The code of chivalry for knights glorified both combatand romantic love.
TheTechnology ofWarfareChanges Leather saddle and stirrupsenable knights to handleheavy weapons In 700s, mounted knightsbecome most important partof an army
ChainmailPlateArmourGambeson, a padded jacket worn aloneor in combination with chainmail
TheWarrior’s Role inFeudal Society By 1000s, western Europeis a battleground ofwarring nobles Feudal lords raise privatearmies of knights Knights rewarded withland; provides income forneeded weapons Knights other activitieshelp train them for combatIghtham Mote, a 14th-centurymoated manor house in Kent,England
The Code of Chivalry By 1100s knights obey acode of chivalry—a setof ideals on how to act They are to protectweak and poor; servefeudal lord, God,chosen lady"Stitching the Standard" by Edmund BlairLeighton: the lady prepares for a knight togo to war
A Knight’sTraining Boys begin totrain forknighthood atage 7; usuallyknighted at 21 Knights gainexperience inlocal wars andtournaments—mock battles
Brutal Reality ofWarfare Castles are huge fortresses where lords live Attacking armies use wide range of strategies andweapons
Epic Poetry Epic poems recount a hero’s deeds andadventures The Song of Roland is about Charlemagne’sknights fighting Muslims
Love Poems and Songs Knights’ duties to ladiesare as important asthose to their lords Troubadours—travelingpoet-musicians—writeand sing short versesAbove and right:troubadoursportrayed inillumined texts.
Most celebrated woman of the age inEleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)▪ Wife of two kings (LouisVII, King of the Franks,annulled) and Henry II of England▪ Mother of two kings of England (Richard andJohn) Eleanor’s son, Richard the Lion-Hearted,also wrote songs and poemsAbove right: Eleanor of Aquitaine depicted on a mural inthe Chapel of St. Radegund, Chinon, FranceRight: tomb effigy of Eleanor and Henry II
Status ofWomen According to the Church and feudal society, womenwere inferior to men Noblewomen Can inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war onlord’s request Usually confined to activities of the home or convent PeasantsWomen Most labor in home and field, bear children, providefor family Poor, powerless, do household tasks at young age