• Roses are symbol of beauty, love, affection,
• Besides their aesthetic value, they are important
for their economic uses, such as
– cut flowers
– essential oils & Essences for cosmetics
– rose petals
– rose dry buds
– rose water
– rose hips
– rose achenes (seeds of rose)
– rose nursery stock
4. Roses In The Landscape
These are used in today’s landscape as they have
many advantages over other shrubs.
• It blooms for long period and the effect and range
of the flower is remarkable. The autumn coloring
of the foliage, the shape and color of the hips
(fruits), sometime supplemented by decorative
thorns make the rose important to be used in the
• In large parks, housing developments, city green
belts, along highways and in community gardens
the rose has a spiritual palace in formal beds.
5. Modern Roses
• Roses developed after 1867 are called “Modern Roses”.
• These are originated from nearly 10 Species Roses like
R. canina, R. chinensis, R. foetida, Rosa gallica, R. gigantea,
R. moschata, R. multiflora, Rosa phoenicia, R rugosa and
These are divided in further groups:
Hybrid Tea: ( Tea roses x Hybrid perpatual)
Upright (1-2m tall), mostly single, well shaped flower with high spiralling
centres at the end of long stem.
Sturdy, often shiny petals, pointed buds, large glossy and semi glossy
leaves and strong stems.
• Colors include pure white and shades of red, lavender, orange, pink,
yellow, apricot, crimson, maroon and mauve.
• Most, but not all, hybrid teas have some fragrance
These are used as cut flower and for Landscape
8. Modern Roses…..
Floribunda ( Poliantha x Hybrid Tea)
These are shorter, more compact and have smaller canes
than hybrid teas.
Large clusters of small flowers are produced at the tips of the
Their showy masses of color and compact growth make them
most useful as a landscape rose for bed planting, grouping in
shrub borders, or as a hedge.
These are generally quite vigorous and perfuse bloomers.
They are generally more hardy and require less care than
hybrid teas. Mature plants range from 1 1⁄2 to 3 1⁄2 feet tall.
A broad range of colors is available in single, semi-double or
11. Grandiflora (Floribunda x Hybrid Tea)
• These have some of the characteristics of both hybrid teas and
• Their flowers resemble hybrid teas but are smaller and are produced in
groups of 5 to 7 resembling the cluster effect of floribundas.
• They bloom more abundantly than hybrid teas, and their long stemmed
flowers are also good for cutting.
• These are the tallest of the bush roses, reaching a height of 5 to 6 feet.
• They require the same degree of winter protection as hybrid teas.
14. Miniatures ( Polyantha x Rosa chinensis)
• Miniature roses have become popular in recent years.
• Their small size makes them useful for growing in
containers and small gardens.
• Flowers average about 1 inch in diameter in white and
shades of pink, red or yellow.
• The flowers can be used for miniature arrangements,
corsages and boutonnieres.
•Miniatures are not grafted and many varieties are quite
16. Roses as cut flowers
• Value of fresh cut flower trade amounts to
50% followed by live ornamental plants
(43%) and cut foliage (7%) of floriculture
• Out of all cut flowers, roses account for 50 % of
total exports in world trade.
17. ROSE GROWING AREAS OF
• Qasur (Pattoki)
18. Rose Cultivation in The green House
“A greenhouse is a structure which maintain the
environmental conditions, like temperature, humidity,
and air circulation inside it for crops”.
Components of Green House
1- Green House Framework and glass or polythene covering
2- Cooling Pad system including, Fans, pads, exhaust fans
and humidifier if we want to reduce the temperature and
heating system if we increase the temperature in cool areas.
3-Drip Irrigation System, including Water Reservoir, pump,
Fertilizer mixer, Main pipes, Laterals and Drips.
20. Advantages of Greenhouse Technology
• Controlled temperature and humidity that prevent pests and
• Standards are followed with more consistency
• Varieties achieve their maximum potential in terms of bud
size, color and other physical attributes
• Sizes vary from short to very long stems (reaching up to a
meter in length) and production may be programmed
depending on buyers' demand
21. Less thorns that makes handling easier
Clean petals and leaves, again for easier handling
Good vase life so consumers can enjoy the flowers
Year round reliable supply of flowers
22. Layout and Fertigation
• If roses are to be grown in greenhouse, trenches should be
dug 4’ wide and 2’ deep which should be filled with sweet
sand after lining with polythene sheet.
• Plantation should be done at 1’ distance in 1’ apart rows with
total plantation of 15,000 plants per acre.
• Nutrition and irrigation is provided though drip irrigation
system daily during summer and at alternate day during
• Application of nutrients should be based on analysis of
soil and plant.
• General recommendation is application of 2 bags of N: P:
K (17:17:17) per acre per month.
• If soil is poor, then micronutrients and growth promoters
should also be used occasionally.
• If fertilizer is applied through fertigation, then split these
monthly doses into ten splits each of which should be
applied at 3 days interval.
Affects quality and quantity of plant and
Most of roses
Night temperature 60oF (15.5oC)
Optimum growing temperature 17-25oC
Not below 15oC ,above 27oC
Under high temperature
Flowers are small having few petals
Bullheads are produced
Roses required high humidity (65-75%)
By damping the paths
Humidity helps in two ways
Reduce incidence of red spider mite
28. Plants Management Practices.
• Pruning is an important step in regenerating the
growth and flowering of roses.
• Correct pruning is an essential factor for success in
rose growing and there fore, should be done with
precision and care.
• There is a marked difference in growth habit of
roses and each type has its own particular method
and season of pruning. the practice of rose pruning
consists of two operations.
29. Thining out : Comprises removal of old, weak, dry, diseased
Heading back/shortening of stems. Cutting down of last years
growth to desirable height
30. Objectives of pruning roses plants.
• To remove the unproductive growth
• To ensure production of large number of strong and
healthy shoots, which will bear flowers and improve
quality of blooms.
• Keep the rose bush in proper shape and size.
• To allow high and air to reach in centre of plant.
Varieties produce some side buds below the center bud. These side
buds have to be removed or disbudded.
The disbudding must be done regularly and also as soon as possible
in order to avoid large wounds in the upper leaf axil.