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ROSE CULTIVATION

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. ROSE
  3. 3. Introduction • Kingdom: Plantae • Class: Magnoliopsida • Family: Rosaceae • Genus: Rosa • Scientific names: Rosa centifolia L, Rosa damascena Mill. Rosa alba L. etc
  4. 4. IMPORTANT ROSE IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS: • Germany is the highest importer followed by USA, The Netherlands,France, Switzerland and U.K • The main exporter is the Netherland followed by Columbia Ecuador, Kenya, Israel and Zimbabwe. • In India , the major rose flower cultivating states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu , Karnataka & West bengal .
  5. 5. • Roses are best known as ornamental plants • Some are used as landscape plants,for hedging • Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. • Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil. • Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production. • Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade. • Roses are also used in herbal and folk medicine. Uses and importance
  6. 6. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSES • Rose belongs to family Rosaceae. • All species of this flower with minor exception belongs to the genus Rosa. • There are about 150 recognized and described species of roses. • The genus Rosa is divided into 4 sub genera namely- Eurosa, Platyrhodon,Hesperhodos, Hulthemia.
  7. 7. Grace and Elegance Enthusiasm Innocence and Purity Friendship & Welcome Love and Romance Symbolism Rose colors symbolize soft feelings for many special occasions.
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF ROSES • Hybrid tea:- (Hybrid perpetual×Tea roses) Most popular rose. Bears large & highly centered flowers, borne singly at the end of a stem. First variety:- La France created in1867. Some known varieties are Melody, Darling , Sonia , Only Love etc.
  9. 9. Floribunda:- (Hybrid tea x Poliantha) • They combined the beautiful forms of the Hybrid Teas with the perpetual flowering habit of the Polyanthas. • Flowering in clusters with small size and open centre. • Good for garden display. • Important Varieties are :- Kiss, Florence , Mercedes, Jaguar etc.
  10. 10. • Grandifloras: Mainly obtained from crosses between Hybrid Tea and Floribunda type. Produces large number of flowers in cluster with fine form. Eg: Montezuma (1955), Queen Elizabeth (1954),
  11. 11. Miniature / Button Roses: • Popularly known as Baby roses with small leaves & flowers. • They are hardy and good for pot culture. • Multiplied by cuttings as well as budding on root stocks.
  12. 12. Climbers and Ramblers: • They bears large clusters of small, single or double flowers, mainly belong to two groups. • Used for training on arches, pergolas.
  13. 13. Cabbage roses: • The cabbage roses called such due to their numerous petals that create a large, full bloom resembling a cabbage. • They belongs to species R.centifolia.
  14. 14. EXHIBITION VARIETIES
  15. 15. IIHR Released Variety Arka Parimala
  16. 16. EXPORT VARIETIES
  17. 17. PROPAGATION • Commercial method:- T budding • Dormant eyes on a scion of chosen variety are budded by T method on a roots. • Rootstock:- R. multiflora is more suitable for southern parts as indicated by research done at IIHR. Bangalore. • Budded plants take less time to build up and produce economic production in short time.
  18. 18. CLIMATE • The temperature should be maintained between 15-18⁰ C. • High temperature in polyhouse can be managed by simple ventilation,evaporative cooling from pad and fan system, micro sprinklers. • Low temperature at night is more detrimental for growth and flowering of rose. • Humidity is maintained between 50-60% in poly house during hot summer months. • CO₂ level of 1000ppm is ideal for quality bloom production of rose. • In open field condition ideal temperature is 15-28⁰C and humidity 75%.
  19. 19. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS • Increase in temperature resulted in reduction in juvenile period, length of leafy shoots and fresh weight of shoot in Hybrid Tea rose. • Low temperature beyond 100C in polyhouse promote diseases. • At low temperature , growth and flower production become slow but the quality of flowers are better. • The stem and flower buds in some roses do not elongate or expand until there has been an exposure to cool temperature. • Winter chilling was found to be necessary for flower bud formation. • Very high humidity results in condensation of low temperature encourage the diseases.
  20. 20. SOIL • An ideal soil should be rich loose and structurally stable with a depth of around 50cm ensuring optimum drainage and aeration of the roots. • Roses do not tolerate water logging and high water table therefore an ideal soil must have a stable water table at the active root zone. • Roses can also be grown in soil less media like rock wool, peat, cocopeat, perlite. • Soil pH should be slightly acidic 6.2-6.8.
