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• Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
A system of earth orbiting satellites which
provides precise location on the earth’s surface
in lat/long co-ordinates.
11 hours 58 mins- Orbital period
24 hour 3D coverage worldwide.
• Remote Sensing (RS)
It is acquisition of information about an object
or phenomenon without making physical
contact with the object.
GPS: WHAT IS IT
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-
based satellite navigation system that provides
location and time information in all weather
conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there
is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
The system provides critical capabilities to
military, civil and commercial users around the world.
It is maintained by the United States government and
is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
Designed with software, hardware, data,
Network and live ware.
Storage, retrieval, mapping and analysis of
Data is stored in coordinate form.
Layered together for mapping analysis.
Where are particular feature
What geographical patterns
Where have changes occurred
over given period?
Where do certain conditions
Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence
• Data: Collection of facts/figures that pertain to places, people, things,
events, and concepts.
• Information: Data transferred – through processes.
Hardcopy Maps Digital Data
Geography Attributes Behavior
• data is organized by layers.
• layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth’s
surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principle.
Environment Impact Assessment
Target Site Selection
Landfill Site Selection
Natural Hazard Assessment
• Involves surveys, review of exiting infrastructure.
• GIS- integrates, manage, analyze and visualize the wide range of
• GIS- data management tools to manage and share data between
GIS and CAD soln.
• Detailed understanding of the location of assets for transport
• Up to date information systems for travellers.
• The wide choice of travel options require true multi-modal
• METRO projects.
• Airlines or road transport-detailed information-Bus no, route,
• Disaster responses-advance warning.
• Planning and locating- railway corridors
Finding a subset of locations from a set of potential-
• Customer or demand locations.
• Potential site locations and/or existing facilities.
• Street network or Euclidean distance.
GIS map water resources and link them to a database
Planners/Engineers link their modelling system to the GIS-tie to
Data – land use & land cover, geology, soils, hydrography &
Project represented in 3-D form-the impact of facilities on
Estimate the magnitude of high-flow events, the probability of
Determine flood zones.
Identify high-potential erosion areas.
Derive physical characteristics area, perimeter, soil data etc.
Assessment for a new
Construction project ,
Applications of GPS
This system gives us the accurate geographic position
required for land surveying.
It is used for navigation purposes in
It is now exceedingly used to locate the enemy targets
and subsequently hitting them by GPS information
For public use simpler version are available for locating
the vehicles, the individuals and the parties, in hicking
and mountaineering expeditions and other number of
Advantages of GPS
This system is fast replacing with conventional
methods of surveying like Triangulation, Traversing
It no longer requires the inter-visibility of station
points. The conventional techniques are still required
for detail surveying.
The horizontal and vertical control can easily be
established with the help of GPS
With increasingly complex projects, GIS provides the civil
engineers with tools for Creating , managing , analysing and
visualizing all types of geographic information.
GIS education is expected to prepare individuals in the civil
for the implementation of engineering projects/tasks with
time- and money-saving approaches.
Some of the open ended limitations the high over head cost
GPS/GIS soft wares and Hard wares