contracts to buy compost and recyclables by MCGM and awareness campaigns to increase acceptance
  22. 22. Financial Sustainability Assessment Cost Heads 2013 2018 2023 Collection & Transportation 49 71 116 Processing & Disposal 18 44 46 Recycling and Recovery Costs - 5 10 Provision for Dharavi & advertising campaigns - 12 18 67 132 190 2013 2018 2023 - 12 28 69 0.03 0.034 52 69 93 52 97 174 TOTAL COSTS Revenue Heads Waste Collection Recovery revenues Waste Tax Revenues collected through property tax, water bill etc TOTAL REVENUES External benefits not included like reduced expenditure on public health, Air pollution etc All figures in Million US Dollars
  23. 23. Millions to be bridged through financing by World bodies, NGOs, countries etc 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2013 2018 2023 Axis Title TOTAL COSTS TOTAL REVENUES Chart 3: Comparison of Current and Predicted Costs and Revenues
  24. 24. About Mumbai Current Waste Management Scenario Proposed Master Plan - Vision 2023 Proposed Master Plan - Decoded Sustainability Assessment Highlights and Conclusion
  25. 25. What the Plan stands for?  Waste to be treated as resource  Public awareness and participation in a big way  Collaborative functioning of MCGM  Emphasis on implementation of MSW rules, through „carrot and stick‟ policy for the stakeholders
  26. 26. References (in order of appearance) Mumbai First (2012a) Workshop on Metropolitan Governance and Planning. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.mumbaifirst.org/metropolitan/presentation/Transport_Plan_for_MMR_and_Resourse _Generation_Plan_under_Mumbai_Transformation.pdf  a  b  c  d  e  f Census India (2011a) Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/365-mumbai.html MCGM. (2013a). Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous?NavigationTarget=navurl://c4b79f15e55f98176905a 7c2c7d910ee Chandramouli, C. (2011). Housing Stocks, Amenities and Assets in Slums - Census 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from censusindia.gov.in/2011-Documents/On_Slums-2011Final.ppt Mumbai First. (2012b). Solid Waste Management. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from Mumbai First: http://www.mumbaifirst.org/metropolitan/presentation/MCGM.pdf ” Ministry of Envrionment and Forests India. (2000). MSW Rules 2000. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from envis.mse.ac.in/lawspdf/SOLID%20WASTE.pdf
  27. 27. References G MCGM. (n.d.(a)). Solid Waste Management. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/go/km/docs/documents/MCGM%20Department%20List/City%20Engi neer/Deputy%20City%20Engineer%20(Planning%20and%20Design)/City%20Development%20Plan /Solid%20Waste%20Management.pdf  g  h  i  j  k CNN.  71% service coverage - Combining two sources of information, one indicating a non-collection of 15% of waste (Ghanekar, 2013); and another arguing that most slums (comprising 40% of city‟s households (Chandramouli, 2011)) do not come in the formal waste collection system of Municipal body, we get a figure of 71% service coverage (85%*60%+50%*40%); i.e., 85% of the non-slums and half of slums. BCPT. (n.d.). Solid Waste Management in Mumbai. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from http://www.bcpt.org.in/webadmin/publications/pubimages/solidwaste.pdf MCGM. (2013b). Functional Elements of SWM in Mumbai. Retrieved December 12, 2013, from MCGM: http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qlcleanover Mahadevia, D., Pharate, B., & Mistry, A. (2005). New Practices of Waste Management - Case of Mumbai. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://spcept.ac.in/pdf/New%20Practices%20of%20Waste%20Management%20%20Case%20of%20Mumbai.pdf (2012). The slums of Mumbai: A model of urban sustainability? Retrieved November 21, 2013, from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2012/02/world/interactive.mumbai.slums.sustainability/
  28. 28. Thank You for your attention!

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