  21. 21. Land Preparation • The soil should be dug to a depth of 60 cm. and incorporated with organic or inorganic additives to improve the soil structure. • Soil sterilizing is an important technique to prevent the soil from soil borne diseases.
  22. 22. Soil sterilizing techniques:- • Soil solarization • Chemical sterilization:To control soil borne phytopthora,fusarium and pythium • Fumigation with 2% Formeldehyde (or) • Methyl bromide-30g/m2 (or) • Recent chemical-Dazomate (Basaline)-30g/m2 • Covered with plastic sheet for 3 days
  23. 23. Manure and Fertilizers • Roses are gross feeder. • The requirement of major nutrient are broadcasted on the beds and mixed into the upper 30 cm of soil. • After establishment of plant nutrition is applied through irrigation system. CONCENTRATED REQUIRED FOR FERTIGATION
  24. 24. PLANTING 1.Ideal method of planting of rose double row system 2.Plant to plant distance -25 cm. 3.Row to row distance-30 cm. 4.Long stemmed varieties are planted at 25-26 cm. 5.Short stemmed varieties are planted at 18-25 cm. 6.Planting time: October- November
  25. 25. Plant growth regulators Gibberellic Acid:- • Regulate the growth and flowering • Increases the length of shoots • Increases the number of nodes • Prolonged the period of flowering and enhanced the yield. • CCC(3%) solution caused dwarfing and improve flowering.
  26. 26. Irrigation • Roses do not like water logging condition but need plenty of water for their growth and development. • Frequency of irrigation depends on the water requirement of particular varieties. • Ideal method-Drip irrigation system • Another method of irrigation –Sub surface ,in which water is directly delivered at the root zone without any losses. • Regular soil moisture is very essential for rose.
  27. 27. Cultural Operation Weed Management • Manual weed control is effective if done frequently. • Diuron @ 2 kg ai/hac. • Oxyfluorofen @0.5 kg ai/hac. • Rice straw mulch is also effective. • Major weeds of rose :- Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus albums. Chinopodium alba, Poligonum etc.
  28. 28. Mulching • It conserve soil moisture. • Supply humus. • Suppress weeds. • It is done with paddy straw, dried leaves. • Also promotes growth and flowering. • It promotes physical properties of the soil.
  29. 29. Pinching 8th week after planting
  30. 30. Bud netting • Regulate the shape of the buds • Some varieties should be covered with bud nets.
  31. 31. Pruning For cut flower production:- • First week of October (North Indian condition) • Last week of June and again last week of November (Bangalore condition) • The height of pruning varies from 30-45 cm. from ground. For hybrid tea roses:- • A sharp cut should be given at an angle of about 45º above eye bud. • FLORIBUNDA:- Pruned lightly • POLYANTHAS:-Need thinning of over crowded branches. • CLIMBERS:-Removal of unwanted wood to control size and shape.
  32. 32. Bull head
  33. 33. Blind shoots × No flower bud initiation × Shoots do not initiates of pistils and stamens primordial. causes × Low temperature × Boron deficiency Control : × ccc@500ppm and GA@100ppm × Boron @30 to 60 ppm
  34. 34. YIELD CUT FLOWER Under protected cultivation ; 150-300 quality flower stems per m2 per year. Under open field condition ; 10- 20 flower stems (Hybrid Tea ) LOOSE FLOWER 10-50 quintals/hactare (R. damascena)
  35. 35. GULKAND
  36. 36. ROSE OIL
  37. 37. ROSE WATER
  38. 38. POTPOURII
  39. 39. ROSE PERFUMES
  40. 40. ROSE GARDEN ,OOTY, TN
  41. 41. ROSE GARDEN,LALBAGH,BENGALURU,KARNATAKA
  42. 42. ROSE GARDEN, CHANDIGARH
  43. 43. REFERENCES: • Singh , A.K. (2006) Flower crops Cultivation and management . • Bose , T.K.,Yadav , L.P., Pal ,P. , Das,P. , Parthasarathy, V.A.- Commercial flowers • Randhawa , G.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A. Floriculture in India. • Internet sources.
  44. 44. THANK YOU

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