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Establishment of Garden

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Establishment of Garden

  1. 1. Establishment of Gardens HORT-402 Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar M.Phil Agriculture Entomology
  2. 2. Establishment of Gardens • Horticulture is an important branch of agriculture dealing with, many fruit, vegetables and flower crops, and if done scientifically is a profitable enterprise. • Financial returns can be increased many folds if careful planning is done when selecting the specific crops to establish in a particular region. • The horticulture industry is a long-term investment, especially the raising of fruit trees. e.g. citrus orchard takes five years for commercial production and its production life is more than 40 years.
  3. 3. Different steps are involved in planning and establishment of gardens and orchards are: • Selection of proper locality and site • Preparation of land • Laying out garden • Digging and refilling of pits • Selection and purchase of plants • Care of plants at arrival • Setting of fruit plants • Windbreaks
  4. 4. 1: Selection of proper locality and site • Locality refers to the geographical circumstances of a place in relation to cities, villages, railway stations, roads, etc. • Horticultural crops are perishable, it is therefore, important to cultivate these near market to ensure sale of the produce with minimum expense. • Site refers to a specific place where one can establish orchard: a citrus or mango orchard or vineyard.
  5. 5. Site selection involved following factors; 1: Topography • It refers to the contour of the land, its elevation and similar features of land. • Vegetable crops and herbaceous flowering plants are usually grown on level and slightly sloping sites as most of these crops need cultivation and harvesting operations can efficiently be done than on sloping land. • Fruit trees can be raised on steep slopes to some extend. In case of contours, which cannot level, contour plantation can be done, as that in case of temperate fruits in hilly areas.
  6. 6. 2: Soil • Soil is the natural resource base for horticultural production, as well as other form of agriculture. It is an inner weathered layer of earth crust, which provides nutrients, water and support to the plant. • Soil conditions like texture, fertility, depth, alkalinity, salinity, soil reaction, chemical content, drainage and water logging can influence the growth and development of horticultural crops. • Horticultural crops can be grown in variety of soils. Extremes are to be avoided, very heavy soils are difficult to handle and sandy soils do not hold moisture well and are infertile.
  7. 7. A loam or sandy loam soil is good for most of horticultural crops and such soils are present in most parts of Pakistan. • Sandy soil Water melon, Musk melon, Sweet potato • Silt loam Apple, Pear • Clay loam Plum, Peach, Apricot, Onion, Cabbage • Sandy loam Mango, Citrus, date palm, cucurbits. • Silt Banana
  8. 8. 3: Climate • It refers to meteorological conditions (changes in atmosphere) in a given region. It is composed of factors like temperature, humidity, wind, sunlight, frost, hail storms, precipitation etc. • Temperature is most important factors which effect the distribution of horticultural crops it determines the success or failure of each specific crop in a region. • Tropical region Banana, Papaya, • Sub- tropical Mango, Date palm, Citrus, Guava, Vegetables, Jaman • Temperate Apple, Pear, Peach, Grapes, Pomegranate, Apricot
  9. 9. 4: Water Supply • A regular and adequate source of irrigation water is an important consideration in site selection for commercial horticulture as well as home gardens. • Good plentiful water should be regularly available all year round especially during the hot and dry season. • Canal water is best for irrigating an orchard. Tube well and well water can also be used if ground water is sweet. • Quality of water should also be considered as excess of sodium and boron salts are harmful to most horticultural plants.
  10. 10. 5: Availability of Market • Horticultural products are usually perishable, and need to be transported and marketed as soon as possible. Therefore, these should be planted near to cities or at least big towns. If the produce is to be sent to distant market there should be railway station or main road in vicinity. Products to be exported to foreign markets need a standard packing house nearby.
  11. 11. 6 : Transportation Requirements • For transport of produce refrigerated trucks, improved rail transportation and development of economical air transport is needed.
  12. 12. 7: Availability of Labor • The growing of horticultural crops is a full time occupation. The availability of labor in vicinity must be considered before establishment because most garden operations are still done by hand in Pakistan. Cheap and regular labor, available close to the site is necessary for carrying out various operations economically and on time. • Preparation of land, cleaning, leveling, ploughing, installing systems for irrigation and drainage, planting and post-planting care, pruning, hoeing, weeding, application of fertilizers and manure, control of insect pest and diseases, picking, packing, transportation and marketing require regular and efficient labor.
  13. 13. 8:Capital Requirement • Horticultural crops require much more investment than other agricultural crops for establishment, maintenance and continuous profitable returns. Capital requirement must be estimated before deciding to establish a garden. 9:Personal Factors • Success in raising a given horticultural crop depends to a considerable extent on the ability of the individual grower. Vegetable farming, commercial flower production, fruit growing and tunnel farming are choices for them.
  14. 14. 2: Preparation of land The preparation of the soil depends largely upon its • Present condition, • Previous history and • The grower’s plan If the land has been under cultivation and well maintained, nothing further may be required. But if the site is new and previously uncultivated, it should be thoroughly surveyed for its size, topography, and flow of irrigation water and fertility status.
