13.2 feudalism in europe

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13.2 feudalism in europe

  1. 1. 13.2 Feudalism in EuropeFeudalism, a political and economicsystem based on land-holding andprotective alliances, emerges inEurope.
  2. 2. Invaders Attack Western Europe The Vikings Invade from the North Warlike Vikings raid Europe fromScandinavia—Denmark, Norway,Sweden Viking long ships sail in shallowwater, allowing raids inland Eventually, many Vikings adoptChristianity and become farmers
  3. 3. A sketch of a Viking longboat
  4. 4. Invaders Attack Western Europe Magyars and Muslims Attack from theEast and South Magyars (Hungarian nomads) invadewestern Europe in late 800s Muslims strike north from Africa, attackingthrough Italy and Spain Viking, Magyar, Muslim invasions causewidespread disorder, suffering
  5. 5. A New Social Order:Feudalism Feudalism Structures Society 850 to 950, feudalism emerges—political system based on land control A lord (landowner) gives fiefs (landgrants) in exchange for services Vassals—people who receive fiefs—become powerful landholders
  6. 6. A New Social Order:Feudalism The Feudal Pyramid Power in feudal system much like apyramid, with king at the top Kings served by nobles who are served byknights; peasants at bottom Knights—horsemen—defend their lord’sland in exchange for fiefs
  7. 7. A New Social Order:Feudalism Social Classes Are Well Defined Medieval feudal system classifies people into three socialgroupsthose who fight: nobles and knightsthose who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of the Churchthose who work: peasants Social class is usually inherited; majority of people arepeasants Most peasants are serfs—people lawfully bound to place ofbirth Serfs aren’t slaves, but what they produce belongs to theirlord
  8. 8. Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism The Lord’s Estate The lord’s estate, a manor, has aneconomic system (manor system) Serfs and free peasants maintain the lord’sestate, give grain The lord provides housing, farmland,protection from bandits
  9. 9. Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism A Self-Contained World Medieval manors include lord’s house,church, workshops, village Manors cover a few square miles of land,are largely self-sufficient
  10. 10. Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism The Harshness of Manor Life Peasants pay taxes to use mill and bakery; pay a tithe topriest Tithe—a church tax—is equal to one-tenth of a peasant’sincome Serfs live in crowded cottages with dirt floors, straw for beds Daily grind of raising crops, livestock; feeding and clothingfamily Poor diet, illness, malnutrition make life expectancy 35 years Serfs generally accept their lives as part of God’s plan

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