3. Game Reserves:
“A large area of lanf where animals live safely or are hunted in a
controlled way for spot”
Typically a game reserve is an area of land that is marked as protected
from hunters and poachers.
• Game reserves are areas of land set aside for conservation purposes.
Many game reserves are located in Africa.
Most are open to the public, and tourists commonly take
• A game reserve is more than just a piece of land or a place to
keep wildlife it is a place where ecosystem are protected and
conservation is a key. Indigenous wildlife in its natural habitat makes
for an ideal situation as this helps in providing an environment where
growth in numbers at a natural rate can occur.
A game reserve is a protected area where animals, especially those
considered to be "game," can live.
Reserves are free from poachers and human encroachment. These
reserves may be state owned or privately owned, and they may be
open to tourists or restricted.
The majority of game reserves do not allow hunting on their premises,
but in some areas hunting is allowed but carefully monitored.
Game reserves provide a place for endangered animals to thrive in their
The main purpose for establishing the reserve was primarily to
conserve elephant and other typical animals such as, hippopotamus,
African Wild Dog , Lion, buffalo crocodiles,and others which are
found in this Reserve in larger numbers than in any other African
5. These areas are created in order to protect animal species that are
typically hunted for food or sport and which are often referred to as
Building and construction is also not permitted within reserve boundaries.
The creation of these protected areas allows these animals to thrive
without any threat .
The Selous Game Reserve is one of the largest fauna
reserves of the world, located in the southern part of Tanzania.
It was named after Englishman Sir Frederick Selous, a famous big
game hunter and early conservationist, who died at Beho Beho in this
territory in 1917 while fighting against the Germans during
World War I.
Selous Game Reserve was founded in 1905. It covers an area of about
50,000 Square Kilometers.It permits hunting in specific parts of the
park. While hunting is permitted, it is strictly monitored by the
government. The revenue from hunting permits is given back to the
reserve, and is a significant source of income for the Park.
6. Fig. 1. The Selous Game Reserve is situated in south-east Tanzania between
70 20’S and 100 30’S.
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Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es SalaamDar es Salaam
• In order to manage the Reserve effectively the area has been
divided into eight sectors namely; Matambwe, Kingupira,
Msolwa, Miguruwe, Kalulu, Likuyu Seka Maganga, Liwale
and Ilonga which are managed or supervised by sector
• The Reserve has been divided into 43 hunting blocks leased by
hunting companies. The trophy hunting has now grown into
highly paying tourist undertaking business, which has not only
benefited directly the government but also significantly
contributed towards improved livelihoods of local
communities adjacent to the reserve.
• The remaining Blocks in the northern sector are reserved for
photographic tourism. This activity has grown into a Profitable
business with ever-increased demand for sites to operate
lodges and tented camps.
8. Management of Natural Reserves:
A management plan should:
• Explain how the site will be managed, and why.
• Describe responsibilities
• Evaluate the current situation
• Set outcomes and evaluation systems
• Identify resources
9. Management of Natural Reserves:
• A good management plan will be of a size that can be
easily updated and referred to as a working document.
• Management plans can also be used to support grant
• Management plans should be visionary and imaginative,
and should make links to areas such as health, access for
• Making these links highlights the importance of the
reserve and will assist you in applying for funding and
10. Importance of larger Reserves:
There will be more species at equilibrium in a larger reserve,
and a lower extinction rate.
The species most likely to be endangered by isolation in
limited preserves are the most 'K-type' species. These species
typically have smaller carrying capacities and lower potential
growth rates (r). The larger park, by favoring numerically
greater equilibrium population sizes, may best insulate
endangered species from chanc demographic extinction,
Allee effects, genetic drift and inbreeding depression due to
small population size. The larger park may also protect
species with large habitat requirements and minimize edge
11. 2. One large preserve is better than a number of
smaller reserves with the same total area.
• The species likely to be endangered by restriction to the
reserve(s) are, additionally, likely to be those with the
poorest dispersal capabilities, or those with largest home
• If dispersal is the problem, these are species unlikely to be
rescued by renewed immigration from nearby 'islands‘.
• Species with minimum home range requirements may not
have enough area in small reserves; even though they can
move between reserves, they cannot maintain minimum
viable populations in any of them.
12. List of Hunting Reserves in Pakistan
There are at least 61 game reserves of Pakistan in which few major are;
2. Askor Nallah
3. Bahawalpur Plantation
4. Bhon Fazil
7. Bund Khush Dil Khan
13. Wildlife Sanctuaries/Game Reserves:
Astor Wildlife Sanctuary
Astor Wildlife Sanctuary covers 416 sq km on the north side of the Astor
Valley from the junction with the Indus River to the confluence with
the Parashing Gah (John Mock). This area contains a small population
of the Astor Markhor.
14. BaltistanWildlife Sanctuary:
Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary covers 415 sq km in Baltistan,
contiguous with the Astor Wildlife Sanctuary to its south
and east. It lies south of the Indus River, between Rondu
and Shengus villages (John Mock). Important wildlife
includes Snow Leopard, Brown Bear, Lynx, Tibetan
wolf, Tibetan fox, Markhor,Blue sheep and Asiatic ibex.
15. Mahal KohistanWildlife Sanctuary:
Mahal KohistanWildlife Sanctuary is situated in the south of
Kirthar National Park.Wildlife includes Common fox,
Jackal, Jungle Cat,Chinkara Gazelle, Urial, Monitor
Lizard and Indian cobra.