  15. 15. The following operations should be done well in advance, preferably a season before. Any of these operations, if delayed, may cause a considerable loss. 1: Cleaning Existing vegetation should be cleared, already existed trees should be cut down and their stumps should be removed to avoid competition. 2: Ploughing After the site is cleared, it must be given a deep and thorough ploughing twice or thrice in two directions. Then planking should be done.
  16. 16. 3: Leveling The site should be leveled. A uniform gentle slope may be provided in one direction to facilitate the flow of irrigation water. 4: Irrigation System The irrigation system should be planned and installed before establishing the plantation. Different system of irrigation are surface irrigation, sub surface irrigation, drip irrigation can be used. Sprinkler irrigation system is used if soil is not leveled.
  17. 17. 5: Soil Enrichment The soil can be enriched by raising cover crops, preferably legumes. A green manure crop (jantar, berseem, guara), in addition to FYM, is the most economical means of increasing the organic matter content of soil. 6: Fencing It is done all round the site to prevent the entry of animal pests like cattle, goats or wild pigs as well as human thieves. Barbed wire is recommended, as it has no shading effect and do not compete with plants for nutrients. Rough lemon, roses can be used as fence but it can be a hidden place of many insect/pest. Therefore, it should be avoided.
  18. 18. 3: Laying Out Gardens • The systematic laying out of gardens is the first step in a successful horticultural enterprise. • Indicating the actual places for roads, footpaths, irrigation channels, water tanks, manure pits, office or residence blocks, water pump or tube well/water tank and windbreaks and as well as spacing the plants in the garden. • Good site preparation and layout are extremely important in successfully establishing fruit plantings. • Eliminating potential problems before planting will reduce money and effort needed in later management practices for this long-term investment.
  19. 19. Advantages of proper layout 1. Cultivation can be done efficiently. 2. Pest management can be effectively. 3. Maximum no. of plants per unit area. 4. More yield can be obtained. 5. Products of higher quality are achieved. 6. Enhance aesthetic appearance of the garden
  20. 20. 1. Planting Distance • Planting distance depends upon many factors. • Plant species and variety • Climatic conditions • Soil fertility • Availability of water • Pruning and training systems
  21. 21. 2. Spacing in Fruit Trees • Spacing is very important for fruit trees because, • Permanency (Durability) • Long bearing life 3. Disadvantages of Close plantation • Lower yield • Poor quality • Reduce size and poor color development • Taller size trees • Chances of wind injury are more • Management practices are difficult • Insufficient light penetration and ventilation • Multiplication of disease organisms and insect/pests are more.
  22. 22. Different fruit plants with planting distance Types of tree Planting distance (m) Mango, Jaman, Amla, Ber, Fig, Walnut 10-15 Guava, Mulberry, Loquat, Litchi, Olive 8-10 Citrus all spp 7-8 Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, apricot, Almond, Chery, Pomegranate 6.5-8 Date palm 5-7 Banana, Papaya, Grapes 3-4 Falsa 2.5
  23. 23. Vegetables planting • Some vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, chilies, onion, tomato, lettuce etc.) are first raised in nursery and when the seedlings reach a height of about 15-20 cm they are transplanted to the field at specific p-p and line-line distances. • Some vegetables are sown directly in properly prepared beds, maintaining the appropriate distances between beds and between plants.
  24. 24. • Two types of beds are prepared for vegetables planting. • Flat beds (Spinach, Coriander) • Raised beds (musk melon, water melon, cucumber) • Some vegetables are planted on ridges e.g. potato (R x R = 60cm, P x P = 20) • Some vegetables are planted in straight lines by maintaining proper line-line distance. e.g. cabbage (L x L = 60 cm, P x P = 30 cm), onion ( L x L = 15 cm, P x P = 10 cm)
  25. 25. Ornamental Garden • Formal design – Referred as Muslim style – Very simple and uncomplicated – Based on geometric symmetry – Trees are planted to give maximum shade – Development of avenues – Practice topiary work • Informal design – Referred as Japanese garden – Give naturalistic look – Curved and non-geometric – Avoid symmetrical plantation – Short lived seasonal plants – Trees and ground covers are planted
  26. 26. Systems of Layout of Fruit Orchards I. Square System It is the most common and popular method of laying out fruit orchards on flat ground. In this method plants are set at right angles to each other with equal plant to plant and row to row distance. Merits • It is good for permanent fruit trees like mango, citrus, guava, and apple. • It is simple and easy to lay out. • Intercropping can be done. • Two directional cultivation can be done. • Management practice are easy. Demerits • Some unutilized space is left in center.
  27. 27. ii. Rectangular System In this system plant-to-plant distance is kept half of the row-to-row distance. In this system plants are set at the corners of the rectangle. Merits • No. of plants are more which results in more early production. • It is good for medium size trees. Demerits • It is not good for long term plantation. • Crowding will occur on two sides. • Pruning requirement is more. • One way cultivation is possible.
  28. 28. iii. Hexagonal System This is the best system of layout because all plants are equidistant from each other and no unutilized space is left in the center. Six plants are planted at the corner of hexagon with seventh one in the center of hexagon. Merits • 15% more plants can be planted as compare to square system. • Cultivation can be done in three directions. Demerits • It is difficult to layout.
