4. The Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves
(SPNR), Charles Rothschild………….16 May 1912.
identify and protect the best places for wildlife largely
concerned with protecting species from persecution or
5. The Society's offices are in the Natural
History Museum in London.
The centenary year of The Wildlife Trusts was
From onward to 1912,a lot of work has been
done for the protection and conservation of
Society begins to acquire areas of land -
6. 1.75 millions species have been discovered.
Animals that have not been domesticated or tamed
and are usually living in a natural environment,
including both game and nongame species, non-
cultivated plants, fungi, algae, lichens and even
Fungi Lichens Algae
7. Wildlife can be found in all
8. Important of Wildlife
Four areas where wild plant and animal species
benefit human existence:
• Medical and scientific
• Aesthetic and recreational
9. Early economic benefits of wildlife:
Plants and animals as a source of food and clothing.
The current economic benefit :
Outdoor recreational activities.
10. Using wildlife to:
Wild plants provide
Useful substances like timber, paper; gums
Wide applications in medicine.
Wild animals Products include
Elephant tusk, rhino horns, tiger fur, leather etc.
11. Ecological value…interaction of wildlife in nature
Wildlife plays an essential role:
In the ecological and biological processes
The normal functioning of the biosphere….maintains and
enhances human life further.
Wildlife maintains ecological ‘balance of nature’ and
maintains food chain and nature cycles.
12. •An important protein source
•Gathered plant foods are important dietary supplements to the
starchy staple diet
•In at least 62 countries world-wide, wildlife and fish
constitute a minimum of 20% of the animal protein in rural
•Wildlife provides significant calories to rural communities, as
well as essential protein and fats
14. Most important contribution of wild life for
human progress is availability of large
genepool for the scientists to carry breeding
15. Wildlife is the source of livelihood and subsistence.
Due to existence of wildlife on earth humans get benefit to
Hunting, fishing, cultural value of wildlife.
16. Aesthetical value is the enjoying of
wildlife’s beauty and pleasure. Wildlife
enhances the beauty of environment.
18. The Wildlife of Pakistan truly represents the greater
geographic and ecological diversity of the country.
Various ecological zones, from tropical to alpine,
support a great variety of wildlife species including
19. The mountainous areas Himalayan, Karakorum and
Hindukush Ranges are rich in fauna and flora, as
compared to other parts of the country.
The reasons are:
•These areas provide an excellent habitat for wildlife
•These habitats support a variety of wild animals.
•The areas are difficult for human beings to access.
25. Asian pangolin
Black finless porpoise
The finless porpoise is often
caught in fishing nets across
the coasts of Pakistan.
International trade in Asian
pangolin species is banned.
26. Burrowing vole
The species is common to
Kashmir and KPK regions.
Depletion of habitat due to
livestock grazing and human
activities are the major threats
to this species.
The species is mostly found in
desert areas and is facing
major threat in the form of
27. Marco Polo's sheep
snow leopardmusk deer
These animals can still
be found In protected
areas of Himalayas.
Brown Bear from
Deosai Plains of
28. Within the last 400 years, at least
four mammals are known to
have disappeared from Pakistan
29. A further four species are also
extinct in recent decades
Indian wild ass
30. Threats to Wildlife Biodiversity
More specific threats to wildlife are posed by
deforestation (estimated at 1% annually),
overgrazing, soil erosion, hunting and fishing, and
As a result, it is estimated that at least 12% of the
flora is threatened and several of the faunal species
are threatened too.
31. The principal threat to wildlife species comes
from the increased pressure on natural
resources produced by high population growth
Demands for increased standards of living.
Major threat to both the riverine and mangrove forests of
Fast disappearing Riverine forests were rich in a wide
variety of plants and animals.
Mangrove forests are particularly important habitats for
certain fish species.
32. Hunting has deep roots in Pakistani culture. It was the
recreation of the Moghul emperors and is still extremely
Various lizards and snakes are hunted for their skins, as are
crocodiles and the larger mammals.
The increase in the numbers of wild boars, jackals, and
porcupines, for example, is directly attributable to the
elimination of their predators, particularly the large cats.
33. Disappearance of habitat or the
competition with domestic grazing
The closed canopy forest in the North West
Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan is
reported to be shrinking at approximately
1% per year.
More significant is the relentless,
incremental incursions into the forest by
34. Wildlife conservation is the attempt to protect
endangered animal and plant species, along with
their natural habitat.
The main objective of this practice is to make
sure that their habitats will be preserved so that
the future generations of both wildlife and human
can enjoy it.
Additionally, wildlife conservation aims to raise
awareness regarding the importance of wildlife.
35. Biodiversity is essential for a healthy and
If wildlife is extracted from its natural habitat,
the delicate balance of the ecosystem will be
disturbed which will then lead to disastrous
If any species should become extinct, the food
chain will be disrupted affecting all the species.
36. Beneficial For Humans
•A lot of medicines have been derived from the
chemicals produced by animals. These medicines are
then used to help cure various health conditions, such
as heart diseases, disorders, and other illnesses.
•Statistics provided by the U.S Fish and Wildlife
Service, more than 25% of the medicinal prescriptions
given every year contain chemicals from animals.
Laws should be made to force a total ban on
killing or capturing of any animal or bird
belonging to an endangered species.
The natural habitats of wild animals and birds
should be preserved by establishing National
Parks and Sanctuaries throughout the country.
To control the spread of transmittable
Special attention should be paid to the
conservation of endangered species of wild
animals and birds to prevent their extinction.
Use of scientific knowledge and technical
skills to protect, conserve, enhance, or create
To manage wildlife, on must find out the
Number of animals is determined by the
difference in birthrate and death rate.