Feudalism - Middle Ages II


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Feudalism - Middle Ages II

  1. 1. Feudalism in Europe European Middle Ages 500-1200
  2. 2. Quiz • Name one group of invaders that attacked Europe from 800 to 1000? • What is a “serf”? • Describe what life might be like living on a “manor”?
  3. 3. Pepin the Short Setting the Stage •Charlemagne’s grandsons Carloman Charlemagne broke up the kingdom •Territory became Louis the battleground of new Pious invaders •Led to the rise of feudalism Charles the •Political and economic Bald system based on land ownership and personal Louis the loyalty German Lothair
  4. 4. Invaders Attack Western Europe •Muslim invaders seized Sicily, raided Italy, sacked Rome •Magyars from the east, terrorized Germany and Italy •Vikings from the north
  5. 5. The Vikings - Northmen • Germanic people that lived in Scandinavia • Worships warlike gods • Seafarers that attacked with terrifying speed • Known for warships – Weighed up to 20 tons – Could sail in 3 feet of water
  6. 6. The Vikings • Vikings were also traders, farmers, and explorers • Journeyed far and wide • Explorer Leif Ericson reached N. America in 1000 • Around 1000, Vikings stopped their reign of terror • Later accepted Christianity • Warming trend in Europe made farming easier = less seafaring needed
  7. 7. Magyars From the East • Horsemen from modern day Hungary • Invaded W. Europe in late 800’s • Attacked isolated villages, overran Italy, took captives to sell as slaves
  8. 8. Muslims from the South • Came from N. Africa through Spain and Italy • Goals: conquer, settle in and plunder Europe • Seafarers who attacked settlements on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts
  9. 9. Results of Invasions People in Kings constant unable to danger provide protection Widespread disorder People now looked to local rulers for security (not a central ruler)
  10. 10. A New Social Order: Feudalism • Feudalism: a system of governing and landholding based on rights and obligations emerged in Europe • In exchange for military service, a lord (landowner) would provide a fief (land) to a vassal (person receiving the land) • Depended on control of land
  11. 11. The Feudal Pyramid King Vassals Nobles and bishops Knights Mounted horsemen who defended their lord in exchange for a fief Serfs Landless peasants who tended the fields, could not lawfully leave
  12. 12. The Manor System • Manor: the lord’s estate & the basic economic arrangement during the Middle Ages • Depended on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs Provided housing, farmland, LORD protection from bandits Tended the lord’s lands, cared for SERF the animals, maintained the estate
  13. 13. The Life of a Serf • Women shared in the work • Owed duties to the lord – At least a few days per week – A portion of their grain • Rarely traveled more than 25 miles from the manor • Produced nearly everything they and their lord needed for daily life
  14. 14. The Life of a Serf • Taxed on all the grain • Lived in crowded cottages ground in the lord’s mill with only 1 or 2 rooms • Baking bread elsewhere • Slept on dirt floors in beds was a crime made of straw • Paid a tax on marriage • Ate mostly vegetables, bread, grain, cheese and • Weddings could only soup occur with the lord’s • Life = work as soon as you permission were old enough • Owed the village priest a • Illness and malnutrition tithe (church tax) = to 1/10 of their income were common
  15. 15. Life on the Manor • Usually covered a few square miles of land • Consisted of: – Lord’s manor house – Church – Workshops • 15 to 30 families lived in the village on a manor • Surrounded by fields, pastures, woodlands • Streams sometimes ran through the manor • Produced crops, milk, cheese, fuel, cloth, leather goods, lumber
  16. 16. For next class… • Feudalism Layer Cake Assignment