  29. 29. iv. Quincunx System This system is modification of square system. First plants are planted according to square system and then one plant is planted in the center of each square. The additional plant is called filler. Filler must be quick bearing and low height. Guava is mostly used as filler. Merits • No unutilized space is left. • 70% more plants can be planted. • Early return from fillers. Demerits • Fillers may adversely affect the growth of permanent plants.
  30. 30. v. Triangular System This system is modification of rectangular system. After laying out a rectangular system one tree is planted at the center of rectangle making a triangle. Merits • 50-60% more plants. Demerits • Crowding will occur at later stages of the orchard.
  31. 31. vi. Contour system This system is used in hilly areas. Plants are planted according to the contour of the land. There is no specific row-to-row and plant-to- plant distance.
  32. 32. 4. Digging and Refilling of Pits • After laying out orchards it is desirable to make pits for plants. • The main objective of digging pits is to provide a suitable environment for the development of the plant and its roots. • If there is problem of hardpan present in soil can be solve at this stage. • The size of pit depends upon the type of soil and species and variety of fruit. The size of the pit should be 1x1x1 m3. • This is the volume in which most of the roots development occurs during the early days of plant growth.
  33. 33. • While digging pits, 1/3rd upper soil should be kept on one side and remaining 2/3rd soil should be scattered in the orchard. • The pits are left open for 2-3 weeks for exposure to sun and circulation of air. • It is harmful to keep the pits open for longer time because their surface gets hardened. • These pits are then refilled with an equal mixture of soil, silt and well rotten FYM. • The pits should be filled a little higher 10-15 cm than the surrounding soil. • This will allow for soil settling after the first irrigation. • The field is then irrigated heavily. • After the field dries, the pits are leveled once again. Plants are set in the centers of the pits and in straight rows on all sides.
  34. 34. 5 Selection and Purchase of Plants • The selection of a species and the varieties of fruit plants to be raised is an important step in the establishment of a new orchard. Selection of Scion variety Scion is the upper portion of the plant, which has to give ultimate yield. Selection of scion should be done by keeping following points in mind: • Climatic suitability • Resistance to insect/pest and diseases • Market demand • Requirement of pollinator
  35. 35. 6 Care Of Plants at Arrival • The 1st thing should be done on arrival of nursery plants is to check them for variety, number of plants and grade. • The plants are then sprayed with lime and sulphur and stored in the shade for about 48 hours. They should be kept soaked with water and covered with straw during storage. • In case of deciduous plants, if the roots are dry should be soaked in water for several hours before planting. • Roots broken during lifting of the plants from the nursery soil must be cut off with a clean cut. • Pruning should be done by keeping in view the shape of the plant.
  36. 36. 7. Setting of Fruit Plan 1. Time of Planting • Two principal planting seasons • Spring (Feb-March) • Autumn (Sept.-Oct.) • Evergreen fruit plants can be set in both seasons, but deciduous plants should be set in spring only. • Care should be taken to set evergreen plants well before the severe dry and cold season starts, and deciduous plants should be planted when the danger of frost and severe cold is over.
  37. 37. 2. Actual Planting • Plants of evergreen fruits should be planted as soon as possible after they are dug from the nursery. If deciduous plants are transplanted while they are dormant, delay does little effect. • The plants are set in the center of the pit keeping the rows straight. The use of pegs and a planting board is also recommended to help in keeping the line of plants straight.
  38. 38. 3. Post-planting care • After plants are set following cares should be taken. • Irrigate them sufficiently. (This will consolidate the soil and helps the roots to establish soil contact and a supply of water quickly). A basin should be made around the plant for this purpose. • Staking • Heading back of deciduous plants. • Protection from sun and frost by using sarkanda.
  39. 39. 8.Wind breaks • These are the rows of plants around the orchard to protect the plants from strong winds. Before planting an orchard, it is necessary to reserve some space for the trees, which are to serve as windbreaks. It is better to establish windbreaks one or two years before the fruit trees are planted. • A channel of 1 m wide and 1.5 m deep is dug about 4-5 m from the windbreak trees. This is done to avoid competition.
  40. 40. Characteristics of windbreaks • Adaptable to the soil and climate • Strong mechanical frame • Rapid growth • Tall with dense foliage • Deep rooted • Tap rooted not fibrous root system • Prefer those plants which can give income (jaman, Muberry, ber)
  41. 41. Plants used as windbreaks are • Jaman • Mulbery • Eucalyptus • Kikar • Simbal • Popular • Shisham • Desi mango • Ber • Bamboo • In temperate region different species of pine are used as windbreaks.
  42. 42. Advantages of Windbreaks • Reduce the damage by strong winds • Protect from sunburn and frost. • Minimize the wind erosion. • Reduce the water loss by transpiration as caused by dry winds. Disadvantages of Windbreaks • Plants adjoining to windbreaks are more affected by insect/pest and diseases. • They compete with adjoining fruit trees for nutrition and light. • Delayed maturity of fruit of adjoining plants to windbreaks. • Less color and size development.