16. Cholistan Wildlife Sanctuary:
• The Cholistan desert area in the south eastern portion of the province
of Punjab contains some of the most rare and interesting wildlife in
Pakistan. Some of the rare animals of this region are Desert wolf(rare),
Indian fox, Red fox, Jackal, Small indian civet, Small indian
moongoose, Indian grey mongoose, Indian desert cat, Jungle cat,
Caracal cat, Chinkara grazelle, Blackbuck, Nilgai antelope, Houbara
bustard, Peregrine falcon, Saker falcon,Black backed vulture, Indian
cobra, Monitor lizard, Saw scaled viper and Russells viper.
17. NaltarWildlife Sanctuar:
Wildlife Sanctuary covers 273 sq km of the Naltar Valley to its juncture
with the Hunza River, and is contiguous with the Pakora and Sherqila
Game Reserves (John Mock). A small population of Astor Markhor is
18. Hab Dam Wildlife Sanctuary:
• Hub Dam is Pakistan's third largest dam. This dam is situated in the north of Karachi
bordering the Kirthar National Park. A large water storage reservoir constructed in
1981 on the Hub River, in a region of arid plains and low stony hills. Much of the
shoreline is steeply shelving and stony, but there are many shallow bays and small
islands. The greater part of the reservoir (in Balochistan) is unprotected; the eastern
shore and area south of the Dam (in Sindh) are protected in the Kirthar National Park
and Hub Dam Wildlife Sanctuary., respectively. The lake formed by the dam covers
an area of 32 square miles and is an ideal place for bird watching. There is plenty of
waterfowl in the lake,both resident and migratory. The surrounding hills are the home
of Urial, Sind wild goat, Chinkara gazelle, Wolf, Jackal, Common fox, Pangolin and
numerous other birds and reptiles.
19. Nara Desert wildlife Santuary:
The Nara desert provides refugee to a large number of wildlife in Sind province.
The Nara Canal Area, a chain of some 200 small, permanent and seasonal,
freshwater, brackish and saline lakes and marshes stretching for about 150 km
along either side of the Nara Canal from Sorah in the north to Sanghar in the
south is known to be of great importance for wintering waterfowl and other
wildlife, but few surveys and censuses have been carried out, except at a few
of the southernmost lakes. The largest population of the endangered Mugger
Crocodile in Pakistan is found here. Other animal life includes Jackal, Fox,
Pangolin, Honey Badger and Wolf.
20. Chasma andTaunsa Barrage Dolphin Santuary:
The Chashma and Taunsa Barrage are declared Wildlife Sanctuaries by the
Punjab government. A very important breeding, staging and wintering area for
a wide variety of waterfowl, including at least one threatened species
(Marmaronetta angustirostris). Mid-winter waterfowl counts in recent years
have regularly exceeded 20,000 birds. The endangered Indus Dolphin
(Platanista indi) occurs in the river both upstream and downstream of the
barrage. Since the 1970s, the population of the Indus Dolphin has significantly
21. Rann of KutchWildlife Sanctuary:
• The Rann of Kutch wildlife sanctuary lies in the southeast of the province Sind
bordering India. The marshy Runn of Kutch and its surrounding desert area in
Sindh is one of the most potential habitat for numbers of animal and birds in
the province. This area is known to be a breeding ground for Flamingoes and
staging ground for Pelicans, Cranes, Storks and many species of waterfowl
and also important site for animals like Wild Ass, Blue bull, Chinkara and
Desert wolf, which have been sighted regularly. This area used to have the
only population of the Indian Wild Ass or Onager in Pakistan. Unfortunately
they are thought to have been exterminated. Nilgai may be found here.
22. Sukkur and Guddu Barrage Dolphin Reserve :
This dolphin reserve was declared a reserve for the Indus Dolphin in
1974. A stretch of about 135 km of the Indus River from Sukkur
Barrage upstream to Guddu Barrage. The Reserve includes the full
width of the river when in spate and a strip of land three miles wide on
either side of the river. The river area between Sukkur and Guddu
barrage contains the largest population of the endangered Indus Blind
River Dolphin, which is endemic to Pakistan. The population has risen
steadily due to the effort of WWF-Pakistan and Sind Wildlife Board.
Numbers are thought to be inbetween 400-500.
23. Tooshi Game Reserve:
Tooshi Game Reserve, along the paved road to GaramChashma in
Chitral's Lutkho district, covers 1000 hectares and is proposed to be
reclassified as a wildlife sanctuary, as it has a large (about 160) and
readily viewable markhor population.The markhor are best seen
along the road at dusk.The jeep ride is just 20 minutes from Chitral
town. (Information by John Mock).
24. Kilik/Mintaka Game Reserve:
• Kilik/Mintaka Game Reserve lies along the border with China, east of the
KKH and the Khunjerab National Park. It includes 65,000 hectares of
important Marco Polo sheep habitat, and is closed to foreigners.
Insufficient funds to enforce the wildlife policy, laws and
To address economic development project such as Minerals and
Oil exploration, Dam construction for water and Electricity
• Inadequate infrastructure and working gear plus equipment
• Insufficient Tele communications coverage
• Limited research and resource monitoring
• Insufficient workforce both in number and requisite skills to
manage the reserve and to undertake various responsibilities
26. WAY FORWARD
To address the issue of inadequate funding and other management
problems, The State will soon transform Wildlife Division to
semi-autonomy authority taking charge of all management
issues including revenues accrued from tourism activities.
This system will ensure location of funds available for Selous
Game Reserve development and protection.
• The Selous Game Reserve is a conservation area of great significance,
nationally and globally but it has multiple problems, both in terms of direct
and indirect threats to its wildlife populations and vegetation communities,
in order to address these challenges we call the international communities to
actively support and participate in conservation of this site.