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• Kingdom: Plantae
• Class: Magnoliopsida
• Family: Rosaceae
• Genus: Rosa
• Scientific names: Rosa centifolia L, Rosa damascena Mill.
Rosa alba L. etc
IMPORTANT ROSE IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS:
• Germany is the highest importer followed by USA, The
Netherlands,France, Switzerland and U.K
• The main exporter is the Netherland followed by Columbia
Ecuador, Kenya, Israel and Zimbabwe.
• In India , the major rose flower cultivating states are
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu , Karnataka & West bengal .
• Roses are best known as ornamental plants
• Some are used as landscape plants,for hedging
• Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and
commercial cut flowers.
• Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil.
• Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production.
• Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and
• Roses are also used in herbal and folk medicine.
Uses and importance
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSES
• Rose belongs to family Rosaceae.
• All species of this flower with minor exception belongs to the
• There are about 150 recognized and described species of
• The genus Rosa is divided into 4 sub genera namely- Eurosa,
Grace and Elegance
Innocence and Purity
Friendship & Welcome
Love and Romance
Symbolism Rose colors symbolize soft feelings for
many special occasions.
CLASSIFICATION OF ROSES
• Hybrid tea:- (Hybrid perpetual×Tea roses)
Most popular rose. Bears large & highly centered flowers, borne
singly at the end of a stem.
First variety:- La France created in1867. Some known varieties are
Melody, Darling , Sonia , Only Love etc.
Floribunda:- (Hybrid tea x Poliantha)
• They combined the beautiful forms of the Hybrid Teas with
the perpetual flowering habit of the Polyanthas.
• Flowering in clusters with small size and open centre.
• Good for garden display.
• Important Varieties are :- Kiss, Florence , Mercedes, Jaguar
• Grandifloras: Mainly obtained from crosses between
Hybrid Tea and Floribunda type. Produces large
number of flowers in cluster with fine form. Eg:
Montezuma (1955), Queen Elizabeth (1954),
Miniature / Button Roses:
• Popularly known as Baby roses with small leaves & flowers.
• They are hardy and good for pot culture.
• Multiplied by cuttings as well as budding on root stocks.
Climbers and Ramblers:
• They bears large clusters of small, single or double flowers, mainly
belong to two groups.
• Used for training on arches, pergolas.
• The cabbage roses called such due to their numerous petals that
create a large, full bloom resembling a cabbage.
• They belongs to species R.centifolia.
• Commercial method:- T budding
• Dormant eyes on a scion of chosen variety are budded by T method on a roots.
• Rootstock:- R. multiflora is more suitable for southern parts as indicated by
research done at IIHR. Bangalore.
• Budded plants take less time to build up and produce economic production in
• The temperature should be maintained between 15-18⁰ C.
• High temperature in polyhouse can be managed by simple ventilation,evaporative
cooling from pad and fan system, micro sprinklers.
• Low temperature at night is more detrimental for growth and flowering of rose.
• Humidity is maintained between 50-60% in poly house during hot summer
• CO₂ level of 1000ppm is ideal for quality bloom production of rose.
• In open field condition ideal temperature is 15-28⁰C and humidity 75%.
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS
• Increase in temperature resulted in reduction in juvenile period, length of leafy
shoots and fresh weight of shoot in Hybrid Tea rose.
• Low temperature beyond 100C in polyhouse promote diseases.
• At low temperature , growth and flower production become slow but the quality of
flowers are better.
• The stem and flower buds in some roses do not elongate or expand until there has
been an exposure to cool temperature.
• Winter chilling was found to be necessary for flower bud formation.
• Very high humidity results in condensation of low temperature encourage the
• An ideal soil should be rich loose and structurally stable with a depth of
around 50cm ensuring optimum drainage and aeration of the roots.
• Roses do not tolerate water logging and high water table therefore an
ideal soil must have a stable water table at the active root zone.
• Roses can also be grown in soil less media like rock wool, peat, cocopeat,
• Soil pH should be slightly acidic 6.2-6.8.
• The soil should be dug to a depth of 60 cm. and incorporated with
organic or inorganic additives to improve the soil structure.
• Soil sterilizing is an important technique to prevent the soil from
soil borne diseases.
Soil sterilizing techniques:-
• Soil solarization
• Chemical sterilization:To control soil borne phytopthora,fusarium and
• Fumigation with 2% Formeldehyde (or)
• Methyl bromide-30g/m2 (or)
• Recent chemical-Dazomate (Basaline)-30g/m2
• Covered with plastic sheet for 3 days
Manure and Fertilizers
• Roses are gross feeder.
• The requirement of major nutrient are broadcasted on the
beds and mixed into the upper 30 cm of soil.
• After establishment of plant nutrition is applied through
CONCENTRATED REQUIRED FOR FERTIGATION
1.Ideal method of planting of rose double row system
2.Plant to plant distance -25 cm.
3.Row to row distance-30 cm.
4.Long stemmed varieties are planted at 25-26 cm.
5.Short stemmed varieties are planted at 18-25 cm.
6.Planting time: October- November
Plant growth regulators
• Regulate the growth and flowering
• Increases the length of shoots
• Increases the number of nodes
• Prolonged the period of flowering and enhanced the yield.
• CCC(3%) solution caused dwarfing and improve flowering.
• Roses do not like water logging condition but need plenty of water for their
growth and development.
• Frequency of irrigation depends on the water requirement of particular
• Ideal method-Drip irrigation system
• Another method of irrigation –Sub surface ,in which water is directly delivered
at the root zone without any losses.
• Regular soil moisture is very essential for rose.
• Manual weed control is effective if done frequently.
• Diuron @ 2 kg ai/hac.
• Oxyfluorofen @0.5 kg ai/hac.
• Rice straw mulch is also effective.
• Major weeds of rose :- Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus albums.
Chinopodium alba, Poligonum etc.
• It conserve soil moisture.
• Supply humus.
• Suppress weeds.
• It is done with paddy straw, dried leaves.
• Also promotes growth and flowering.
• It promotes physical properties of the soil.
• Regulate the shape of the buds
• Some varieties should be covered with bud nets.
For cut flower production:-
• First week of October (North Indian condition)
• Last week of June and again last week of November (Bangalore condition)
• The height of pruning varies from 30-45 cm. from ground.
For hybrid tea roses:-
• A sharp cut should be given at an angle of about 45º above eye bud.
• FLORIBUNDA:- Pruned lightly
• POLYANTHAS:-Need thinning of over crowded branches.
• CLIMBERS:-Removal of unwanted wood to control size and shape.
× No flower bud initiation
× Shoots do not initiates of pistils and stamens
× Low temperature
× Boron deficiency
× ccc@500ppm and GA@100ppm
× Boron @30 to 60 ppm
Under protected cultivation ; 150-300 quality flower stems per m2 per
Under open field condition ; 10- 20 flower stems (Hybrid Tea )
10-50 quintals/hactare (R. damascena)